[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 176 (water and sediment) samples from 22 stations belonging to four different (urban, semi-urban, rural, and holy places) human habitations of Tamil Nadu beaches were collected and analyzed for physiochemical and microbial parameters during 2008-2009. Bacterial counts were two- to tenfold higher in sediments than in water due to strong bacterial aggregations by dynamic flocculation and rich organic content. The elevated bacterial communities during the monsoon explain rainfalls and several other wastes from inlands. Coliform counts drastically increased at holy and urban places due to pilgrimage and other ritual activities. Higher values of the pollution index (PI) ratio (>1) reveals, human fecal pollutions affect the water quality. The averaged PI ratio shows a substantial higher microbial contamination in holy places than in urban areas and the order of decreasing PI ratios observed were: holy places > urban areas > semi-urban areas > rural areas. Correlation and factor analysis proves microbial communities were not related to physicochemical parameters. Principal component analysis indicates 55.32 % of the total variance resulted from human/animal fecal matters and sewage contaminants whereas 19.95 % were related to organic contents and waste materials from the rivers. More than 80 % of the samples showed a higher fecal coliform and Streptococci by crossing the World Health Organization's permissible limits.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The comparative binding effect of single and double aliphatic chain containing surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes cis-[Co(bpy)2(DA)2](ClO4)3⋅2H2O (1), cis-[Co(bpy)2(DA)Cl](ClO4)2⋅2H2O (2), cis-[Co(phen)2(CA)2](ClO4)3⋅2H2O (3), and cis-[Co(phen)2(CA)Cl](ClO4)2⋅2H2O (4) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition was analyzed by steady state, time resolved fluorescence, synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-Visible absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that these complexes cause the fluorescence quenching of BSA through a static mechanism. The binding constants (Kb) and the number of binding sites were calculated and binding constant values are found in the range of 10(4)-10(5)M(-1). The results indicate that compared to single chain complex, double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complex interacts strongly with BSA. Also the sign of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) indicate that all the complexes interact with BSA through hydrophobic force. The binding distance (r) between complexes and BSA was calculated using Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory and found to be less than 7nm. The results of synchronous, three dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods indicate that the double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes changed the conformation of the protein considerably than the respective single chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes. Antimicrobial studies of the complexes showed good activities against pathogenic microorganisms.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 05/2013; 113C:415-422. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the Au and Bu modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water soluble polymer-copper(II) complexes with various degrees of coordination in the polymer chain were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR spectra. The DNA/RNA binding behavior of these polymer-copper(II) complexes was examined by UV-visible absorption, emission and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The binding of the polymer-copper(II) complexes with DNA/RNA was mainly through intercalation but some amount of electrostatic interaction was also observed. This binding capacity increased with the degree of coordination of the complexes. The polymer-copper(II) complex having the highest degree of coordination was subjected to analysis of cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The cytotoxicity study indicated that the polymer-copper(II) complexes affected the viability of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, and the cells responded to the treatment with mostly through apoptosis although a few cells succumbed to necrosis. The antimicrobial screening showed activity against some human pathogens.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 02/2013; 109C:23-31. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction of two water soluble branched polyethyleneimine-copper(II) complexes containing bipyridine/phenanthroline with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by, UV-Visible absorption, fluorescence, lifetime measurements and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The polymer-copper(II) complexes strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA is the static quenching mechanism through hydrogen bonds and van der Waal's attraction. The distance r, between the BSA and the complexes seems to be less than 2nm indicating that the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor occurs with high probability. Synchronous fluorescence studies indicate the binding of polymer-copper(II) complexes with BSA mostly changes the polarity around tryptophan residues rather than tyrosine residues. The circular dichroism studies indicate that the binding has induced considerable amount of conformational changes in the protein. The complexes also show some antibacterial and antifungal properties.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 05/2012; 96:108-16. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the occurrence of pollution indicators and antibiotic resistant bacterial isolates from water and sediment samples of three different eco-regions of the Chennai coast between March - May of 2010. Total of 960 bacterial strains belonging to four genera were isolated which show the highest frequencies of resistance to vancomycin (53.6%) and penicillin (52.6%) (except Enterococcus sp., which is highly resistant to erythromycin) and lowest frequencies of resistance to chloramphenicol (3.43%), ciprofloxacin (3.95%), gentamicin (4.68%), and tetracycline (6.97%). The E. coli, Vibrio sp., Salmonella sp. and Enterococcus sp. show high frequency of resistance to 2-5 antibacterials of 60.4%, 45.83%, 69.16% and 46.6%, respectively. High pollution indices (PI - 6.66-14.06) and antibiotic resistance indices (ARI - 0.29-0.343) indicate that the coastal environment is highly exposed to antibiotic sources that suggesting to avoid direct contact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ΣOCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ΣOCP residues are illustrated by GIS package.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2011; 184(6):3861-73. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural product compounds are the source of numerous therapeutic agents. Recent progress to discover drugs from natural product sources has resulted in compounds that are being developed to treat cancer, resistant bacteria and viruses and immunosuppressive disorders. Many of these compounds were discovered by applying recent advances in understanding the genetics of secondary metabolism in microorganisms, exploring the marine environment and applying new screening technologies. Microbes have made a phenomenal/unique contribution to the health and well-being of people throughout the world. In addition to producing many primary metabolites, such as amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides, they are capable of making secondary metabolites, which constitute half of the pharmaceuticals on the market today (and provide agriculture with many essential products). A growing number of marine microorganisms are the sources of novel and potentially life-saving bioactive secondary metabolites. Here, we have discussed some of these novel antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer compounds isolated from marine-derived microbes and their possible roles in disease eradication and commercial exploitation of these compounds for possible drug development using many approaches.
International Journal of Pharmacology 01/2011; · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study deals with an enumeration and seasonal distribution of point and non-point sources of the pollution indicator organisms in Cauvery river basin of Tamilnadu, South India was investigated. This study aims to estimate the concentration of the pathogen indicator organisms in the Cauvery River basin and understand their seasonal variations in different locations. Samples were collected from 16 different sites from the Stanley reservoir up to estuary regions (Bay of Bengal). The microbiological analysis was performed during monsoon (2007) and winter, summer and spring (2008) season taken for the bacterial analysis of total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TC), total streptococci count (TS) and four different types of pathogenic bacteria were also counts, which are indicator organisms of pollution studies. Total viable counts were found in the range of 6.2-26.0 [×104] ml−1 in monsoon, 5.2–20.0 [×104] ml−1 in summer, 4.0-17.9 [×104] ml−1 in winter and 3.3-15.5 [×104] ml−1 in spring. The TC was found in the range of 4.1-21.0 [×103] ml−1, 3.6-17.0[×103] ml−1, 2.9-14.1 [×103] ml−1 and 2.3-12.0 [×103] ml−1, for TS, it was 4.3-18.0 [×102] ml−1, 3.2-13.0 [×102] ml−1, 2.6–11.0 [×102] ml−1 and 2.0-9.6 [×102] ml−1 during monsoon, summer, winter and spring, respectively, Count of EC, SA/SH, SF and PA were in the range of 300 - 3700 ml−1, 20 - 280 ml−1, 20 - 270 ml−1 and 40 - 490 ml−1 respectively. The present study confirmed the presence of bacterial indicators of different origin at various attitudes in all sites of Cauvery river system. The results were shows that bacteriological analysis of water revealed the situation alarming. The Cauvery river basin has been facing severe anthropological activities, mostly due to religious belief, dense populated, municipal sewage and industrial waste confluences were heavily polluted. A huge bacterial gene pool was obtained after this study which was indicative of immense bacterial diversity in the region.
Research Journal of Microbiology. 01/2009; 4(12):540-549.