[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multifunctional redox protein human thioredoxin (TRX-1) is reduced by thioredoxin reductase (TRX-R). The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of TRX-1 and TRX-R expressions in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to clarify their usefulness as prognostic factors after surgical resection.
Immunohistochemical staining for TRX-1 and TRX-R was performed in GBC tissue from 38 patients who underwent surgical resection, and TRX-1/TRX-R localization in relation to outcome was examined.
TRX-1 protein levels were significantly higher in GBC samples than in cholecystolithiasis samples (P = 0.0174). TRX-1 expression was observed in 100% (38/38) of tumour samples and in the nucleus in 76% (29/38), with nuclear expression in the invasion front observed in 45% (13/29). TRX-R expression was only detected in the cytoplasm of cancer cells and in the invasion front in 28 samples. In all of the samples, the depth of tumour invasion, lymph node metastasis, surgical margin, curability and nuclear expression of TRX-1 in the invasion front were significant prognostic factors by univariate analysis. In 27 selected patients who underwent curative resection, both TRX-1 nuclear expression and TRX-R cytoplasmic expression in the invasion front was a significantly prognostic factor.
TRX-1 nuclear expression in the GBC invasion front is a significant prognostic marker. Patients with both TRX-1 nuclear expression and TRX-R cytoplasmic expression in the tumour invasion front should be observed carefully even if after curative resection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism at the molecular level is still unknown. Placental inflammatory response and oxidative stress are associated with PTD. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) regulates oxidative stress, inflammation, and the activities of transcription factors.
The objective was to detect in placental tissues the expressions of TRX-1 and the TRX-1-related molecules: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thioredoxin-1-binding protein-2 (TBP-2), hypoxia inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α), and forkhead box protein O3A (FoxO3A).
PTD was defined as gestation of <37 weeks and term delivery (TD) as ≥37 weeks. The expressions of TRX-1 and TRX-1-related molecules were examined in placental tissues by real-time polymerase chain rection and western blot.
The expressions of TRX-1, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, and FoxO3A in the placenta of PTD were significantly higher as compared with TD, but no difference was observed in TBP-2 expression.
These results indicate that TRX-1 may be adaptively induced by the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting protective roles for TRX-1 against these effects in the placenta of PTD.
Redox report: communications in free radical research 01/2012; 17(5):187-93. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin (TRX) catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins via the NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase system. Reducing the disulfide bonds of allergenic proteins in food by TRX lowers the allergenicity. We established in this study a method to prepare TRX-enriched extracts from the edible yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on a large and practical scale, with the objective of developing TRX-containing functional foods to mitigate food allergy. Treating with the yeast TRX-enriched extracts together with NADPH and yeast thioredoxin reductase enhanced the pepsin cleavage of β-lactoglobulin and ovomucoid (OM). We also examined whether yeast TRX can mitigate the allergenicity of OM by conducting immediate allergy tests on guinea pigs. The treatment with TRX reduced the anaphylactic symptoms induced by OM in these tests. These results indicate that yeast TRX was beneficial against food allergy, raising the possibility that yeast TRX-enriched extracts can be applied to food materials for mitigating food allergy.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 75(10):1872-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endotoxin triggers a reorganization of the energy metabolic pathway, including the promotion of fatty acid utilization to adapt to a high energy demand during endotoxemia. However, the factors responsible for the metabolic adaptation and characteristic pathologies resulting from defective utilization fatty acids during endotoxin response have not been fully clarified. The thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2) knockout (TBP-2) mouse is an animal model of fatty acid oxidation disorder. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how TBP-2 is involved in metabolic regulation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia model in mice.
Prospective animal trial.
TBP-2 and wild control mice.
TBP-2 and wild control mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. Mortality, serum levels of markers of hepatorenal injuries, cytokines, insulin, glucose and lipid derivatives, and the hepatic signaling pathway regulating gluconeogenesis were investigated.
Following the administration of LPS, TBP-2 mice showed a predisposition for death without any significant elevation of inflammatory cytokines, compared to the wild mice. LPS-challenged TBP-2 mice showed fat deposition in the liver and kidney, organ injuries, glycogen depletion, and elevation of serum lipid derivatives such as free fatty acids, triglyceride and cholesterol. Hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia were observed in TBP-2 mice after LPS injection. Death due to the LPS administration was prevented by supplementation of glucose. Phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO1, an inhibitory pathway of gluconeogenesis in the liver of LPS-challenged TBP-2 mice was demonstrated, suggesting the enhancement of insulin signaling.
TBP-2 is involved in metabolic control during LPS-induced endotoxemia. After the LPS challenge, TBP-2 mice showed several characteristic aspects, such as hepatorenal injuries, and dysregulation of the lipid and glucose metabolisms. Furthermore, hypoglycemia promoted by hyperinsulinemia may be a critical risk factor for mortality in circumstances in which fatty acid utilization is impaired during endotoxemia.
Critical care medicine 12/2010; 38(12):2345-51. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the role of thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1), an endogenous protein with a variety of redox-related roles, in the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus in wild-type and transgenic mice overexpressing human TRX-1 (TRX-1 Tg). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with TRX-1, mutant TRX, or vehicle. The incidence of CNV was evaluated by lectin staining. Leukocyte recruitment and C3b deposition after laser injury were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Moreover, TRX-1-associated proteins from human plasma were isolated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with the use of a column coupled with a mutant TRX-1 and were identified by mass spectrometry and proteomics analysis. Complement activation was determined by a fluid-phase
The incidence of laser-induced CNV was reduced in TRX-1 Tg mice (56.1%) and in C57B/6 mice treated with TRX-1 (46.7%) but not in mutant TRX-1 (79.2%) compared with wild-type mice (85.7%). Furthermore, leukocyte recruitment was prevented in TRX-1-treated mice; C3b deposition was decreased in these and TRX-1 Tg mice. In human plasma, five proteins associated with TRX-1 were identified as apolipoprotein A-I, the CD5 antigen-like member of the scavenger receptor, cysteine-rich superfamily fibrinogen, albumin, and complement factor H (CFH). TRX-1 inhibited the alternative pathway C3 convertase, and its effect was additive with CFH.
These findings show that TRX-1 interacts with CFH, regulates complement activity, and inhibits CNV, suggesting novel preventive and interventional therapeutic strategies for AMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the existence of oxidative stress and the role of the antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX) in Sjögren's syndrome (SS).
Labial biopsy specimens from patients with SS were analyzed immunohistochemically to detect 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), nitrotyrosine, and TRX. Levels of TRX in saliva and plasma were quantified by ELISA. To analyze the effect of TRX on human salivary gland (HSG) cells, recombinant TRX (rTRX)-treated HSG cells were stimulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) for detecting interleukin 6 (IL-6) with ELISA and RT-PCR, or stimulated with IFN-gamma and anti-Fas antibody for analyzing Fas-induced apoptosis with PI/annexin V staining.
Large amounts of 8-OHdG, 4-HNE, nitrotyrosine, and TRX were produced in salivary duct cells of SS patients, whether there was periductal lymphocytic infiltration or not. Strong TRX expression was detected in acinar cells from 13 of 19 SS specimens. Levels of salivary TRX were significantly higher in SS patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and were inversely related to the salivary flow rates in SS patients. Patients who showed acinar TRX expression had higher salivary TRX levels than those who did not (p < 0.05). Interferon-gamma-induced expression of IL-6 and Fas-mediated apoptosis in HSG cells were significantly suppressed by pretreating cells with rTRX.
Parallel production of oxidative stress markers together with massive secretion of TRX suggests that oxidative stress induces TRX in the salivary gland. Moreover, suppression of IL-6 production and apoptosis by rTRX in HSG cells suggests TRX acts to protect the salivary glands of SS patients from tissue damage.
The Journal of Rheumatology 11/2007; 34(10):2035-43. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human thioredoxin-1 (hTrx) exhibits a disulfide reducing activity and was originally identified as a soluble cytokine-like factor secreted from cells of a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-transformed cell line. Recent studies have revealed that endogenous Trx plays an important role in cytoprotection against various oxidative stress-associated disorders. However, the function of exogenous Trx is still not fully understood. We report here that a cysteine-modified mutant of recombinant human Trx (rhTrx-C35S) binds to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as stimulated T cells and rapidly enters these cells via lipid rafts. In addition, we found that endogenous Trx is expressed on the surface of HUVECs, including lipid rafts. These events suggest cell-surface Trx as a possible target of rhTrx-C35S. Furthermore, we found that anti-human Trx mouse monoclonal antibody inhibits adherence of LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to HUVECs. This adherence was also suppressed by a recombinant human Trx (rhTrx), but not by a mutant rhTrx (rhTrx-C32S/C35S) with no reducing activity. Cell-surface Trx may be involved in the process of interaction between PMNs and HUVECs and a possible target of cysteine-modified exogenous Trx as well as wild-type exogenous Trx through redox regulation.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 10/2007; 9(9):1427-37. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces cytotoxicity via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and mitochondria-mediated pathways, and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1), a redox-active protein, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. TRX-1 overexpression suppressed reactive oxygen species and the ATP decline caused by MPP(+) in HepG2 cells. MPP(+) activated caspase-12 in PC12 cells and induced cytotoxicity in HeLa-rho(0) cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, as well as in the parental HeLa-S3 cells. TRX-1-transgenic mice demonstrated significant resistance to caspase-12 activation and the apoptotic decrease of dopaminergic neurons after MPTP administration, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 06/2007; 9(5):603-8. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin-1 (TRX) is a small redox-active protein with antioxidative effects and redox-regulating functions. Cigarette smoking is a major etiological factor in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and recruits systemic immune and inflammatory responses. This report demonstrates that TRX attenuates the systemic inflammatory responses induced by cigarette smoking. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were suppressed in the spleen of TRX overexpressing transgenic mice (TRX-tg) exposed to cigarette smoking, compared with control C57BL/6 mice. In addition, protein carbonylation, a marker of cellular protein oxidation, was enhanced by cigarette smoking in the tissues of heart and liver in control mice more than in TRX-tg mice. These findings suggest that TRX may suppress the systemic inflammatory responses against cigarette smoking.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 01/2006; 8(9-10):1891-6. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma levels of human thioredoxin are indicative of the responses against oxidative stress. We measured the plasma thioredoxin levels in patients with unstable angina in order to examine the relationships between subsequent clinical course and plasma thioredoxin levels before and after treatment for unstable angina. Blood was sampled both on admission and after treatment in 44 patients with unstable angina. In addition, blood samples were obtained from 41 patients with stable exertional angina and 41 patients with chest pain syndrome after admission. The plasma levels of thioredoxin were the highest in the unstable angina group among three groups (p<0.001). Treatment of unstable angina decreased the plasma thioredoxin levels (p<0.01). We divided the patients with unstable angina into two groups according to the plasma thioredoxin levels on admission and after treatment. There was a significant difference in Braunwald's classification between the high thioredoxin and the low thioredoxin group on admission, as analyzed by the chi2 test with Yates's correction (p<0.05). Moreover, there was a significant difference in incidence of recurrent anginal attacks at rest between the high thioredoxin and the low thioredoxin group after treatment, as analyzed by the chi2 test with Yates's correction (p<0.001). The present study demonstrated that plasma thioredoxin levels are significantly increased in patients with unstable angina compared to those with stable exertional angina and chest pain syndrome. Thioredoxin levels were associated with recurrent myocardial ischemia in patients with unstable angina.
International Journal of Cardiology 04/2005; 99(2):225-31. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lungs are the richest in oxygen among the various organs of the body and are always subject to harmful reactive oxygen species. Regulation of the reduction/oxidation (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ functions. Although the protective importance of various antioxidants has been reported, few antioxidants have established their clinical usefulness. Thioredoxin (TRX), a key redox molecule, plays crucial roles as an antioxidant and a catalyst in protein disulfide/dithiol exchange. TRX also modulates intracellular signal transduction and exerts antiinflammatory effects in tissues. In addition to its beneficial effects in other organs, the protective effect of TRX in the lungs has been shown against ischemia/ reperfusion injury, influenza infection, bleomycin-induced injury, or lethal inflammation caused by interleukin- 2 and interleukin-18. Monitoring of TRX in the plasma, airway, or lung tissue may be useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary inflammation. Promotion/modulation of the TRX system by the administration of recombinant TRX protein, induction of endogenous TRX, or gene therapies can be a therapeutic modality for oxidative stress-associated lung disorders.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 01/2005; 7(1-2):60-71. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental cryptorchidism induces apoptosis in testicular germ cells by generating reactive oxygen species. We investigated the effects of a redox regulating molecule, thioredoxin-1 (TRX1), on testicular damage caused by experimental cryptorchidism.
Unilateral cryptorchidism was surgically induced in TRX1 transgenic (TRX1-Tg) or WT adult C57BL6 mice. The contralateral scrotal testis served as a control.
Experimental cryptorchidism decreased testicular weight in WT mice from 4 days after surgery. The decrease in testicular weight was significantly attenuated in TRX1-Tg mice compared with WT mice 7 to 14 days after surgery (p <0.01). However, the difference between the 2 groups was not significant 28 days after surgery. Histological analysis and TUNEL assays demonstrated that apoptosis occurred in germ cells of the cryptorchid testis in each group but the appearance of apoptotic germ cells was delayed by 3 days in TRX1-Tg mice.
TRX1 over expression suppressed apoptosis in testicular germ cells induced by experimental cryptorchidism, indicating that TRX1 intensification may be a useful therapeutic strategy for male infertility associated with heat stress.
The Journal of Urology 12/2004; 172(6 Pt 1):2479-82. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Redox-regulating mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of aging. Thioredoxin (TRX) is a small multifunctional protein which contains a redox active sequence. Spontaneous myocarditis is often observed in aged mice. In this study, we examined the histopathology and characteristics of TRX expression in spontaneous myocarditis in inbred strains of mice. No spontaneous myocarditis was found in adult 4-week-old inbred strains of mice. High incidence of spontaneous myocarditis was found in aged 8-week-old DBA/2 mice, and low incidence was in 8-week-old BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice. The lesions, limited to the right ventricle, were most severe in DBA/2 mice. TRX was upregulated, and the expression was correlated with the severity of the disease in these strains. Also, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which was an established marker for oxidative stress, was concomitantly positive in necrotic lesions among them. In addition, the long-term anti-oxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed the development of spontaneous myocarditis. Thus, TRX may be induced by the spontaneously developed myocarditis, and the redox-regulating system may play an important role in the development of aging-related myocarditis.
International Journal of Cardiology 07/2004; 95(2-3):315-9. · 5.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin (TRX) is induced by a variety of oxidative stimuli and shows cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress. To clarify the possibility of clinical application, we examined the effects of intravenously administered TRX in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in this study. Mature male C57BL/6j mice received either continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant human TRX (rhTRX) over a range of 1-10 mg/kg, bovine serum albumin, or vehicle alone for 2 h after 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Twenty-four hours after the transient MCAO, the animals were evaluated neurologically and the infarct volumes were assessed. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and protein carbonyl contents, a marker of protein oxidation, in the brain were significantly ameliorated in rhTRX-treated mice at the dose of 3 and 10 mg/kg versus these parameters in control animals. Moreover, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, whose pathway is involved in ischemic neuronal death, was suppressed in the rhTRX-treated mice. Further, rhTRX was detected in the ischemic hemisphere by western blot analysis, suggesting that rhTRX was able to permeate the blood-brain barrier in the ischemic hemisphere. These data indicate that exogenous TRX exerts distinct cytoprotective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice by means of its redox-regulating activity.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2004; 6(1):81-7. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development and pathogenesis of hypertension, we analyzed the redox (reduction/oxidation) status in tissues from Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP). Expressions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker for oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, and protein carbonylation, a marker for oxidation status of proteins, were enhanced in aorta, heart, and kidney from SHR and SHRSP compared with WKY. The expression of redox regulating protein, thioredoxin (TRX), estimated by immunohistochemistry and western blot, and expression of TRX gene estimated by real-time RT-PCR were markedly suppressed in those tissues from SHR and SHRSP compared with WKY. Induction of TRX was impaired after angiotension II treatment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from SHR and SHRSP compared with those isolated from WKY. Although previous reports have shown that TRX is induced by a variety of oxidative stress in tissues, the present study shows the impaired induction of TRX in tissues from genetically hypertensive rats despite the relative increment of oxidative stress. Redox imbalance in essential organs may play a crucial role in the development and pathogenesis of hypertension.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2004; 6(1):89-97. · 7.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether plasma levels of thioredoxin are associated with coronary spasm, we measured the plasma levels of thioredoxin in 170 patients who had <25% organic stenosis in coronary arteriography. According to the results of cardiac catheterization, we divided the patients into two groups: a coronary spastic angina group (n=84) and a chest pain syndrome group (n=86). The plasma levels of thioredoxin were significantly higher in the coronary spastic angina group than in the chest pain syndrome group (40.7 +/- 4.1 versus 18.2 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, p<0.0001). Furthermore, the increased plasma levels of thioredoxin were associated with high disease activity indicated by the frequency of angina attacks (p=0.0004). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the higher levels of thioredoxin [relative risk 14.8, 95% confidence interval (5.13-42.9), p<0.0001] and current smoking [relative risk 3.39, 95% confidence interval (1.31-8.75), p=0.012] were significant and independent variables associated with coronary spasm. We demonstrated that the plasma levels of thioredoxin were increased in the coronary spastic angina group, and increased levels of thioredoxin were associated with high disease activity. The plasma levels of thioredoxin and current smoking were risk factors for coronary spastic angina, and they were independent from other traditional risk factors.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2004; 6(1):75-80. · 7.19 Impact Factor