[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet may have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In previous studies, the associations between increased intakes of carbohydrates, sugar, starch, and inflammatory bowel disease are inconsistent. However, few prospective studies have investigated the associations between these macronutrients and incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Several studies have examined leukocyte telomere length (LTL) as a possible predictor for cancer at various organ sites. The hypothesis originally motivating many of these studies was that shorter telomeres would be associated with an increase in cancer risk, the results of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, however, and suggested positive, negative, or null associations. Two studies have addressed the association of LTL in relation to pancreatic cancer risk and the results are contrasting. Methods: we measured LTL in a prospective study of 331 pancreatic cancer cases and 331 controls in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: We observed that the mean LTL was higher in cases (0.59±0.20) than in controls (0.57±0.17), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.07), and a basic logistic regression model showed no association of LTL with pancreas cancer risk. When adjusting for levels of HbA1c and C-Peptide, however, there was a weakly positive association between longer LTL and pancreatic cancer risk , OR=1.13 (1.01-1.27). Additional analyses by cubic spline regression suggested a possible non-linear relationship between RTL and pancreatic cancer risk (P=0.022), with a statistically non-significant increase in risk at very low LTL, as well as a significant increase at high LTL. Conclusion: Taken together, the results from our study do not support LTL as a uniform and strong predictor of pancreatic cancer. Impact: The results of this manuscript can provide insights into telomere dynamics and highlight the complex relationship between LTL and pancreatic cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 08/2014; · 4.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonoscopy efficacy at preventing proximal colorectal cancer (CRC) is questioned, and little is known about efficacy in high-risk versus medium-risk populations. We investigated the relationship between colonoscopy screening, family history of colorectal cancer (FHCC), and CRC risk by site.
Cancer Causes and Control 07/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective studies including the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), but it is unknown whether these observations reflect a causal relationship. We aimed to investigate whether CRP genetic variants associated with lifelong higher CRP concentrations translate into higher colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case–control study within EPIC including 727 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2003 and 727 matched controls selected according to an incidence-density sampling protocol. Baseline CRP concentrations were measured in plasma samples by a high sensitivity assay. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene (rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2808630, rs3093077) were identified via HapMap. The causal effect of CRP on colorectal cancer risk was examined in a Mendelian Randomization approach utilizing multiple CRP genetic variants as instrumental variables. The SNPs rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864 and rs3093077 were significantly associated with CRP concentrations and were incorporated in a CRP allele score which was associated with 13% higher CRP concentrations per allele count (95% confidence interval 8–19%). Using the CRP-score as instrumental variable, genetically twofold higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.85). Similar observations were made using alternative definitions of instrumental variables. Our findings give support to the hypothesis that elevated circulating CRP may play a direct role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of
Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We
assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and
examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC
cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into
Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and
SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios
(IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional
logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 μg/L and 4.3
mg/L in cases and 85.6 μg/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations
were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI:
0.82-1.03 per 25 μg/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a
statistically significant association for women (ptrend = 0.032; per 25 μg/L Se
increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP
concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (ptrend = 0.009; per
0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more
apparent in women (ptrend = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L
increase) than men (ptrend = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L
increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans
and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status,
which is more evident in women.
International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We investigated whether prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Data from 3,859 subjects with CRC (42.1% male, mean age at diagnosis 64.2 ± 8.1 years) in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were analyzed. Intake of dairy products and dietary calcium was assessed at baseline (1992-2000) using validated, country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%-CI) for CRC specific death (n=1,028) and all-cause death (n=1,525) for different quartiles of intake. Results The consumption of total dairy products was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC-specific death (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.17 95%-CI 0.97-1.43) nor of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1: 1.16 95%-CI 0.98-1.36). Multivariable adjusted HRs for CRC-specific death (Q4 vs. Q1) were 1.21 (95%-CI 0.99-1.48) for milk, 1.09 (95%-CI 0.88-1.34) for yoghurt and 0.93 (95%-CI 0.76-1.14) for cheese. The intake of dietary calcium was not associated with the risk of CRC-specific (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.01 95%-CI 0.81-1.26) nor of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1: 1.01 95%-CI 0.84-1.21). Conclusions The prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium are not associated with disease-specific or all-cause risk of death in patients diagnosed with CRC. Impact The impact of diet on cancer survival is largely unknown. This study shows that despite it's inverse association with CRC risk, the prediagnostic intake of dairy and dietary calcium do not affect CRC survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbances in one carbon-metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low.
We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionine, choline, betaine (trimethylglycine), and dimethylglycine (DMG) in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Our study included 1,367 incident CRC cases (965 colon; 402 rectum) and 2,323 controls matched by gender, age group, and study center. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CRC risk were estimated by conditional logistic regression comparing the fifth to the first quintile of plasma concentrations.
Overall, methionine (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.63-0.99, P-trend=0.05), choline (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.60-0.99, P-trend=0.07), and betaine (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.66-1.09, P-trend=0.06) concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk of borderline significance. In participants with folate concentration below the median of 11.3 nmol/L, high betaine concentration was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.00, P-trend=0.02), which was not observed for those having a higher folate status. Among women, but not men, high choline concentration was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.43-0.88, P-trend=0.01). Plasma DMG was not associated with CRC risk.
Individuals with high plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine may be at reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as biomarker patterns representing potentially important pathways for CRC development.
European Journal of Epidemiology 05/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Isotretinoin, a drug widely prescribed for severe acne, has been suspected to increase the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC), but data are conflicting. To further examine the association between isotretinoin use and risk for UC and Crohn's disease (CD), we conducted a large nationwide case-control study in France.METHODS:We used information from the National Health Insurance system for all French people covered by the general scheme between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010, totaling over 50 million individuals (i.e., 76% of the whole French population). All incident claims for UC and CD and all medical drug reimbursements were automatically recorded in the database. For each case, four controls were matched on age, gender, year of enrollment, and follow-up duration. The association between isotretinoin use and UC or CD claim was estimated by conditional logistic regression.RESULTS:We included 7,593 cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 3,187 UC, 4,397 CD, and 9 indeterminate colitis) and 30,372 controls; among them, 26 cases (0.3%) (15 UC (0.5%) and 11 CD (0.3%)) and 140 controls (0.4%) were exposed to isotretinoin. Isotretinoin exposure was not associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio (OR)=1.36 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.76, 2.45)) but was associated with a decreased risk for CD (OR=0.45 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.85)), P value for homogeneity between UC and CD=0.001. Results were similar in analyses restricted to individuals below the age of 40 years, to cases with colonoscopy or intestinal surgery, or when adjusting for other acne treatments.CONCLUSIONS:In this population-based case-control study, isotretinoin use was not associated with increased UC risk but was associated with a decreased CD risk. This study provides reassuring data for people using isotretinoin.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.8.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; · 9.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between dietary acrylamide intake and esophageal cancer (EC) risk, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), has not been consistent. We evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and EAC, ESCC, and overall EC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Since nonlinear relations were observed, HRs were displayed for quartiles of acrylamide intake in μg per day.
After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 341 EC were identified, 142 of which were EAC, 176 ESCC, and 23 other histological types or not specified. An increase in EC risk was observed in the second and third quartiles (HRQ2vsQ1 1.75, 95 % CI 1.12-2.74; HRQ3vsQ1 1.66, 95 % CI 1.05-2.61), but not in the fourth quartile, and there was no evidence for a linear dose-response trend. HRs were similarly elevated but not statistically significant when ESCC and EAC were analyzed separately, due to the small number of cases observed. No associations were observed when quartiles were based on energy-adjusted acrylamide intake.
In the EPIC cohort, an association between estimated dietary acrylamide intake and an increased risk of developing EC was observed in the middle quartiles but not in the highest quartile; however, results from other larger cohorts or consortia, and results from biomarker studies, might add to the evidence provided by this analysis, suggesting that acrylamide is not an important risk factor for EC.
Cancer Causes and Control 02/2014; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however there is little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intra-hepatic bile duct (IBD) and gallbladder and bilary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137) or IBD (n=34). Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.02-1.46, P=0.03; 1.90; 95%CI = 1.30-2.77, P=0.001; 2.25; 95%CI = 1.43-3.54, P=0.0005 and 2.09; 95%CI = 1.19-3.67, P=0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.05-1.42, P=0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95%CI = 1.25-2.11, P=0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95%CI = 2.20-50.90, P=0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin, and 0.46 for GLDH indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors. (Hepatology 2014;).