Paolo Verderio

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (90)419.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: DNA integrity is a critical part of the definition of genomic DNA (gDNA) quality and can influence downstream molecular applications. Pre-analytical variables as sample storage and DNA extraction methods can influence quality and quantity of isolated DNA and affect molecular test performances. Aim of this paper is to investigate the role of blood samples storage and DNA extraction procedures on gDNA integrity and gDNA fragmentation impact on a molecular test. 157 DNA samples deriving from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assesssment (EQA), aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. In this EQA, no time or temperature limitations and extraction method procedures were imposed. To evaluate gDNA integrity impact on an analytical test, a subset of 26 DNA samples were analyzed by a multiplex PCR assay for the characterization of T cell receptor genes recombination. Our results demonstrate that blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures influence gDNA integrity and that the same blood sample undergone to a long range multiplex PCR based analytical test can provide different results if the adopted pre-analytical procedures are not standardized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are two distinct entities. We defined the molecular profiles of druggable receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in both groups.Materials and methodsE5 expression and RTK alterations were studied in 17 HPV-positive and 59 HPV-negative formalin-fixed OSCCs. RTK activation was explored in further 12 frozen OSCCs.ResultsThe HPV-positive OSCCs showed E5 expression and 33.3% expressed low level of HER2. The HPV-negative OSCCs showed HER2 expression (31.2%), increased HER2 gene copy number (46.51%, P = 0.045) and HER2 activation through HER2/EGFR heterodimerisation; HER3 (51.06%, P = 0.008) and neuregulin (65.63%; P = 0.03) expression, HER3 activation and HER3/EGFR heterodimerisation; and increased IGF-1R copy number (40.50%, P = 0.021), high IGF-1R cDNA values (P = 0.002), IGF-1R activation and expression of IGF1/2 and amphiregulin. PI3KCA mutations/expression/increased gene copy number and PTEN mutations were found in both groups, whereas PTEN gene loss was only observed in the HPV-positive cases.Conclusion Human papillomavirus-positive and HPV-negative OSCC showed different RTK profiles. In HPV-positive cases, it would be interesting to study the expression of E5, which may modulate EGFR turnover and activate VEGF and PDGFRβ. In HPV-negative cases, HER3 may be a promising druggable biomarker that deserves further investigation. PI3KCA and PTEN alterations encourage the promising clinical evaluation of PI3K/mTOR inhibitor activity in OSCC, particularly in HPV-positive/PI3KCA-mutated OSCCs because they may be driven by PI3KCA mutation alone.
    Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 12/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of histo- and cytomorphological features of PAXgene-fixed specimens and their suitability for histomorphological classification in comparison to standard formalin fixation. Fifteen colon cancer tissues were collected, divided into two mirrored samples and either formalin fixed (FFPE) or PAXgene fixed (PFPE) before paraffin embedding. HE- and PAS-stained sections were scanned and evaluated in a blinded, randomised ring trial by 20 pathologists from Europe and the USA using virtual microscopy. The pathologists evaluated histological grading, histological subtype, presence of adenoma, presence of lymphovascular invasion, quality of histomorphology and quality of nuclear features. Statistical analysis revealed that the reproducibility with regard to grading between both fixation methods was rather satisfactory (weighted kappa statistic (k w) = 0.73 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.94)), with a higher agreement between the reference evaluation and the PFPE samples (k w = 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.67-1.00)). Independent from preservation method, inter-observer reproducibility was not completely satisfactory (k w = 0.60). Histomorphological quality parameters were scored equal or better for PFPE than for FFPE samples. For example, overall quality and nuclear features, especially the detection of mitosis, were judged significantly better for PFPE cases. By contrast, significant retraction artefacts were observed more frequently in PFPE samples. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PAXgene Tissue System leads to excellent preservation of histomorphology and nuclear features of colon cancer tissue and allows routine morphological diagnosis.
    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Target-specific agents used in melanoma are not curative, and chemokines are being implicated in drug-resistance to target-specific agents. Thus, the use of conventional agents in rationale combinations may result in optimization of therapy. Because histone deacetylases participate in tumor development and progression, the combination of the pan-inhibitor SAHA and temozolomide might provide a therapeutic advantage. Here, we show synergism between the two drugs in mutant BRAF cell lines, in association with decreased phosphorylation of cell survival proteins (e.g., C-Jun-N-terminal-kinase, JNK). In the spontaneous ret transgenic mouse melanoma model, combination therapy produced a significant disease onset delay and down-regulation of Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), JNK, and of Myeloid-derived suppressor cell recruitment. Co-incubation with a CCL2-blocking-antibody enhanced in vitro cell sensitivity to temozolomide. Conversely, recombinant CCL2 activated JNK in human tumor melanoma cells. In keeping with these results, the combination of a JNK-inhibitor with temozolomide was synergistic. By showing that down-regulation of CCL2-driven signals by SAHA and temozolomide via JNK contributes to reduce melanoma growth, we provide a rationale for the therapeutic advantage of the drug combination. This combination strategy may be effective because of interference both with tumor cell and tumor microenvironment.
    Oncotarget 06/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this note we propose an R function named NqA (Normalization qPCR Array), suitable for the identification of a set of microRNAs (miRNAs) to be used for data normalization in view of subsequent validation studies with qPCR data. NqA is available through the web-site of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan at: with a dedicated user-guide. We applied our function on a qPCR dataset downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Results show that NqA provides a functional subset of reference miRNAs and a set of promising significantly modulated miRNAs for subsequent validations studies.
    Analytical Biochemistry 05/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims and background. The quantification and molecular characterization of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) have attracted much interest as new and promising, noninvasive means of detecting and monitoring the presence of surgical resectable colorectal cancer (CRC). Instead, the role of cfDNA in the early detection of malignant and premalignant colorectal lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of the quantification and KRAS status of cfDNA in detecting early colorectal lesions in plasma from healthy high-risk subjects. Methods. The study population consisted of 170 consecutive healthy high-risk subjects aged >50 years who participated in the screening program promoted by the Local Health Service (ASL-Milano) for early CRC detection and who underwent endoscopic examination after being found positive at fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Thirty-four participants had malignant lesions consisting of 12 adenocarcinomas (at an early stage in half of the cases) and 22 instances of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) in adenomas; 73 participants had premalignant lesions (adenomas and hyperplasia), and 63 participants had no lesions. Plasma cfDNA was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and analyzed for KRAS mutations by a mutant-enriched PCR. KRAS status was assessed also in matched adenocarcinoma and HGIN tissues. The distribution of cfDNA concentrations among FOBT-positive subjects with diagnosed lesion (cases) was compared with that of FOBT-positive subjects without lesions (controls) and its predictive capability (AUC) was assessed. Results. The predictive capability of cfDNA levels was satisfactory in predicting adenocarcinomas (AUC 0.709; 95% CI, 0.508-0.909) but not HGIN and premalignant lesions. The rate of KRAS mutations in plasma was low (5/170 = 3%) compared with the rate observed in the matched adenocarcinoma and HGIN tissues (45%). Conclusions. The use of cfDNA quantification to predict adenocarcinoma at an early stage in high-risk (aged >50 years and FOBT positive) subjects seems to be promising but needs more sensitive methods to improve cfDNA detection.
    Tumori. 03/2014; 100(2):115-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:Monoallelic germ-line deleterious mutations of PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA2) are associated with breast cancer risk and have been found in several populations, with carrier frequencies of ~1-2%. Initially, these mutations were considered to have moderate penetrance, but accumulating evidence now indicates that they are associated with much higher risk.Methods:In this study, we sequenced the PALB2 coding regions unlinked to BRCA (breast cancer) genes in 575 probands from Italian breast cancer families recruited in Milan.Results:We found 12 carriers (2.1%) of deleterious mutations, and none of the mutations was found in 784 controls collected in Milan. One of these mutations, the c.1027C>T (p.Gln343X), was found to be recurrent in the province of Bergamo in northern Italy, being detected in 6/113 (5.3%) familial breast cancer cases and 2/477 (0.4%) controls recruited in this area (Fisher's exact test: P < 0.01).Conclusions:Our data provide confirmatory findings that, in the Italian population also, deleterious mutations of PALB2 are relatively frequent predisposing factors for breast cancer and may be associated with high risk of the disease.Genet Med advance online publication 20 February 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.13.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 02/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The common -652 6N del variant in the CASP8 promoter (rs3834129) has been described as a putative low-penetrance risk factor for different cancer types. In particular, some studies suggested that the deleted allele (del) was inversely associated with CRC risk while other analyses failed to confirm this. Hence, to better understand the role of this variant in the risk of developing CRC, we performed a multi-centric case-control study. In the study, the variant -652 6N del was genotyped in a total of 6,733 CRC cases and 7,576 controls recruited by six different centers located in Spain, Italy, USA, England, Czech Republic and the Netherlands collaborating to the international consortium COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics). Our analysis indicated that rs3834129 was not associated with CRC risk in the full data set. However, the del allele was under-represented in one set of cases with a family history of CRC (per allele model OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90) suggesting this allele might be a protective factor versus familial CRC. Since this multi-centric case-control study was performed on a very large sample size, it provided robust clarification of the effect of rs3834129 on the risk of developing CRC in Caucasians.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85538. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Plasma circulating tumour-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers of tumour presence and recurrence, especially for diseases whose best chance of successful treatment requires early diagnosis and timely surgery of an already malignant but not yet invasive tumour, such as colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods:Expression levels of miRNAs previously found to be differently expressed in tumour vs normal colon tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR in plasma from CRC patients and from healthy donors and confirmed in independent case control series. The validated miRNAs were also measured after surgery. Analyses were repeated on the subsets of haemolysis-free samples.Results:We identified four miRNAs differently expressed between the compared groups, two (miR-21 and miR-378) of which were validated. miR-378 expression decreased in non-relapsed patients 4-6 months after surgery and miR-378 ability to discriminate CRC patients from healthy individuals was not influenced by haemolysis levels of plasma samples.Conclusion:The miRNA analysis on plasma samples represents a useful non-invasive tool to assess CRC presence as well as tumour-free status at follow-up. Plasma levels of miR-378 could be used to discriminate CRC patients from healthy individuals, irrespective of the level of haemoglobin of plasma samples.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14 January 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.819
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two different blood collection tubes were stored for varying times at different temperatures, and microarray analysis was performed on resultant extracted RNA. A large set of potential mRNA quality biomarkers for monitoring post-phlebotomy gene expression changes and mRNA degradation in blood was identified. qPCR assays for the potential biomarkers and a set of relevant reference genes were generated and used to pre-validate a sub-set of the selected biomarkers. The assay precision of the potential qPCR based biomarkers was determined, and a final validation of the selected quality biomarkers using the developed qPCR assays and blood samples from 60 healthy additional subjects was performed. In total, four mRNA quality biomarkers (USP32, LMNA, FOSB, TNRFSF10C) were successfully validated. We suggest here the use of these blood mRNA quality biomarkers for validating an experimental pre-analytical workflow. These biomarkers were further evaluated in the 2nd ring trial of the SPIDIA-RNA Program which demonstrated that these biomarkers can be used as quality control tools for mRNA analyses from blood samples.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e111644. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this note, we propose an R function named NqA (Normalization qPCR Array, where qPCR is quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) suitable for the identification of a set of microRNAs (miRNAs) to be used for data normalization in view of subsequent validation studies with qPCR data. NqA is available through the website of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan ( with a dedicated user’s guide. We applied our function on a qPCR dataset downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Results show that NqA provides a functional subset of reference miRNAs and a set of promising significantly modulated miRNAs for subsequent validation studies.
    Analytical Biochemistry 01/2014; 461:7–9. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently used CA15-3 and CEA have found their clinical application particularly in the follow-up of patients with advanced disease. Novel biomarkers are urgent, especially for improving early diagnosis as well as for discriminating between benign and malignant disease. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach based on surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry screening with the aim of identifying differentially expressed 2-30 kDa proteins in plasma of patients with malignant (65 cases) and benign (88 cases) breast lesions with respect to 121 healthy controls. We found that the most promising SELDI peaks were those corresponding to hepcidin-25 and ferritin light chain. We evaluated the capability of these peaks in predicting malignant and benign breast lesions using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The results showed a good capacity to predict malignant breast lesions for hepcidin-25 [AUC: 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.90] and ferritin light chain (AUC: 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.92). Conversely, a weak and satisfactory capability to predict benign breast lesion was observed for hepcidin-25 (AUC: 0.63; 95% CI 0.41-0.85) and ferritin light chain (AUC: 0.73; 95% CI 0.49-0.97). A significant association between HER2 status and hepcidin-25 was observed and the distribution of transferrin and ferritin were found significantly different in patients with breast cancer when compared with that of controls. This study provides evidence that hepcidin and ferritin light chain level in plasma may be of clinical usefulness to predict malignant and benign disease with respect to healthy controls.
    Annals of Oncology 12/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations are frequent in patients with infiltrating breast cancer (IBC). Their clinical and pathological relevance has been insufficiently documented. We evaluated PI3KCA for mutations and the expression of PTEN, AKT, mTOR and p70S6K by immunohistochemistry in 246 IBC patients treated with hormone therapy (median follow-up, 97 months). A PI3KCA mutation was observed in 50 out of 229 informative cases (21.8 %), PTEN loss in 107 out of 210 (51 %), moderate/high level of expression of AKT in 133 out of 188 (71 %), moderate/high level of expression of mTOR in 173 out of 218 (79 %) and moderate/high level of expression of p70S6K in 111 out of 192 cases (58 %). PI3KCA mutation was associated with the absence of Her2/neu amplification/overexpression and a low level of MIB1/Ki-67 labelling. The expression of p70S6K was associated with a high level of mTOR immunoreactivity, and high PTEN expression was associated with high AKT expression level. Univariate analysis showed that PI3KCA mutation status was not associated with clinical outcome in the series as a whole or in the node-negative subgroup. However, in the node-positive subgroup, exon 9 PI3KCA mutation was associated with unfavourable overall survival (OS), although its impact on the final model in multivariate analysis seemed to be limited. Of the other markers, only high p70S6K expression was associated with a significantly prolonged OS. PI3KCA mutation status is of limited prognostic relevance in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with hormone therapy.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 11/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An External Quality Assessment (EQA) program was developed to investigate the state of the art of HER2 immunohistochemical determination in breast cancer (BC) in 16 Pathology Departments in the Lazio Region (Italy). This program was implemented through two specific steps to evaluate HER2 staining (step 1) and interpretation (step 2) reproducibility among participants. The management activities of this EQA program were assigned to the Coordinating Center (CC), the Revising Centers (RCs) and the Participating Centers (PCs). In step 1, 4 BC sections, selected by RCs, were stained by each PC using their own procedures. In step 2, each PC interpreted HER2 score in 10 BC sections stained by the CC. The concordance pattern was evaluated by using the kappa category-specific statistic and/or the weighted kappa statistic with the corresponding 95% Jackknife confidence interval. In step 1, a substantial/almost perfect agreement was reached between the PCs for scores 0 and 3+ whereas a moderate and fair agreement was observed for scores 1+ and 2+, respectively.In step 2, a fully satisfactory agreement was observed for 6 out of the 16 PCs and a quite satisfactory agreement was obtained for the remaining 10 PCs. Our findings highlight that in the whole HER2 evaluation process the two intermediate categories, scores 1+ and 2+, are less reproducible than scores 0 and 3+. These findings are relevant in clinical practice where the choice of treatment is based on HER2 positivity, suggesting the need to share evaluation procedures within laboratories and implement educational programs.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 08/2013; 32(1):58. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide gene expression analyses of tumors are a powerful tool to identify gene signatures associated with biologically and clinically relevant characteristics and for several tumor types are under clinical validation by prospective trials. However, handling and processing of clinical specimens may significantly affect the molecular data obtained from their analysis. We studied the effects of tissue handling time on gene expression in human normal and tumor colon tissues undergoing routine surgical procedures. RNA extracted from specimens of 15 patients at four time points (for a total of 180 samples) after surgery was analyzed for gene expression on high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. A mixed-effects model was used to identify probes with different expression means across the four different time points. The p-values of the model were adjusted with the Bonferroni method. Thirty-two probe sets associated with tissue handling time in the tumor specimens, and thirty-one in the normal tissues, were identified. Most genes exhibited moderate changes in expression over the time points analyzed; however four of them were oncogenes, and two confirmed the effect of tissue handling by independent validation. Our results suggest that a critical time point for tissue handling in colon seems to be 60 minutes at room temperature. Although the number of time-dependent genes we identified was low, the three genes that already showed changes at this time point in tumor samples were all oncogenes, hence recommending standardization of tissue-handling protocols and effort to reduce the time from specimen removal to snap freezing accounting for warm ischemia in this tumor type.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(1):e53406. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An association of preferential X chromosome inactivation (XCI) with BRCA gene status and breast/ovarian cancer risk has been reported. We evaluated XCI in a large group of BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers and investigated associations between preferential XCI (⩾90:10) and age, mutated gene, cancer development and chemotherapy. XCI was analysed by human androgen receptor (HUMARA) assay and pyrosequencing in 437 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and 445 age-matched controls. The distribution of XCI patterns in the two groups was compared by logistic regression analysis. The association between preferential XCI and selected variables was investigated in both univariate and multivariate fashion. In univariate analyses preferential XCI was not significantly associated with the probability of being a BRCA mutation carrier, nor with cancer status, whereas chemotherapeutic regime and age both showed a significant association. In multivariate analysis only age maintained significance (odds ratio, 1.056; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.096). Our findings do not support the usefulness of XCI analysis for the identification of BRCA mutation carriers and cancer risk assessment. The increasing preferential XCI frequency with ageing and the association with chemotherapy justify extending the investigation to other categories of female cancer patients to identify possible X-linked loci implicated in cell survival.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 11/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Digestive and Liver Disease 11/2012; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background To explore correlation between the quality of surgery and outcome in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients treated within a phase III randomized trial.Patients and Methods In the trial, all patients received three cycles of preoperative chemotherapy (CT) with epirubicin 120 mg/m(2) and ifosfamide 9 g/m(2) and were randomly assigned to receive two further postoperative cycles. Radiotherapy (RT) could be delivered in the preoperative or postoperative setting. The association between surgical margins and overall survival (OS) was studied in a univariate and multivariate fashion.ResultsTwo hundred and fifty-two patients completed the whole treatment and were operated conservatively. At a median follow-up of 60 months (IQR, 45-74 months), the 5-year OS was 0.73, even in patients with positive and negative margins. The 5-year cumulative incidence (CI) of local recurrence (LR) in patients with positive and negative microscopic margins was 0.17 (standard error, SE, 0.08) and 0.03 (SE, 0.01), respectively. In the subgroup of patients receiving combined preoperative CT-RT and with positive surgical margins, the CI of LR was 0.Conclusions In this setting of high-risk STS treated by preoperative CT or CT-RT, the negative impact of positive margins on the outcome was limited. When close margins can be anticipated preoperative CT-RT may be a reasonable option to maximize the chance of cure.
    Annals of Oncology 10/2012; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic use of in vitro molecular assays can be limited by the lack of guidelines for collection, handling, stabilization and storage of patient specimens. One of the major goals of the EC funded project SPIDIA ( is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for molecular testing which requires intracellular RNA analytes. To this end, a survey and a pan-European External Quality Assessment (EQA) were implemented. This report is the summary of the results of that trial. With the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) support, 124 applications for participation in the trial were received from 27 different European countries, and 102 laboratories actually participated in the trial. Each participating laboratory described their respective laboratory policies and practices as well as blood collection tubes typically used in performing this type of testing. The participating laboratories received two identical blood specimens: in an EDTA tubes (unstabilized blood; n=67) or in tubes designed specifically for the stabilization of intracellular RNA in blood (PAXgene® Blood RNA tubes; n=35). Laboratories were requested to perform RNA extraction according to the laboratory's own procedure as soon as possible upon receipt of the tubes for one tube and 24 h after the first extraction for the second tube. Participants (n=93) returned the two extracted RNAs to SPIDIA facility for analysis, and provided details about the reagents and protocols they used for the extraction. At the SPIDIA facility responsible for coordinating the study, the survey data were classified, and the extracted RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, and the presence of interfering substances affecting RT-qPCR assays. All participants received a report comparing the performance of the RNA they submitted to that of the other participants. All the results obtained by participants for each RNA quality parameter were classified as "in control", "warning", "out of control" and "missing" by consensus mean analysis. From the survey data, the most variable parameters were the volume of blood collected and the time and storage temperature between blood collection and RNA extraction. Analysing the results of quality testing of submitted RNA samples we observed a data distribution of purity, yield, and presence of assay interference in agreement with expected values. The RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values distribution was, on the other hand, much wider than the optimal expected value, which led to an "in control" classification, even for partly degraded RNA samples. On the other hand, RIN values below 5 significantly correlated with a reduction of GAPDH expression levels. Furthermore, the distribution of the values of the four transcripts investigated (c-fos, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) was wide and the RNA instability between samples separated by 24 hours were similar. Assuming the presence of at least two quality parameters "out of control" as an indication of a critical performance of the laboratory, 33% of the laboratories were included in this group. The results of this study will be the basis for implementing a second pan-European EQA and the results of both EQAs will be pooled and will provide the basis for the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for the pre-analytical phase of RNA analysis of blood samples.
    Methods 10/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
419.77 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano
      • s.c. Medicina Oncologica 1
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2012
    • University of Queensland 
      • School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2008–2012
    • Campus IFOM-IEO
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2009
    • CRO Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano
      Aviano, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2006
    • Università degli Studi del Sannio
      Benevento, Campania, Italy
  • 1995–2006
    • University of Milan
      • Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry "G. A. Maccacaro" IBSUM
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2002
    • Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori
      Meldola, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1994
    • San Bortolo Hospital
      Vicenza, Veneto, Italy