[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines viz. interleukins (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α in response to subclinical mastitis in indigenous cattle breed Kankrej (n = 6), Gir (Bos indicus) (n = 12) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) (n = 7) were investigated using quantitative real time PCR. Significant correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between total bacterial load and somatic cell count (SCC) in all three breeds of cattle. All the cytokines were observed to be up-regulated compared to cows with healthy quarters, however, level of their expression varied among three breeds of cattle. In Kankrej most cytokines were found to be transcribed to higher levels than in other two breeds; the milk had higher load of bacteria but not so high SCC, implying that Kankrej has a higher inherent resistance against mastitis. The results of present study indicated that mammary glands of crossbred cattle are more sensitive to bacterial infection than indigenous breed of cattle as they elicit immune response at lower bacterial load and result into higher SCC. Research on identification of factors responsible for differentially expressed cytokines profiles and use of cytokines as immunomodulatory tools can pave way for formulating control strategies against bovine mastitis.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research. 10/2012; 52(4):231-238.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probiotics means live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on their host"s health. Although probiotic strains can be isolated from many sources; for human applications the main criteria is being human origin. Breast milk is an important nutrient source for neonates. Lots of studies showed that this fluid has beneficial effects on the health of neonates. One reason of being beneficial is explaining by the microflora of human breast milk including beneficial lactic acid producing and other bacteria. In this study several bacteria were isolated from 7 breast milk samples. Isolates were identified by biochemical characterization and molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing as well as subjected for the study of probiotics property. These isolates showed resistance to stomach pH (pH 3.0), tolerance against 0.3% bile concentration and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing identified Lactobacillus fermentum (JQ073735), Enterococcus mundtii (JQ073736), Enterococcus faecium (JQ073737), Lactobacillus reuteri (JQ073738), Bacillus subtilis (JQ073739) isolates having potential probiotic activity. In the light of this study, it is observed that, human milk is a source of potential probiotic strains. INTRODUCTION The word "probiotic" comes from Greek language "pro bios" which means "for life" opposed to "antibiotics" which means "against life". The history of probiotics began with the history of man by consuming fermented foods that is well known Greek and Romans consume very much [1, 2]. In 1908 a Russian researcher Ellie Metchnikoff, who has a noble prize, firstly proposed the beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms on human health. Metchnikoff hypothesized that Bulgarians are healthy and long lived people because of the consumption of fermented milk products which consists of rod shaped bacteria (Lactobacillus spp.). Therefore, these bacteria affect the gut micro flora positively and decrease the microbial toxic activity [1, 3, 4]. "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host", is accepted by FAO/WHO" (report in October 2001) [2, 5, 6]. Probiotics are also challenging for the industrial applications. The probiotic concept is open to lots of different applications in a large variety of fields relevant for human and animal health. Probiotic products consist of different enzymes, vitamins, capsules or tablets and some fermented foods containing microorganisms which have beneficial effects on the health of host. They can contain one or several species of probiotic bacteria. Most of products which destine
International journal of pharmaceutical science and health care. 06/2012; 3(2):62-70.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metagenomic analysis of milk samples collected from Kankrej, Gir (Bos indicus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × B. indicus) cattle harbouring subclinical mastitis was carried out by next-generation sequencing 454 GS-FLX technology to elucidate the microbial community structure of cattle milk.
Milk samples from Kankrej, Gir and crossbred cattle were subjected to metagenomic profiling by pyrosequencing. The Metagenomic analysis produced 63·07, 11·09 and 7·87 million base pairs (Mb) of sequence data, assembled in 264 798, 56 114 and 36 762 sequences with an average read length of 238, 197 and 214 nucleotides in Kankrej, Gir and crossbred cattle, respectively. Phylogenetic and metabolic profiles by the web-based tool MG-RAST revealed that the members of Enterobacteriales were predominant in mastitic milk followed by Pseudomonadales, Bacillales and Lactobacillales. Around 56 different species with varying abundance were detected in the subclinically infected milk. Escherichia coli was found to be the most predominant species in Kankrej and Gir cattle followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mendocina, Shigella flexneri and Bacillus cereus. In crossbred cattle, Staphylococcus aureus followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and E. coli were detected in descending order. Metabolic profiling indicated fluoroquinolones, methicillin, copper, cobalt-zinc-cadmium as the groups of antibiotics and toxic compounds to which the organisms showed resistance. Sequences indicating potential of organisms exhibiting multidrug resistance against antibiotics and resistance to toxic compounds were also present. Interestingly, presence of bacteriophages against Staph. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter and Yersinia species was also observed.
The analysis identified potential infectious organisms in mastitis, resistance of organisms to antibiotics and chemical compounds and the natural resistance potential of dairy cows.
The findings of this study may help in formulating strategies for the prevention and treatment of mastitis in dairy animals and consequently in reducing economic losses incurred because of it.
Journal of Applied Microbiology 01/2012; 112(4):639-50. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An investigation of Mastitis in cattle was carried out in Anand city and in nearby villages of Gujarat state using California Mastitis Test (CMT) kit. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was found to be 5.5% and 15.75%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through strain specific polymerase chain reaction; the remaining isolates identified on the basis of molecular analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were Staphylococcus species, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Bacillus species, and Pseudomonas species. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of all the isolates was checked against 13 different antibiotics using the agar disc diffusion method. Highest bacterial resistance was observed with penicillin G and oxacillin antibiotics. It was also observed that the patterns of bacterial resistance have not changed in India over the years. The data supports the decrease in the incidence of mastitis but the rate of decrease is minimal. More effective control strategies are required.