Edith J M Feskens

Wageningen University, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (487)2198.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6), is likely to be involved in iron metabolism through its pleiotropic effect on hepcidin concentrations. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in the TMPRSS6 gene to be linked to anaemia and low iron status. To get a more precise evaluation of identified TMPRSS6 single nucleotide polymorphism associations with iron status in cohorts of differing continental ancestry, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses. We searched the literature using HuGE Navigator, Pubmed and Scopus databases for primarily genome-wide association studies using TMPRSS6 as a free term. Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain summary estimates of associations. Eleven studies comprised Caucasian populations, four included an Asian population and one study included an African-American population. Differences in minor allele frequencies of 8 TMPRSS6 SNPs (rs855791, rs4820268, rs2111833, rs1421312, rs228921, rs228918, rs228919 and rs575620) across ethnic groups were observed, with the MAF of rs855791 significantly higher in Asian populations than in Caucasians (0.55 vs 0.42, P < 0.0001). In the meta-analysis, the A allele of rs855791 was associated with lower Hb and ferritin concentrations in all populations. This allele was also associated with increased serum transferrin receptor and transferrin concentrations. We observed similar associations for the G allele in rs4820268. Clear disparities in associations were found for the African-American population, although not statistically significant. Associations between TMPRSS6 SNPs and anaemia are consistent across Caucasian and Asian populations. This study highlights the need to conduct studies in African populations where iron deficiency is of utmost public health significance.
    Genes & Nutrition 05/2015; 10(1):442. DOI:10.1007/s12263-014-0442-2 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. This study examined prevalence and potential risk factors for HDP among pregnant women in Tanzania. We examined 910 pregnant women, aged at least 20 years, mean gestational age 27 weeks, from rural (n = 301) and urban (n = 609) areas, during their usual antenatal clinic visits. Hypertension was defined as clinic SBP at least 140 mmHg or DBP at least 90 mmHg. Dietary assessment included dietary diversity score using 16 food groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent association of risk factors associated with prevalence of hypertension. A total of 62 women (6.9%) had HDP, prevalence being higher in urban (8.1%) compared to rural area (4.4%). For the urban area, mother's age [odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.20], gestational age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.20), mid-upper arm circumference (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.23), dietary diversity score (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.60) and being HIV-positive (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.10-5.18) were independently associated with HDP. When adjusted for proteinuria, associations with HIV status and mid-upper arm circumference weakened. In the rural area, HDP risk increased with age and gestational age. Prevalence of HDP was higher in urban compared to rural area, which points at high risk for preterm delivery, low birth weight and future cardiovascular diseases. The observed risk factors identify risk groups to be screened and targeted for prevention. The role of HIV status needs to be further explored.
    Journal of Hypertension 05/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000501 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrient-rich food (NRF) index scores are dietary quality indices based on nutrient density. We studied the design aspects involved in the development and validation of NRF index scores, using the Dutch consumption data and guidelines as an example. We evaluated fifteen NRF index scores against the Dutch Healthy Diet Index (DHD-index), a measure of adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines, and against energy density. The study population included 2106 adults from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010. The index scores were composed of beneficial nutrients (protein, fibre, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals), nutrients to limit (saturated fat, sugar, Na) or a combination. Moreover, the influence of methodological decisions was studied, such as the choice of calculation basis (100 g or 100 kcal (418 kJ)). No large differences existed in the prediction of the DHD-index by the fifteen NRF index scores. The score that best predicted the DHD-index included nine beneficial nutrients and three nutrients to limit on a 100-kcal basis, the NRF9.3 with a model R2 of 0·34. The scores were quite robust with respect to sex, BMI and differences in calculation methods. The NRF index scores were correlated with energy density, but nutrient density better predicted the DHD-index than energy density. Consumption of vegetables, cereals and cereal products, and dairy products contributed most to the individual NRF9.3 scores. In conclusion, many methodological considerations underlie the development and evaluation of nutrient density models. These decisions may depend upon the purpose of the model, but should always be based upon scientific, objective and transparent criteria.
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with iron status in European and Asian populations, have the same relation within the African population. We aimed to investigate associations of reported SNPs with iron markers in a South African cohort. Blood concentrations of hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI) stores were determined from women (n = 686; range, 32-86 y) who were part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study. Thirty-two SNPs in 12 genes were selected based on existing genome-wide association study data. In the transferrin (TF) gene, SF and BI were significantly lower in the heterozygote genotype (AG) of reference SNP (rs) 1799852 (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively) and sTfR concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.004) than the homozygote minor allele genotype (AA), whereas transferrin receptor and BI concentrations were significantly lower in the heterozygote genotype (AG) of rs3811647 (both P = 0.03) than the homozygote wild-type (AA) and minor allele groups (GG). The chromosome 6 allele combination (AAA) consisting of rs1799964 and rs1800629 both in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and rs2071592 in nuclear factor κB inhibitor-like protein 1 (NFKBIL1) was associated with higher odds for low SF concentrations (SF < 15 μg/L; OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.79) than the allele combinations AGA, GGT, and AGT. The chromosome 22 allele combination (GG) consisting of rs228918 and rs228921 in the transmembrane protease serine 6 (TMPRSS6) gene was associated with lower odds for increased sTfR concentrations (sTfR > 8.3mg/L; OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98) than the allele combination AA. Various SNPs and allele combinations in the TF, TNF-α, and TMPRSS6 genes are associated with iron status in black South African women; however, these association patterns are different compared with European ancestry populations. This stresses the need for population-specific genomic data. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2015; DOI:10.3945/jn.114.209148 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2015.02.013 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO for studies published up to March 2013. From a total of 4,345 unique hits, 16 articles were included in this systematic review. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data for each study and assessed study quality. Results: 14 cross-sectional and 2 ecological studies from the United States and several European countries were included. Across different study populations and countries, persons with a beer preference displayed in general less healthy dietary habits. A preference for wine was strongly associated with healthier dietary habits in Western study populations, whereas studies in Mediterranean populations did not observe this. Dietary habits of persons with another preference or who were abstinent were less reported. Conclusion: This review has shown that the preference for a specific alcoholic beverage is associated with diet. Thus, it might not be the alcoholic beverage but the underlying dietary patterns that are related to health outcomes.
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    D Sluik, A I Engelen, E. J. M. Feskens
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:Despite the worldwide scientific and media attention, the actual fructose consumption in many non-US populations is not clear. The aim of this study was to estimate the fructose consumption and its main food sources in a representative sample of the general Dutch population.Subjects/methods:In all, 3817 children and adults aged 7-69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Values for fructose content of the products were assigned using several food composition tables. Diet was assessed with two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The Multiple Source Method was used to take into account day-to-day variation and to estimate the habitual fructose consumption.Results:Median habitual fructose intake was 46 g/day, with an interquartile range of 35-60 g/day. In boys, the highest median intake was observed among 14- to 18-year olds: 61 g/day. In girls, those aged 9-13 years reported the highest median intake: 56 g/day. Of total fructose intake, 67% was consumed in the form of sucrose and 33% was consumed as free fructose. Soft drinks constituted the main food source of total fructose (13-29% across age and sex categories), followed by juices (9-12%), fruit (9-18%), cake and cookies (9-11%) and dairy products (6-10%).Conclusions:Fructose comprised 9% of the mean daily energy intake in the general Dutch population aged 7-69 years. The fructose consumption was somewhat lower than most recent figures from the US. The main food sources of fructose were soft drinks, juices and fruit.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 17 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.267.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2014; 74(OCE1). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.267 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Artery Research 12/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2014.09.072
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Diets high in saturated and trans fat and low in unsaturated fat may increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but studies on foods high in fat per unit weight are sparse. We assessed whether the intake of vegetable oil, butter, margarine, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies is related to incident T2D.Subjects/Methods:A case-cohort study was conducted, nested within eight countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC), with 12 403 incident T2D cases and a subcohort of 16 835 people, identified from a cohort of 340 234 people. Diet was assessed at baseline (1991-1999) by country-specific questionnaires. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) across four categories of fatty foods (nonconsumers and tertiles among consumers) were combined with random-effects meta-analysis.Results:After adjustment not including body mass index (BMI), nonconsumers of butter, nuts and seeds and cakes and cookies were at higher T2D risk compared with the middle tertile of consumption. Among consumers, cakes and cookies were inversely related to T2D (HRs across increasing tertiles 1.14, 1.00 and 0.92, respectively; P-trend <0.0001). All these associations attenuated upon adjustment for BMI, except the higher risk of nonconsumers of cakes and cookies (HR 1.57). Higher consumption of margarine became positively associated after BMI adjustment (HRs across increasing consumption tertiles: 0.93, 1.00 and 1.12; P-trend 0.03). Within consumers, vegetable oil, butter and nuts and seeds were unrelated to T2D.Conclusions:Fatty foods were generally not associated with T2D, apart from weak positive association for margarine. The higher risk among nonconsumers of cakes and cookies needs further explanation.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 26 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.249.
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to investigate the association between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, accounting for a large number of potential confounding factors, and to explore potential effect modifiers and intermediate factors.
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States.
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) are generally less well reached through lifestyle interventions than individuals with higher SES. The aim of this study was to identify opportunities for adapting lifestyle interventions in such a way that they are more appealing for individuals with low SES. To this end, the study provides insight into perspectives of groups with different socioeconomic positions regarding their current eating and physical activity behaviour; triggers for lifestyle change; and ways to support lifestyle change.
    BMC Public Health 10/2014; 14(1):1036. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1036 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several markers of iron metabolism have been associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in cross-sectional studies. However, prospective data on these associations are scarce, and it is currently unclear in which tissues iron metabolism may contribute to IR. Therefore, we investigated whether markers of iron metabolism were associated with IR in muscle, liver, and adipocytes, and with glucose intolerance over a 7-year follow-up period.
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    ABSTRACT: Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: Renes & Agnes Meershoek (2014): Challenges of a healthy lifestyle for socially disadvantaged people of Dutch, Moroccan and Turkish origin in the Netherlands: a focus group study, Critical Public Health,
    Critical Public Health 09/2014; DOI:10.1080/09581596.2014.962013 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: several studies have been pointing towards a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and cardiovascular disease. Next to vitamin D deficiency, also higher levels of 25(OH)D have been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the nature of the relationship between serum 25(OH) D and measures of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis in an elderly population. Design: cross-sectional. Setting/subjects: a subgroup of the B-PROOF study was included to determine associations between serum 25(OH)D and arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis (n = 567, 57% male, age 72.6 +/- 5.6 years, mean serum 25(OH)D 54.6 +/- 24.1 nmol/l). Methods: carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasonography and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined with applanation tonometry. Associations were tested using multivariable restricted cubic spline functions and stratified linear regression analysis. Results: the associations between serum 25(OH)D and carotid IMT or PWV were non-linear. Spline functions demonstrated a difference between 25(OH)D deficient and sufficient individuals. In serum 25(OH)D sufficient participants (a parts per thousand yen50 nmol/l; n = 287), a positive association with IMT and serum 25(OH)D was present (beta 1.24; 95%CI [0.002; 2.473]). PWV levels were slightly lower in vitamin D deficient individuals, but the association with 25(OH)D was not significant. Conclusion: our study demonstrates that associations of serum 25(OH)D and PWV and IMT in an elderly population are not linear. In particular from serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/l and up, there is a slight increase of IMT with increasing 25(OH)D levels.
    Age and Ageing 07/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1093/ageing/afu095 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Unhealthy diet has been proposed as one of the main reasons for the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) but individual-level effects of dietary habits on health in the region are sparse. We examined the associations between the healthy diet indicator (HDI) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in three CEE/FSU populations.Subjects/Methods:Dietary intakes of foods and nutrients, assessed by food frequency questionnaire in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study, were used to construct the HDI, which follows the WHO 2003 dietary recommendations. Among 18 559 eligible adult participants (age range: 45-69 years) without a history of major chronic diseases at baseline, 1209 deaths occurred over a mean follow-up of 7 years. The association between HDI and mortality was estimated by Cox regression.Results:After adjusting for covariates, HDI was inversely and statistically significantly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but not with other cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. Hazard ratios per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in HDI score were 0.95 (95% confidence interval=0.89-1.00, P=0.068), 0.90 (0.81-0.99, P=0.030) and 0.85 (0.74-0.97, P=0.018) for all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. Population attributable risk fractions for low HDI were 2.9% for all-cause, 14.2% for CVD and 10.7% for CHD mortality.Conclusions:These findings support the hypothesis that unhealthy diet has had a role in the high CVD mortality in Eastern Europe.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.134.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.134 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk strictly controlled weight-maintaining moderate high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderate high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01694056.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/2014; 144(9). DOI:10.3945/jn.114.193706 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with arterial stiffness, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms explaining this association are to be revealed. This study was aimed to explore two potential pathways concerning the one-carbon metabolism. A potential causal effect of homocysteine was explored using a genetic risk score reflecting an individual’s risk of having a long-term elevated plasma homocysteine level and also associations with B-vitamin levels were investigated. Methods and results Baseline cross-sectional data of the B-PROOF study were used. In the cardiovascular subgroup (n=567, 56% male, age 72.6 ± 5.6 yrs) pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using applanation tonometry. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B12, folate, methylmalonic acid (MMA) and holo transcobalamin (holoTC) were assessed and the genetic risk score was based on 13 SNPs being associated with elevated plasma homocysteine. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression analysis. B-vitamin levels were not associated with PWV. The genetic risk score was also not associated with PWV. However, the homocysteine – gene interaction was significant (p < 0.001) in the association of the genetic risk score and PWV. Participants with the lowest genetic risk of having long-term elevated homocysteine levels, but with higher measured homocysteine levels, had the highest PWV levels. Conclusion Homocysteine is unlikely to be causally related to arterial stiffness, because there was no association with genetic variants causing hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas non-genetically determined hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with arterial stiffness. Moreover, the association between homocysteine and arterial stiffness was not mediated by B-vitamins. Possibly, high plasma homocysteine levels reflect an unidentified factor, that causes increased arterial stiffness.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.01.008 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Metabolomics, defined as the comprehensive identification and quantification of low-molecular-weight metabolites to be found in a biological sample, has been put forward as a potential tool for classifying individuals according to their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we investigated whether a single-point blood measurement of the metabolome is associated with and predictive for the risk of CHD. Methods & Results We obtained proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra in 79 cases who developed CHD during follow-up (median 8.1 years) and in 565 randomly selected individuals. In these spectra 100 signals representing 36 metabolites were identified. Applying LASSO regression, we defined a weighted metabolite score consisting of 13 1H-NMR signals that optimally predicted CHD. This metabolite score, including signals representing a lipid fraction, glucose, valine, ornithine, glutamate, creatinine, glycoproteins, citrate and 1.5-anhydrosorbitol, was associated with the incidence of CHD independent of traditional risk factors (TRFs) (HR = 1.50; 95%CI = 1.12-2.01). Predictive performance of this metabolite score on its own was moderate (C-index = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.70-0.80) but after adding age and sex the C-index was only modestly lower than that of TRFs (C-index = 0.81; 95%CI = 0.77-0.85 and C-index = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.78-0.87, respectively). The metabolite score was also associated with prevalent CHD independent of TRFs (OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.19-2.13). Conclusion A metabolite score derived from a single-point metabolome measurement is associated with CHD and metabolomics may be a promising tool for refining and improving the prediction of CHD.
    American Heart Journal 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.01.019 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) and mortality in a large consortium of cohort studies paying particular attention to potential age, sex, season, and country differences. Design Meta-analysis of individual participant data of eight prospective cohort studies from Europe and the US. Setting General population. Participants 26 018 men and women aged 50-79 years Main outcome measures All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. Results 25(OH)D concentrations varied strongly by season (higher in summer), country (higher in US and northern Europe) and sex (higher in men), but no consistent trend with age was observed. During follow-up, 6695 study participants died, among whom 2624 died of cardiovascular diseases and 2227 died of cancer. For each cohort and analysis, 25(OH)D quintiles were defined with cohort and subgroup specific cut-off values. Comparing bottom versus top quintiles resulted in a pooled risk ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.81) for all-cause mortality. Risk ratios for cardiovascular mortality were similar in magnitude to that for all-cause mortality in subjects both with and without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline. With respect to cancer mortality, an association was only observed among subjects with a history of cancer (risk ratio, 1.70 (1.00 to 2.88)). Analyses using all quintiles suggest curvilinear, inverse, dose-response curves for the aforementioned relationships. No strong age, sex, season, or country specific differences were detected. Heterogeneity was low in most meta-analyses. Conclusions Despite levels of 25(OH)D strongly varying with country, sex, and season, the association between 25(OH)D level and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was remarkably consistent. Results from a long term randomised controlled trial addressing longevity are being awaited before vitamin D supplementation can be recommended in most individuals with low 25(OH)D levels.
    BMJ Clinical Research 06/2014; 348:g3656. DOI:10.1136/bmj.g3656 · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,198.68 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • Wageningen University
      • Division of Human Nutrition
      Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
    • University of Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Glasgow
      • Human Nutrition Section
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
      • Department of Food Science and Nutrition
      Murogoro, Morogoro Region, Tanzania
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Catharina Hospital
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Endocrinology
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003–2012
    • Maastricht University
      • • CARIM School for Cardiovascular Diseases
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Interne Geneeskunde
      • • Humane Biologie
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Public Health
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 1993–2011
    • National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
      • • Centre for Nutrition and Health
      • • Centre for Prevention and Health Services Research (PZO)
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2009
    • Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum
      • Central Diagnostic Laboratory
      Maestricht, Limburg, Netherlands
  • 2001
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Institute for Cardiovascular Research VU
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1998
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 1996–1998
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands