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ABSTRACT: The cost-effectiveness of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is affected by the composition of treatment. This study aimed to estimate the costs and outcomes associated with changing the composition of RRT modality over time.
By using clinical and cost data from a systematic review, a Markov model was developed to assess the costs and benefits of the four main treatments available for RRT in Japan. The model included direct health service costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the results.
Over the 15-year period of the model, the current composition of RRT (i.e., the base composition of RRT) was $84,008/QALY. The most cost-effective treatment was when the likelihood of a living donor transplant was increased by 2.4-times ($70,581/QALY). Compared with the base composition of RRT, dominant treatments with respect to cost-effectiveness were when the likelihood of a deceased donor transplant was increased by 22-times and when the likelihood of a pre-emptive living donor transplant was increased by 2.4-times. Little difference was found between these two treatments. One-way sensitivity analysis did not change the cost effectiveness except for costs of chronic hemodialysis and a living donor transplant in subsequent years. Limitations: It is difficult to increase the rate of transplant overall in the shorter term nationally and internationally.
Appropriate distribution of all transplant options and hemodialysis is necessary to achieve the most cost-effective solution.
Journal of Medical Economics 02/2012; 15(3):444-53.