[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. As the host fails to control the bacteria, the center of the granuloma exhibits necrosis resulting from the dying of infected macrophages. The release of the intracellular pool of nucleotides into the surrounding medium may modulate the response of newly infected macrophages, although this has never been investigated. Here, we show that extracellular ATP indirectly modulates the expression of 272 genes in human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis, and that it induces their alternative activation. ATP is rapidly hydrolyzed by the ecto-ATPase CD39 into AMP, and it is AMP that regulates the macrophage response through the adenosine A2A receptor. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for the purinergic pathway in the host response to M. tuberculosis. Dampening inflammation through signaling via the adenosine A2A receptor may limit tissue damage, but may also favor bacterial immune escape.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The intestinal tract is the largest reservoir of microbes in the human body. The intestinal microbiota is thought to be able to modulate alterations of the gut induced by enteropathogens, thereby maintaining homeostasis. Listeria monocytogenes is the agent of listeriosis, an infection transmitted to humans upon ingestion of contaminated food. Crossing of the intestinal barrier is a critical step of the infection before dissemination into deeper organs. Here, we investigated the role of the intestinal microbiota in the regulation of host protein-coding genes and microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression during Listeria infection. We first established the intestinal miRNA signatures corresponding to the 10 most highly expressed miRNAs in the murine ileum of conventional and germfree mice, noninfected and infected with Listeria. Next, we identified 6 miRNAs whose expression decreased upon Listeria infection in conventional mice. Strikingly, five of these miRNA expression variations (in miR-143, miR-148a, miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-378) were dependent on the presence of the microbiota. In addition, as is already known, protein-coding genes were highly affected by infection in both conventional and germfree mice. By crossing bioinformatically the predicted targets of the miRNAs to our whole-genome transcriptomic data, we revealed an miRNA-mRNA network that suggested miRNA-mediated global regulation during intestinal infection. Other recent studies have revealed an miRNA response to either bacterial pathogens or commensal bacteria. In contrast, our work provides an unprecedented insight into the impact of the intestinal microbiota on host transcriptional reprogramming during infection by a human pathogen. IMPORTANCE While the crucial role of miRNAs in regulating the host response to bacterial infection is increasingly recognized, the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in the regulation of miRNA expression has not been explored in detail. Here, we investigated the impact of the intestinal microbiota on the regulation of protein-coding genes and miRNA expression in a host infected by L. monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. We show that the microbiota interferes with the microRNA response upon oral Listeria infection and identify several protein-coding target genes whose expression correlates inversely with that of the miRNA. Further investigations of the regulatory networks involving miR-143, miR-148a, miR-200b, miR-200c, and miR-378 will provide new insights into the impact of the intestinal microbiota on the host upon bacterial infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . Antimicrobial peptides produced by multicellular organisms as part of their innate system of defense against microorganisms are currently considered as potential alternative to conventional antibiotics in case of infection by multiresistant bacteria. However, while the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides is relatively well described, resistance mechanisms potentially induced or selected by these peptides are still poorly understood In this work, we studied the mechanisms of action and resistance potentially induced by ApoEdpL-W, a new antimicrobial peptide derived from human apolipoprotein E. Investigation of the genetic response of Escherichia coli upon exposure to sublethal concentrations of ApoEdpL-W revealed that this antimicrobial peptide triggers activation of RcsCDB, CpxAR and σ(E) envelope stress pathways. This genetic response is not restricted to ApoEdpL-W, since several other antimicrobial peptides, including polymyxin B, melittin, LL-37 and modified S4 dermaseptin also activate several E. coli envelope stress pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that induction of the CpxAR two-component system directly contributes to E. coli tolerance toward ApoEdpL-W, polymyxin B and melittin. These results therefore show that E. coli senses and responds to different antimicrobial peptides by activation of the CpxAR pathway. While this study further extends the understanding of the array of peptide-induced stress signaling systems, it also provides insight on the contribution of the Cpx envelope stress to E. coli tolerance to antimicrobial peptide.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2013; · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogens dramatically affect host cell transcription programs for their own profit during infection, but in most cases, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We found that during infection with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, the host deacetylase sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) translocates to the nucleus, in a manner dependent on the bacterial factor InlB. SIRT2 associates with the transcription start site of a subset of genes repressed during infection and deacetylates histone H3 on lysine 18 (H3K18). Infecting cells in which SIRT2 activity was blocked or using SIRT2(-/-) mice resulted in a significant impairment of bacterial infection. Thus, SIRT2-mediated H3K18 deacetylation plays a critical role during infection, which reveals an epigenetic mechanism imposed by a pathogenic bacterium to reprogram its host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High levels of antibiotic tolerance are a hallmark of bacterial biofilms. In contrast to well-characterized inherited antibiotic resistance, molecular mechanisms leading to reversible and transient antibiotic tolerance displayed by biofilm bacteria are still poorly understood. The physiological heterogeneity of biofilms influences the formation of transient specialized subpopulations that may be more tolerant to antibiotics. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify biofilm-specific tolerant mutants normally exhibited by subpopulations located in specialized niches of heterogeneous biofilms. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we demonstrated, through identification of amino acid auxotroph mutants, that starved biofilms exhibited significantly greater tolerance towards fluoroquinolone ofloxacin than their planktonic counterparts. We demonstrated that the biofilm-associated tolerance to ofloxacin was fully dependent on a functional SOS response upon starvation to both amino acids and carbon source and partially dependent on the stringent response upon leucine starvation. However, the biofilm-specific ofloxacin increased tolerance did not involve any of the SOS-induced toxin-antitoxin systems previously associated with formation of highly tolerant persisters. We further demonstrated that ofloxacin tolerance was induced as a function of biofilm age, which was dependent on the SOS response. Our results therefore show that the SOS stress response induced in heterogeneous and nutrient-deprived biofilm microenvironments is a molecular mechanism leading to biofilm-specific high tolerance to the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inoculation of a low number (10(4)) of L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes into the dermis of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse ear pinna results in distinct outcome as assessed by the parasite load values and ear pinna macroscopic features monitored from days 4 to 22-phase 1 and from days 22 to 80/100-phase 2. While in C57BL/6 mice, the amastigote population size was increasing progressively, in DBA/2 mice, it was rapidly controlled. This latter rapid control did not prevent intracellular amastigotes to persist in the ear pinna and in the ear-draining lymph node/ear-DLN. The objectives of the present analysis was to compare the dendritic leukocytes-dependant immune processes that could account for the distinct outcome during the phase 1, namely, when phagocytic dendritic leucocytes of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice have been subverted as live amastigotes-hosting cells.
Being aware of the very low frequency of the tissues' dendritic leucocytes/DLs, bone marrow-derived C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs were first generated and exposed or not to live DsRed2 expressing L. amazonensis amastigotes. Once sorted from the four bone marrow cultures, the DLs were compared by Affymetrix-based transcriptomic analyses and flow cytometry. C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs cells hosting live L. amazonensis amastigotes do display distinct transcriptional signatures and markers that could contribute to the distinct features observed in C57BL/6 versus DBA/2 ear pinna and in the ear pinna-DLNs during the first phase post L. amazonensis inoculation.
The distinct features captured in vitro from homogenous populations of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs hosting live amastigotes do offer solid resources for further comparing, in vivo, in biologically sound conditions, functions that range from leukocyte mobilization within the ear pinna, the distinct emigration from the ear pinna to the DLN of live amastigotes-hosting DLs, and their unique signalling functions to either naive or primed T lymphocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2012; 109(41):16684-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptochromes are conserved flavoprotein receptors found throughout the biological kingdom with diversified roles in plant development and entrainment of the circadian clock in animals. Light perception is proposed to occur through flavin radical formation that correlates with biological activity in vivo in both plants and Drosophila. By contrast, mammalian (Type II) cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock independently of light, raising the fundamental question of whether mammalian cryptochromes have evolved entirely distinct signaling mechanisms. Here we show by developmental and transcriptome analysis that Homo sapiens cryptochrome--1 (HsCRY1) confers biological activity in transgenic expressing Drosophila in darkness, that can in some cases be further stimulated by light. In contrast to all other cryptochromes, purified recombinant HsCRY1 protein was stably isolated in the anionic radical flavin state, containing only a small proportion of oxidized flavin which could be reduced by illumination. We conclude that animal Type I and Type II cryptochromes may both have signaling mechanisms involving formation of a flavin radical signaling state, and that light independent activity of Type II cryptochromes is a consequence of dark accumulation of this redox form in vivo rather than of a fundamental difference in signaling mechanism.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e31867. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice is regulated by crucial transcription factors, including the determination genes Myf5 and Myod. The precise role of Myf5 in regulating quiescent muscle stem cells has remained elusive. Here we show that most, but not all, quiescent satellite cells express Myf5 protein, but at varying levels, and that resident Myf5 heterozygous muscle stem cells are more primed for myogenic commitment compared with wild-type satellite cells. Paradoxically however, heterotypic transplantation of Myf5 heterozygous cells into regenerating muscles results in higher self-renewal capacity compared with wild-type stem cells, whereas myofibre regenerative capacity is not altered. By contrast, Pax7 haploinsufficiency does not show major modifications by transcriptome analysis. These observations provide a mechanism linking Myf5 levels to muscle stem cell heterogeneity and fate by exposing two distinct and opposing phenotypes associated with Myf5 haploinsufficiency. These findings have important implications for how stem cell fates can be modulated by crucial transcription factors while generating a pool of responsive heterogeneous cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate crossover (CO) recombination, which is necessary for accurate chromosome segregation, but DSBs may also repair as non-crossovers (NCOs). Multiple recombination pathways with specific intermediates are expected to lead to COs and NCOs. We revisited the mechanisms of meiotic DSB repair and the regulation of CO formation, by conducting a genome-wide analysis of strand-transfer intermediates associated with recombination events. We performed this analysis in a SK1 × S288C Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid lacking the mismatch repair (MMR) protein Msh2, to allow efficient detection of heteroduplex DNAs (hDNAs). First, we observed that the anti-recombinogenic activity of MMR is responsible for a 20% drop in CO number, suggesting that in MMR-proficient cells some DSBs are repaired using the sister chromatid as a template when polymorphisms are present. Second, we observed that a large fraction of NCOs were associated with trans-hDNA tracts constrained to a single chromatid. This unexpected finding is compatible with dissolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs) during repair, and it suggests the existence of a novel control point for CO formation at the level of the dHJ intermediate, in addition to the previously described control point before the dHJ formation step. Finally, we observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs. We propose that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates. These factors include repair of nicks and double-stranded gaps, template switches between non-sister and sister chromatids, and HJ branch migration. Finally, the good correlation between the strand transfer properties observed in the absence of and in the presence of Msh2 suggests that the intermediates detected in the absence of Msh2 reflect normal intermediates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment and can lead to severe food-borne infections. It has recently emerged as a multifaceted model in pathogenesis. However, how this bacterium switches from a saprophyte to a pathogen is largely unknown. Here, using tiling arrays and RNAs from wild-type and mutant bacteria grown in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, we have analysed the transcription of its entire genome. We provide the complete Listeria operon map and have uncovered far more diverse types of RNAs than expected: in addition to 50 small RNAs (<500 nucleotides), at least two of which are involved in virulence in mice, we have identified antisense RNAs covering several open-reading frames and long overlapping 5' and 3' untranslated regions. We discovered that riboswitches can act as terminators for upstream genes. When Listeria reaches the host intestinal lumen, an extensive transcriptional reshaping occurs with a SigB-mediated activation of virulence genes. In contrast, in the blood, PrfA controls transcription of virulence genes. Remarkably, several non-coding RNAs absent in the non-pathogenic species Listeria innocua exhibit the same expression patterns as the virulence genes. Together, our data unravel successive and coordinated global transcriptional changes during infection and point to previously unknown regulatory mechanisms in bacteria.