[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immuno-modulators in combination with antileishmanial drug miltefosine is a better therapeutic approach for treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) as it not only reduces the dose of miltefosine but also shortens the treatment regimen. However, immunological mechanisms behind the perceived benefits of this combination therapy have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we hypothesized that potential use of drugs that target the host in addition to the parasite might represent an alternative strategy for combination therapy. We investigated immune responses generated in Leishmania donovani infected animals (hamsters and mice) treated with combination of CpG-ODN-2006 and miltefosine at short dose regimen. Infected animals were administered CpG-ODN-2006 (0.4 mg/kg, single dose), as free and liposomal form, either alone or in combination with miltefosine for 5 consecutive days and parasite clearance was evaluated at day 4 and 7 post treatment. Animals that received liposomal CpG-ODN-2006 (lipo-CpG-ODN-2006) and sub-curative miltefosine (5 mg/kg) showed the best inhibition of parasite multiplication (∼97%) which was associated with a biased Th1 immune response in. Moreover, compared to all the other treated groups, we observed increased mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12) and significantly suppressed levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) on day 4 post treatment in animals that underwent combination therapy with lipo-CpG-ODN-2006 and sub-curative miltefosine. Additionally, same therapy also induced heightened iNOS mRNA levels and NO generation, increased IgG2 antibody level and strong T-cell response in these hamsters compared with all the other treated groups. Collectively, our results suggest that combination of lipo-CpG-ODN-2006 and sub-curative miltefosine generates protective T-cell response in an animal model of visceral leishmaniasis which is characterized by strong Th1 biased immune response thereby underlining our hypothesis that combination therapy, at short dose regimen can be used as a novel way of treating visceral leishmaniasis.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94596. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emergence and spread of multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum has severely limited the antimalarial chemotherapeutic options. In order to overcome the obstacle, a set of new side-chain modified 4-aminoquinolines were synthesized and screened against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (K1) strains of P. falciparum. The key feature of the designed molecules is the use of methylpiperazine linked α, β(3)- and γ-amino acids to generate novel side chain modified 4-aminoquinoline analogues. Among the evaluated compounds, 20c and 30 were found more potent than CQ against K1 and displayed a four-fold and a three-fold higher activity respectively, with a good selectivity index (SI=5846 and 11,350). All synthesized compounds had resistance index between 1.06 and >14.13 as against 47.2 for chloroquine. Biophysical studies suggested that this series of compounds act on heme polymerization target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of thiazolidin-4-one and thiazinan-4-one derivatives were prepared by three component condensation in one pot reaction method. These compounds were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic activity by in vitro and in vivo assay systems. The compounds with thiazolidin-4-one and thiazinan-4-one moieties exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity. A few compounds (3a, 3b, 4a and 4b) have exhibited both anti-hyperglycemic and anti-dyslipidemic activities. Among them the thiazinan-4-one derivative 4a showed maximal (45%) improvement in oral glucose tolerance test in db/db mice at 30 mg/kg oral dose.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 02/2013; 63C:611-620. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of quinoline analogs have been synthesized and found active against P. falciparum in vitro and P. yoelli in vivo. Compounds 8, 10 and 11 exhibited superior in vitro activity compared to chloroquine. Selected compounds 8, 10 and 11 exhibited significant suppression of parasitaemia in vivo assay. These analogs form a complex with hematin and inhibit the β-hematin formation, suggesting that this class of compounds act on a heme polymerization target. Further this study confirms that quinoline ring nitrogen is essential for both transportation of the molecule across the membrane as well as for tight binding to hematin.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes the synthesis of a series of new 4-aminoquinoline-derived thiazolidines and evaluation of their antimalarial activity against a NF-54 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and N-67 strain of Plasmodium yoelii in vivo. Among the series, two compounds, 2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid [2-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-ylamino)-ethyl]-amide hydrochloride (14) and 2-(2,6-dichloro-phenyl)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid [2-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-ylamino)-ethyl]-amide hydrochloride (22) exhibited significant suppression of parasitaemia in the in vivo assay. All the analogues were found to form strong complex with haematin and inhibited the β-haematin formation in vitro. These results suggest that these compounds act on heme polymerization target.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of efficient and safe nucleic acid carriers (vectors) is one of the essential requirements for the success of gene therapy. Here, we have evaluated the gene transfer capability of chitosan-PEI (CP) conjugates prepared by conjugating low molecular weight branched polyethylenimine (LMWP) with depolymerized chitosans (7 and 10 kDa) via their terminal aldehyde/keto groups. The CP conjugates interacted efficiently with nucleic acids and also showed higher cellular uptake. These conjugates on complexation with DNA yielded nanoparticles in the size range of 100-130 nm (in case of C7P) and 115-160 nm (in case of C10P), which exhibited significantly higher transfection efficiency (~2-42 folds) in vitro compared to chitosans (high and low mol. wt.) and the commercially available transfection reagents retaining cell viability almost comparable to the native chitosan. Of the two CP conjugates, chitosan 7 kDa-LMWP (C7P) displayed higher gene transfer ability in the presence and absence of serum. Luciferase reporter gene analysis in male Balb/c mice receiving intravenous administration of C7P3/DNA polyplex showed the maximum expression in their spleen. Further, tuftsin, a known macrophage targeting molecule, was tethered to C7P3 and the resulting complex, i.e., C7P3-T/DNA, exhibited significantly higher gene expression in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages as compared to unmodified C7P3/DNA complex without any cytotoxicity demonstrating the suitability of the conjugate for targeted applications. Conclusively, the study demonstrates the potential of the projected conjugates for gene delivery for wider biomedical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are inadequate, and their efficacies are also compromised due to suppression of immune function during the course of infection. Miltefosine is the only promising orally active antileishmanial drug, but due to its long half-life, there is risk of development of resistance. To overcome these problems, efforts are needed to develop combination therapy of miltefosine with effective immunostimulating agents where a decrease of parasitic burden and simultaneous enhancement of adaptive immunity can be achieved. In the present study, we have explored the antileishmanial efficacy of a subcurative dose of miltefosine in combination with free as well as liposomal palmitoyl tuftsin (p-tuftsin) using a Leishmania donovani/BALB/c mouse model. When miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg for 5 days) was given with free p-tuftsin, the inhibitory effect was significantly increased from 49.6% to 66% (P < 0.01), which was further enhanced up to 81% (P < 0.001) when given after liposomal encapsulation of p-tuftsin. Significant enhancement in parasitic inhibition (93%, P < 0.01) was witnessed when animals were co-administered with liposomal p-tuftsin + 5 mg/kg × 5 days dose of miltefosine (72.1%). Enhancement in the production of Th1 cytokines (IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ), reactive oxygen, and nitrogen metabolites was witnessed in the combination group. A remarkable increase in phagocytosis index was also observed indicating overall immunological enhancement to antileishmanial activity of miltefosine by p-tuftsin.
Parasitology Research 03/2012; 111(2):563-70. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunostimulatory peptides potentiate the immune system of the host and are being used as a viable adjunct to established therapeutic modalities in treatment of cancer and microbial infections. Several peptides derived from milk protein have been reported to induce immunostimulatory activity. Human β -casein fragment (54-59), natural sequence peptide (NS) carrying the Val-Glu-Pro-Ile-Pro-Tyr amino acid residues, was reported to activate the macrophages and impart potent immunostimulatory activity. In present study, we found that this peptide increases the clearance of M. bovis BCG from THP-1 cell line in vitro. The key biomolecules, involved in the clearance of BCG from macrophage like, nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, were not found to be significantly altered after peptide treatment in comparison to the untreated control. Using proteomic approach we found that BTF3a, an isoform of the Basic Transcription Factor, BTF3, was down regulated in THP-1 cell line after peptide treatment. This was reconfirmed by real time RT-PCR and western blotting. We report the BTF3a as a novel target of this hexapeptide. Based on the earlier findings and the results from the present studies, we suggest that the down regulation of BTF3a following the peptide treatment may augment the M. bovis BCG mediated apoptosis resulting in enhanced clearance of M. bovis BCG from THP-1 cell line.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45905. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely appreciated that the vascular endothelium is capable of modulating vascular smooth muscle tone suiting it well for its role as an important regulator of a number of diverse biological processes. Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of atherothrombosis and a consequence of the established disease. Although several arginine derivatives alkylated at one of the guanidino nitrogen were found to inhibit vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine, activity of the corresponding arginine esters is not reported. The present work was therefore designed to synthesize and evaluate series of novel arginine derivatives to obtain further insight into structure-activity relationship in this series of compounds. Present study involves assessment of activity of these novel compounds on the vascular tone of rat thoracic aorta in comparison with l-arginine analog, that is, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Results from the present study showed that full reversal of phenylephrine-mediated contraction was achieved by cumulative applications of acetylcholine (3nm-300μm), which were abolished when the aortic rings were pretreated with l-NAME (300μm). Results from the present study demonstrated that these novel arginine derivatives cause significant yet reversible reduction in acetylcholine-mediated relaxation, similar to that of L-NAME.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 12/2011; 79(4):459-69. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In view of the severe immunosuppression in visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a rational approach to effectively combat the parasitic scourge would be to enhance the immune status of the host. Use of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) against leishmaniasis has previously been reported, especially as an immunomodulator and adjuvant with various immunogens. In the present study, experiments were carried out with BALB/c mice and hamsters infected with Leishmania donovani. Immunostimulating class B bacterial CpG-ODN namely, ODN-2006, was administered at various doses by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. The dose of CpG-ODN-2006 (1 nM/single dose) showing the most antileishmanial activity was given as free and liposomal forms with different doses of miltefosine, namely, 5 and 10 mg/kg of body weight, for 5 days in mice and hamsters, respectively. Among the various groups, mice coadministered liposomal CpG-ODN and miltefosine (5 mg/kg) showed the best inhibitory effect (97% parasite inhibition) compared with free CpG-ODN plus miltefosine and miltefosine, free CpG-ODN, and liposomal CpG-ODN given separately. Similar responses were observed in the case of hamsters, where the combination of liposomal CpG-ODN with miltefosine (10 mg/kg) gave 96% parasite inhibition. Promising antileishmanial efficacy was observed in animals treated with liposomal CpG-ODN and miltefosine.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2011; 55(7):3461-4. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new series of 4-aminoquinoline derivatives have been synthesized and found to be active against both susceptible and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Compound 1-[3-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-ylamino)-propyl]-3-cyclopropyl-thiourea (7) exhibited superior in vitro activity against resistant strains of P. falciparum as compared to chloroquine (CQ). All the compounds showed resistance factor between 0.59 and 4.31 as against 5.05 for CQ. Spectroscopic studies suggested that this class of compounds act on heme polymerization target.
European journal of medicinal chemistry 11/2010; 45(11):4990-6. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the combination of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) and miltefosine for the treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL).
The experiments were carried out using BALB/c mice and hamsters, infected with Leishmania donovani. CpG ODN was administered at various doses by the intraperitoneal (ip) route. The dose of CpG ODN (1 nM/single dose) showing best antileishmanial activity was given as free and liposomal forms with a subcurative dose of miltefosine, namely 2.5 and 5 mg/kg x 5 days in mice and hamsters, respectively.
Among the various groups of mice, co-administered liposomal CpG ODN and miltefosine showed the best inhibitory effect (85% inhibition) compared with free CpG ODN and miltefosine, and miltefosine, free CpG ODN and liposomal CpG ODN separately. Production of Th1 cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and H(2)O(2) was enhanced. A remarkable increase in the phagocytosis index was also observed, indicating overall immunological support to antileishmanial activity of miltefosine by CpG ODN. Similar responses were observed in hamsters.
Promising antileishmanial efficacy was observed in animals treated with liposomal CpG ODN and miltefosine, strongly supported by enhancement of Th1 cytokines as well as NO, ROS and H(2)O(2) levels. The correlation of experimental findings in both the models (mouse and hamster) strengthens the potential of CpG ODN as an immunomodulator in combination with miltefosine against VL.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2010; 65(7):1448-54. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examines a hypothesis that short allergen-derived peptides may shift an Aspergillus fumigatus (Afu-) specific TH2 response towards a protective TH1. Five overlapping peptides (P1-P5) derived from Asp f1, a major allergen/antigen of Afu, were evaluated for prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy in BALB/c mice.
To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy, peptides were intranasally administered to naïve mice and challenged with Afu-allergens/antigens. For evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, the mice were sensitized with Afu-allergens/antigens followed by intranasal administration of peptides. The groups were compared for the levels of Afu-specific antibodies in sera and splenic cytokines evaluated by ELISA. Eosinophil peroxidase activity was examined in the lung cell suspensions and lung inflammation was assessed by histopathogy.
Peptides P1-, P2- and P3 decreased Afu-specific IgE (84.5~98.9%) and IgG antibodies (45.7~71.6%) in comparison with Afu-sensitized mice prophylactically. P1- and P2-treated ABPA mice showed decline in Afu-specific IgE (76.4~88%) and IgG antibodies (15~54%). Increased IgG2a/IgG1 and IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratios were observed. P1-P3 prophylactically and P1 therapeutically decreased IL-5 levels and eosinophil peroxidase activity. P1 decreased inflammatory cells' infiltration in lung tissue comparable to non-challenged control.
Asp f1-derived peptide P1, prophylactically and therapeutically administered to Balb/c mice, is effective in regulating allergic response to allergens/antigens of Afu, and may be explored for immunotherapy of allergic aspergillosis in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human beta-casein fragment (54-59) having the amino acid sequence Val-Glu-Pro-Ile-Pro-Tyr, has shown potent immunostimulant activity. Several analogs of this hexapeptide have been synthesized with modification at the N-terminal region and two analogs, viz. peptide I and peptide II have shown significant immunosuppressant activity in-vivo mouse model. Effect on cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity was studied in mouse/SRBC model. Both the peptides failed to stimulate immune response in vivo and showed inhibition of CMI and humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Peptides showed inhibition in alloantigen induced lymphocyte proliferation, i.e., mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro. Treatment with peptides inhibited the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and increased the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as improved the skin graft survival. Cyclosporine a known immunosuppressant showed similar effect on mouse model. Present study thus provides a lead for the development of safe and effective immunosuppressant.
International immunopharmacology 06/2009; 9(9):1092-6. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is one of the foremost public health problems in developing countries affecting nearly 40% of the global population. Apart from this, the past two decade's emergence of drug resistance has severely limited the choice of available antimalarial drugs. Furthermore, the general trend emerging from the SAR-studies is that chloroquine resistance does not involve any change to the target of this class of drugs but involves compound specific efflux mechanism. Based on this premise a number of groups have developed short chain analogues of 4-aminoquinoline, which are active against CQ-resistant strains of P. falciparum in in vitro studies. However, these derivatives undergo biotransformation (de-alklyation) significantly affecting lipid solubility of the drug. In view of this background information, we thought that it would be interesting to study the effect of additional lipophilicity and cationic charge at the lateral side chain of 4-aminoquinoline. This prompted us to explore the cationic amino acid conjugates namely, lysine and ornithine of 4-aminoquinoline with a view to achieve improved antimalarial activity and to the best of our knowledge such amino acid conjugates have not been hitherto reported in the literature in the case of 4-aminoquinolines. In the present study, a new series of side-chain modified 4-aminoquinolines have been synthesized and found active against both susceptible and multidrug resistant strains of P. falciparum in vitro and P. yoelli in vivo. The seminal finding of the present study is that a new series of compounds having significantly more activity against CQ resistant parasites has been identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In search of new erythromycin derivatives 3-O-[gamma-(4-oxo-2-aryl-thiazolidin-3-yl)butyryl]erythromycin A derivatives have been synthesized. The 3-hydroxy group was derivatised to a primary amine and subsequently the thiazolidinone nucleus was generated at the amino functionality through DCC mediated one-pot three-component reaction in good yields.