[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is characterized by irreversible optic nerve degeneration and is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Here, the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducts a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR), an important disease-related optic nerve parameter. In 21,094 individuals of European ancestry and 6,784 individuals of Asian ancestry, we identify 10 new loci associated with variation in VCDR. In a separate risk-score analysis of five case-control studies, Caucasians in the highest quintile have a 2.5-fold increased risk of primary open-angle glaucoma as compared with those in the lowest quintile. This study has more than doubled the known loci associated with optic disc cupping and will allow greater understanding of mechanisms involved in this common blinding condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complement system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Complement factor I (CFI) is a serum protease that inhibits all complement pathways. A previous multicenter study identified a single missense CFI mutation (p.Gly119Arg) in 20/3,567 (0.56%) of AMD cases versus 1/3,937 (0.025%) of controls, thus suggesting that this mutation confers a high risk of AMD. A second CFI mutation, p.Gly188Ala, was identified in one patient with AMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if prespecified genetic polymorphisms influence responsiveness to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The objectives were to replicate 3 reported pharmacogenetic associations of response in nAMD and to test for novel associations.
Cohort study, combining information about patients' genotypes with information from a randomized controlled trial about responsiveness to anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD.
Five hundred nine participants with nAMD, enrolled in the Alternative Treatments to Inhibit VEGF in Patients with Age-Related Choroidal Neovascularisation (IVAN) trial.
Participants were classified as responders or nonresponders to VEGF inhibition based on the optical coherence tomography (OCT) metric of total retinal thickness (TRT). We computed the change in TRT from baseline to the latest time point for which OCT data were available (3, 6, 9, or 12 months). Eyes with changes in TRT greater than or equal to the 75th percentile or more were classified as responders, and those with changes less than or equal to the 25th percentile or lower were classified as non-responders. Three previously reported associations of response to VEGF inhibition in nAMD involving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the CFH, FZD4, and HTRA1/ARMS2 loci were tested for replication. An additional 482 SNPs also were tested using a candidate gene approach. Associations were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs).
The primary outcome was evidence of a genetic association with response to VEGF inhibition as measured by change in TRT.
One hundred twenty-six participants were classified as responders and 128 were classified as nonresponders. The SNP rs10490924 in HTRA1/ARMS2 showed a borderline association with responsiveness after Bonferroni correction (OR, 1.53; CI, 0.99-2.36; P = 0.055, Bonferroni correction). None of the other 484 additional SNPs tested for association was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The smallest corrected P value was 0.84 (P = 0.002, uncorrected) for rs9679290 in the EPAS1 (HIF2A) gene on chromosome 2. Four of the 10 most significant results were in this gene.
We estimated pharmacogenetic associations using high-quality phenotype data from a randomized controlled clinical trial of nAMD. No significant association or replication of previous associations were observed. Further investigation of the EPAS1 (HIF2A) gene, however, may, be merited.
Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate whether modification of liver complement factor H (CFH) production, by alteration of liver CFH Y402H genotype through liver transplantation (LT), influences the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 223 Western European patients ≥55 years old who had undergone LT ≥5 years previously. METHODS: We determined AMD status using a standard grading system. Recipient CFH Y402H genotype was obtained from DNA extracted from recipient blood samples. Donor CFH Y402H genotype was inferred from recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This approach was verified by genotyping donor tissue from a subgroup of patients. Systemic complement activity was ascertained by measuring levels of plasma complement proteins using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, including substrates (C3, C4), activation products (C3a, C4a, and terminal complement complex), and regulators (total CFH, C1 inhibitor). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated AMD status and recipient and donor CFH Y402H genotype. RESULTS: In LT patients, AMD was associated with recipient CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4) but not with donor CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.626), after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype predicted donor CFH Y402H genotype with 100% accuracy (n = 49). Plasma complement protein or activation product levels were similar in LT patients with and without AMD. Compared with previously reported prevalence figures (Rotterdam Study), LT patients demonstrated a high prevalence of both AMD (64.6% vs 37.1%; OR, 3.09; P<0.001) and the CFH Y402H sequence variation (41.9% vs 36.2%; OR, 1.27; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of AMD is not associated with modification of hepatic CFH production. In addition, AMD is not associated with systemic complement activity in LT patients. These findings suggest that local intraocular complement activity is of greater importance in AMD pathogenesis. The high AMD prevalence observed in LT patients may be associated with the increased frequency of the CFH Y402H sequence variation. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A r t i c l e s Human ocular biometric parameters comprise a set of highly herit-able and often correlated quantitative traits. One notable example is CCT, which has an estimated heritability of up to 95% (ref. 1). Whereas extreme corneal thinning is a dramatic clinical feature for rare congenital connective tissue disorders, including brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) and several types of osteogenesis imperfecta 2,3 , mildly reduced CCT is involved in more common and late-onset eye diseases. It is a hallmark of keratoconus and a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in individuals with ocular hypertension 4,5 . Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted on both European and Asian populations have identi-fied 11 CCT-associated loci 6–9 . Among these loci, mutations in ZNF469 (refs. 10–12), COL5A1 (ref. 13) and COL8A2 (refs. 14,15) are known to cause rare disorders of BCS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and corneal dystrophy, respectively. However, none was found to be associated with common eye diseases. Keratoconus is a common corneal ectasia, affecting 1 in 2,000 in the general population 16 . It is a progressive eye disease character-ized by thinning and asymmetrical conical protrusion of the cornea, which causes variable and severe visual impairment. Owing to the limited availability of medical treatments, keratoconus is one of the leading causes of corneal transplantation worldwide 17 . Two GWAS have been conducted on susceptibility for keratoconus, and these studies suggested some new genetic associations, but neither study reported genome-wide significant loci 18,19 . POAG is the most com-mon form of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blind-ness worldwide 20 . Several risk loci for POAG have been identified through early linkage and candidate gene studies 21,22 and recent Genome-wide association analyses identify multiple loci associated with central corneal thickness and keratoconus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central corneal thickness (CCT) is associated with eye conditions including keratoconus and glaucoma. We performed a meta-analysis on >20,000 individuals in European and Asian populations that identified 16 new loci associated with CCT at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). We further showed that 2 CCT-associated loci, FOXO1 and FNDC3B, conferred relatively large risks for keratoconus in 2 cohorts with 874 cases and 6,085 controls (rs2721051 near FOXO1 had odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-1.88, P = 2.7 × 10(-10), and rs4894535 in FNDC3B had OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.29-1.68, P = 4.9 × 10(-9)). FNDC3B was also associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (P = 5.6 × 10(-4); tested in 3 cohorts with 2,979 cases and 7,399 controls). Further analyses implicate the collagen and extracellular matrix pathways in the regulation of CCT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual loss in Western populations. Susceptibility is influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Known genetic risk loci do not account for all the heritability. We therefore carried out a genome-wide association study of AMD in the UK population with 893 cases of advanced AMD and 2199 controls. This showed an association with the well-established AMD risk loci ARMS2 (age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2)-HTRA1 (HtrA serine peptidase 1) (P =2.7 × 10(-72)), CFH (complement factor H) (P =2.3 × 10(-47)), C2 (complement component 2)-CFB (complement factor B) (P =5.2 × 10(-9)), C3 (complement component 3) (P =2.2 × 10(-3)) and CFI (P =3.6 × 10(-3)) and with more recently reported risk loci at VEGFA (P =1.2 × 10(-3)) and LIPC (hepatic lipase) (P =0.04). Using a replication sample of 1411 advanced AMD cases and 1431 examined controls, we confirmed a novel association between AMD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 6p21.3 at TNXB (tenascin XB)-FKBPL (FK506 binding protein like) [rs12153855/rs9391734; discovery P =4.3 × 10(-7), replication P =3.0 × 10(-4), combined P =1.3 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-1.6] and the neighbouring gene NOTCH4 (Notch 4) (rs2071277; discovery P =3.2 × 10(-8), replication P =3.8 × 10(-5), combined P =2.0 × 10(-11), OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4). These associations remained significant in conditional analyses which included the adjacent C2-CFB locus. TNXB, FKBPL and NOTCH4 are all plausible AMD susceptibility genes, but further research will be needed to identify the causal variants and determine whether any of these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.
Human Molecular Genetics 06/2012; 21(18):4138-50. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variation in the complement factor H gene (CFH) is associated with risk of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous studies have been case-control studies in populations of European ancestry with little differentiation in AMD subtype, and insufficient power to confirm or refute effect modification by smoking.
To precisely quantify the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1061170, 'Y402H') with risk of AMD among studies with differing study designs, participant ancestry and AMD grade and to investigate effect modification by smoking, we report two unpublished genetic association studies (n = 2759) combined with data from 24 published studies (26 studies, 26,494 individuals, including 14,174 cases of AMD) of European ancestry, 10 of which provided individual-level data used to test gene-smoking interaction; and 16 published studies from non-European ancestry.
In individuals of European ancestry, there was a significant association between Y402H and late-AMD with a per-allele odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-2.45; P = 1.1 x 10(-161)]. There was no evidence of effect modification by smoking (P = 0.75). The frequency of Y402H varied by ancestral origin and the association with AMD in non-Europeans was less clear, limited by paucity of studies.
The Y402H variant confers a 2-fold higher risk of late-AMD per copy in individuals of European descent. This was stable to stratification by study design and AMD classification and not modified by smoking. The lack of association in non-Europeans requires further verification. These findings are of direct relevance for disease prediction. New research is needed to ascertain if differences in circulating levels, expression or activity of factor H protein explain the genetic association.
International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2012; 41(1):250-62. · 6.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a characteristic optic neuropathy which progresses to irreversible vision loss. Few genes have been detected that influence POAG susceptibility and other genes are therefore likely to be involved. We analyzed carefully characterized POAG cases in a genome-wide association study (GWAS).
We performed a GWAS in 387 POAG cases using public control data (WTCCC2). We also investigated the quantitative phenotypes, cup:disc ratio (CDR), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intra-ocular pressure (IOP). Promising single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on various prioritisation criteria, were genotyped in a cohort of 294 further POAG cases and controls.
We found 2 GWAS significant results in the discovery stage for association, one of which which had multiple evidence in the gene 'neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9' (NEDD9; rs11961171, p=8.55E-13) and the second on chromosome 16 with no supporting evidence. Taking into account all the evidence from risk and quantitative trait ocular phenotypes we chose 86 SNPs for replication in an independent sample. Our most significant SNP was not replicated (p=0.59). We found 4 nominally significant results in the replication cohort, but none passed correction for multiple testing. Two of these, for phenotypes CDR (rs4385494, discovery p=4.51x10-5, replication p=0.029) and CCT (rs17128941, discovery p=5.52x10-6, replication=0.027), show the consistent direction of effects between the discovery and replication data. We also assess evidence for previously associated known genes and find evidence for the genes 'transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1' (TMCO1) and 'cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B' (CDKN2B).
Although we were unable to replicate any novel results for POAG risk, we did replicate two SNPs with consistent effects for CDR and CCT, though they do not withstand correction for multiple testing. There has been a range of publications in the last couple of years identifying POAG risk genes and genes involved in POAG related ocular traits. We found evidence for 3 known genes (TMCO1, CDKN2B, and S1 RNA binding domain 1 [SRBD1]) in this study. Novel rare variants, not detectable by GWAS, but by new methods such as exome sequencing may hold the key to unravelling the remaining contribution of genetics to complex diseases such as POAG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes.
One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis.
IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis.
Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have revealed new insights into the genetic determinants of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This study was performed to determine to what extent variants within established genes (MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36) and newly identified common genetic variants (ATOH7, CDKN2B, and SIX1) contribute to the risk of OAG.
Population-based setting, family-based setting, and a case-control study.
The Rotterdam Study I cohort (N = 5312; mean age±standard deviation [SD], 68.0±8.4 years). Findings were replicated in the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations combined with the Erasmus Rucphen Family study (N = 1750; mean age±SD, 48.3±15.2 years), and a cohort from Southampton (N = 702; mean age±SD, 72.5±10.7 years).
After identifying common variants associated with OAG within the established genes, the risk of OAG was analyzed using logistic regression. Discriminative accuracy was assessed by comparing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for models, including the number of risk alleles, intraocular pressure, age, and gender, with the AUC for the same model but without the risk alleles.
Odds ratios and AUCs of individual and combined risk alleles.
No consistent significant associations for the established genes (MYOC, OPTN, and WDR36) with OAG were found. However, when comparing the load of risk variants between cases and controls, 2 of 3 studies showed a significant increased risk of OAG for participants carrying more risk alleles of the 3 established genes. When combining all 6 genes, participants carrying a high number of risk alleles (highest tertile) had a 2.29-fold to 3.19-fold increase in risk of OAG compared with those carrying only a few risk alleles. The addition of the newly identified genes to IOP, age, and gender resulted in a higher AUC compared with the AUC without the newly identified genes (P = 0.027).
A significant contribution to the risk of OAG was found for the new common variants identified by recent genome-wide association studies, but not for variants within the established genes. Participants carrying a high number of risk alleles had an approximately 3-fold increase in the risk of OAG compared with those with a low number of risk alleles.
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed variation in plasma levels of the complement regulatorC1 inhibitor (C1inh) in patients with age related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls. Plasma from391 AMD cases and 370 controls was assayed by rate nephelometry to determine C1inh protein levels. Protein levels were analysed for relationships with age, gender, smoking, AMD disease status and genetic variation in the SERPING1 gene, which encodes C1inh, using a multivariate analysis. t-Tests show a significant difference in C1inh levels in AMD cases compared with controls (p=2.340E-6), smokers compared to non-smokers (p=1.022E-4) and females compared to males (p=1.661E-7). Multivariate analysis shows that after accounting for gender and smoking AMD status remained significant. Age was included in the model but was not significant. Including genetic variation in the model shows that one significant SNP (rs2649663) 5' of the SERPING1 gene is associated with C1inh levels though this SNP is not associated with AMD. This suggests that genetic variation in the promoter region of the SERPING1 gene may influence expression of the gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open-angle glaucoma (glaucoma) is a major eye disorder characterized by optic disc pathology. Recent genome-wide association studies identified new loci associated with clinically relevant optic disc parameters, such as the optic disc area and vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR). We examined to what extent these loci are involved in glaucoma. The loci studied include ATOH7, CDC7/TGFBR3 and SALL1 for optic disc area, and CDKN2B, SIX1, SCYL1/LTBP3, CHEK2, ATOH7 and DCLK1 for VCDR. We performed a meta-analysis using data from six independent studies including: the Rotterdam Study (n= 5736), Genetic Research in Isolated Populations combined with Erasmus Rucphen Family study (n= 1750), Amsterdam Glaucoma Study (n= 296) and cohorts from Erlangen and Tübingen (n= 1363), Southampton (n= 702) and deCODE (n= 36 151) resulting in a total of 3161 glaucoma cases and 42 837 controls. Of the eight loci, we found significant evidence (P= 1.41 × 10(-8)) for the association of CDKN2B with glaucoma [odds ratio (OR) for those homozygous for the risk allele: 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.84], for the role of ATOH7 (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.12-1.47) and for SIX1 (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10-1.31) when adjusting for the number of tested loci. Furthermore, there was a borderline significant association of CDC7/TGFBR3 and SALL1 (both P= 0.04) with glaucoma. In conclusion, we found consistent evidence for three common variants (CDKN2B, ATOH7 and SIX1) significantly associated with glaucoma. These findings may shed new light on the pathophysiological protein pathways leading to glaucoma, and point to pathways involved in the growth and development of the optic nerve.
Human Molecular Genetics 03/2011; 20(12):2464-71. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently identified an association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and genetic variants in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 (SERPING1) gene. In the current study we interrogated the genomic region in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the SERPING1 gene, and modelled the contribution to disease of known genetic and environmental AMD risk factors.
We analysed genes neighbouring SERPING1 and examined haplotype association with AMD. A stepwise logistic regression model was developed including known genetic and environmental risk factors (age, sex and smoking). Individual risk scores were assessed between groups of cases and controls.
In SERPING1 region rs2511989 remains most significantly associated (p=1.77×10(-5), OR 0.67). One haplotype, containing the rs2511989 variant and the majority of SERPING1, exhibits marginally stronger association (p=5.13×10(-6), OR 0.66). Our risk model includes six SNPs in CFH, C3, HTRA1 and SERPING1, showing independent effects, which together account for 45% of risk of developing AMD (p=1.65×10(-50)) with a combined population attributable risk of 87%.
Results implicate SERPING1, with no convincing evidence for involvement of other genes in the region. We demonstrate a multifactorial model with significant differences in risk scores for cases versus controls (p=9.81×10(-71)) and across Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) score-stratified cases (p=1.88×10(-11)).
The British journal of ophthalmology 10/2010; 94(10):1382-7. · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,263 affected individuals (cases) and 34,877 controls from Iceland. We identified a common sequence variant at 7q31 (rs4236601[A], odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, P = 5.0 × 10⁻¹⁰). We then replicated the association in sample sets of 2,175 POAG cases and 2,064 controls from Sweden, the UK and Australia (combined OR = 1.18, P = 0.0015) and in 299 POAG cases and 580 unaffected controls from Hong Kong and Shantou, China (combined OR = 5.42, P = 0.0021). The risk variant identified here is located close to CAV1 and CAV2, both of which are expressed in the trabecular meshwork and retinal ganglion cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of POAG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between variants in the complement component 5 (C5) gene and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Separate and combined data from 3 large AMD case-control studies and a prospective population-based study (The Rotterdam Study).
A total of 2599 AMD cases and 3458 ethnically matched controls.
Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the C5 gene were initially genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from The Netherlands (The Amsterdam/Rotterdam-Netherlands [AMRO-NL] study population). Replication testing of selected SNPs was performed in the Rotterdam Study (NL) and study populations from Southampton, United Kingdom (UK), and New York, United States (US).
Early and late stages of prevalent and incident AMD, graded according to (a modification of) the international grading and classification system of AMD.
Significant allelic or genotypic associations between 8 C5 SNPs and AMD were found in the AMRO-NL study and this risk seemed to be independent of CFH Y402H, LOC387715 A69S, age, and gender. None of these findings could be confirmed consistently in 3 replication populations.
Although the complement pathway, including C5, plays a crucial role in AMD, and the C5 protein is present in drusen, no consistent significant associations between C5 SNPs and AMD were found in any of these studies. The implications for genetic screening of AMD are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the prevalence of myocilin gene mutations in a UK glaucoma cohort.
Primary open-angle (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma patients were recruited from the Southampton University Hospital Trust Eye Clinic and satellite regional glaucoma clinics. Phenotype data relating to disease history and other potential risk factors were recorded and blood samples collected for each consenting participant. Point mutation analysis of the myocilin gene was carried out using six overlapping PCR fragments covering the entire coding sequence of the gene. A total of 316 POAG samples were examined of which 7 (2.2 %) tested positive for disease-causing mutations in this gene. One of these seven non-synonymous mutations represented a previously unreported amino-acid substitution of cysteine for arginine at codon 296 (p.R296C) of the myocilin protein.
This study identifies a 2.2% prevalence of myocilin mutations in a cohort of ethnically homogenous glaucoma patients selected from a UK ophthalmic clinic. A novel myocilin mutation is also described. This study identifies that myocilin genetic screening is feasible in NHS glaucoma clinics for genetic counselling and cascade testing of relatives of patients affected by myocilin glaucoma.