Colin L Sauder

Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States

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Publications (5)20.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reward dysfunction is thought to play a core role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified reward processing deficits in MDD, but these methods have yet to be applied together in a single MDD sample. We utilized multimodal neuroimaging evidence to examine reward dysfunction in MDD. Further, we explored how neurobiological reward dysfunction would map onto subtypes of MDD. The feedback negativity (FN), an ERP index of reward evaluation, was recorded in 34 unmedicated depressed individuals and 42 never-depressed controls during a laboratory gambling task. Ventral striatal (VS) activation to reward was recorded in a separate fMRI session, using an identical task, among a subgroup of 24 depressed individuals and a comparison group of 18 non-depressed controls. FN amplitude was blunted in MDD. This effect was driven by a MDD subgroup characterized by impaired mood reactivity to positive events, a core feature of melancholic MDD. A similar pattern was observed for VS activation, which was also blunted among the MDD subgroup with impaired mood reactivity. Neither FN amplitude nor VS activation were related to the full, DSM-defined melancholic or atypical MDD subtypes. Across the MDD sample, FN amplitude and VS activation were correlated, indicating convergence across methods. These results indicate that not all MDD is characterized by reward dysfunction, and that there is meaningful heterogeneity in reward processing within MDD. The current study offers neurobiological evidence that impaired mood reactivity is a key phenotypic distinction for subtyping MDD, and further suggests that the existing melancholic phenotype may require further refinement.
    NeuroImage 07/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements. Clinical trial registration information-Medication Strategies for Treating Aggressive Behavior in Youth With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00228046; and Effectiveness of Combined Medication Treatment for Aggression in Children With Attention Deficit With Hyperactivity Disorder (The SPICY Study); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00794625.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2013; 52(12):1281-93. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the current study, we evaluated the test-retest reliability of amygdala response using an emotional face-matching task that has been widely used to examine pathophysiology and treatment mechanisms in psychiatric populations. Activation within the fusiform face area (FFA) was also examined. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers completed a variation of the face-matching paradigm developed by Hariri et al. (2000) at two time points approximately 90 days apart. Estimates of test-retest reliability of amygdala response to fearful faces were moderate, whereas angry and happy faces showed poor reliability. Test-retest reliability of the FFA was moderate to strong, regardless of facial affect. Collectively, these findings indicate that the reliability of the BOLD MR signal in the amygdala varies substantially by facial affect. Efforts to improve measurement precision, enlarge sample sizes, or increase the number of assessment occasions seem warranted.
    Psychophysiology 10/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents with externalizing behavior disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) often present with symptoms of comorbid internalizing psychopathology. However, few studies have examined central nervous system correlates of such comorbidity. We evaluated interactions between externalizing and internalizing symptoms in predicting mesolimbic, septo-hippocampal, and anterior cingulate volumes among 12- to 16-year-old boys with either ADHD, ADHD and CD, or no psychiatric condition (n = 35). These regions were chosen given established links to trait impulsivity, trait anxiety, and behavior regulation, respectively. Collapsed across groups, Externalizing × Internalizing symptom interactions accounted for individual differences in gray matter densities in each region. Externalizing youth with comorbid internalizing symptoms showed smaller reductions in gray matter than individuals with externalizing psychopathology alone. These results suggest that internalizing symptoms are associated with less severe structural compromises in brain regions subserving motivation and behavior regulation among externalizing boys.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 03/2012; 41:346-352. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies addressing the neural correlates of criminal behavior have focused primarily on the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. However, few studies have examined dopaminergic inputs to these or other brain regions, despite the fact that central dopamine (DA) dysfunction is associated with both trait impulsivity and novelty seeking. Given long-standing associations between both of these personality traits and externalizing psychopathology, the authors examined effective connectivity between the caudate nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex, two areas that rely on DA input to facilitate associative learning and goal directed behavior. Dysfunction in top-down and bottom-up processing within this dopaminergically mediated frontostriatal circuit may be an important biological vulnerability that increases one’s likelihood of engaging in delinquent and criminal behavior. When compared with controls, reduced effective connectivity between these regions among adolescents with externalizing psychopathology was found, suggesting deficiencies in frontostriatal circuitry.
    Criminal Justice and Behavior 01/2009; 36:1141-1157. · 1.71 Impact Factor