ABSTRACT: To quantify physical activity and dietary energy intake in dogs enrolled in a controlled weight-loss program and assess relationships between energy intake and physical activity, sex, age, body weight, and body condition score (BCS).
Prospective clinical study.
35 client-owned obese dogs (BCS > 7/9).
Dogs were fed a therapeutic diet with energy intake restrictions to maintain weight loss of approximately 2%/wk. Collar-mounted pedometers were used to record the number of steps taken daily as a measure of activity. Body weight and BCS were assessed at the beginning of the weight-loss program and every 2 weeks thereafter throughout the study. Relationships between energy intake and sex, age, activity, BCS, and body weight at the end of the study were assessed via multivariable linear regression. Variables were compared among dogs stratified post hoc into inactive and active groups on the basis of mean number of steps taken (< or > 7,250 steps/d, respectively).
Mean ± SD daily energy intake per unit of metabolic body weight (kg(0.75)) of active dogs was significantly greater than that of inactive dogs (53.6 ± 15.2 kcal/kg(0.75) vs 42.2 ± 9.7 kcal/kg(0.75), respectively) while maintaining weight-loss goals. In regression analysis, only the number of steps per day was significantly associated with energy intake.
Increased physical activity was associated with higher energy intake while maintaining weight-loss goals. Each 1,000-step interval was associated with a 1 kcal/kg(0.75) increase in energy intake.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2012; 240(4):413-9. · 1.79 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data indicate that low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with an increased risk of a variety of human tumours. Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) occur more frequently in dogs than in any other species. Canine MCT express the vitamin D receptor, and vitamin D derivatives have in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour activity. We sought to examine the association between vitamin D serum level and MCT in Labrador retrievers, a dog breed predisposed to MCT development. To examine this association, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations were examined in eighty-seven Labrador retrievers, including thirty-three with MCT and fifty-four unaffected controls. The relationship between cases and controls and 25(OH)D3 level, age and body condition score were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Potential differences in vitamin D oral intake, calculated on the basis of a dietary questionnaire, were also evaluated between groups. Mean 25(OH)D3 concentration (104 (SD 30) nmol/l) in dogs with MCT was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (120 (SD 35) nmol/l; P = 0.027). The mean calculated vitamin D intake per kg body weight in Labrador retrievers with MCT was not statistically different from that of unaffected Labrador retrievers (0.38 (SD 0.25) and 0.31 (SD 0.22) μg/kg body weight, respectively; P = 0.13). These findings suggest that low levels of 25(OH)D3 might be a risk factor for MCT in Labrador retrievers. Prospective cohort studies are warranted.
The British journal of nutrition 10/2011; 106 Suppl 1:S60-3. · 3.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to utilise an accurate canine pedometer methodology and to assess the relationship between activity and body condition score (BCS) in dogs. Initial methodology validation used videography and pedometer step measurements to assess actual steps taken in comparison with pedometer readings for twenty large, medium and small dogs. During the validation, dogs considered to be medium or large breed showed no significant difference between pedometer readings and actual steps taken. A total of seventy-seven obese and non-obese dogs over 35 cm (14 inches) shoulder height and over 10 kg were recruited from a dog obesity clinic and a community sample to assess daily walking activity. Body condition scoring and pedometer steps were assessed on three separate weeks during a 10-week period. During the activity monitoring, daily step counts ranged from 5555 to 39 970 steps/d among the seventy-seven medium and large dogs. Dogs' BCS were inversely correlated with average daily steps (Spearman's ρ = - 0.442, P < 0.0001). The present study identified a significant inverse correlation between daily walking steps and BCS over a range from 4 to 9 out of 9 (P < 0.0001).
The British journal of nutrition 10/2011; 106 Suppl 1:S85-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor