[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the effect of application of the revised 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) on the prevalence of major and minor Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) criteria for Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) versus application of the original 1994 TFC. We also assessed the utility of MRI to identify alternative diagnoses for patients referred for ARVC evaluation.
Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 07/2014; 16(1):47.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical presentation of lead-associated endocarditis (LAE) is related to the size of lead vegetations and how size is related to bacteriology and clinical outcomes.
Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection may present as either local pocket infection or bloodstream infection with or without LAE. LAE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
The clinical presentation and course of LAE were evaluated by the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort) registry, an international registry enrolling patients with CIED infection. Consecutive LAE patients enrolled in the MEDIC registry between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. The clinical features and outcomes of 2 groups of patients were compared based on the size of the lead vegetation detected by echocardiography (> or <1 cm in diameter).
There were 129 patients with LAE enrolled into the MEDIC registry. Of these, 61 patients had a vegetation <1 cm in diameter (Group I) whereas 68 patients had a vegetation ≥1 cm in diameter (Group II). Patients in Group I more often presented with signs of local pocket infection, whereas Group II patients presented with clinical evidence of systemic infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the organism most often responsible for LAE, whereas infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci was associated with larger vegetations. Outcomes were improved among those who underwent complete device removal. However, major complications were associated with an open surgical approach for device removal.
The clinical presentation of LAE is influenced by the size of the lead vegetation. Prompt recognition and management of LAE depends on obtaining blood cultures and echocardiography, including transesophageal echocardiography, in CIED patients who present with either signs of local pocket or systemic infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) pocket infections are often related to recent CIED placement or manipulation, but these infections are not well characterized. The clinical presentation of CIED pocket infection, based on temporal onset related to last CIED procedure, deserves further study.Methods
The MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) prospectively enrolled subjects with CIED infection. Subjects were stratified into those whose infection occurred <12 months (early) or ≥12 months (late) since their last CIED-related procedure.ResultsThere were 132 subjects in the early group and 106 in the late group. There were more females (P = 0.009) and anticoagulation use (P = 0.039) in the early group. Subjects with early infections were more likely to have had a generator change or lead addition as their last procedure (P = 0.03) and had more prior CIED procedures (P = 0.023). Early infections were more likely to present with pocket erythema (P < 0.001), swelling (P < 0.001), and pain (P = 0.007). Late infections were more likely to have pocket erosion (P = 0.005) and valvular vegetations (P = 0.009). In bacteremic subjects, early infections were more likely healthcare-associated (P < 0.001). In-hospital and 6-month mortality were equivalent.ConclusionA total of 45% of patients with CIED pocket infection presented >12 months following their last CIED-related procedure. Patients with early infection were more likely to be female, on anticoagulation, and present with localized inflammation, whereas those with late infection were more likely to have CIED erosion or valvular endocarditis.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, invasive techniques to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) including catheter-based and surgical procedures have evolved along with our understanding of the pathophysiology of this arrhythmia. Surgical treatment of AF may be performed on patients undergoing cardiac surgery for other reasons (concomitant surgical ablation) or as a stand-alone procedure. Advances in technology and technique have made surgical intervention for AF more widespread. Despite improvements in outcome of both catheter-based and surgical treatment for AF, recurrence of atrial arrhythmias following initial invasive therapy may occur.Atrial arrhythmias may occur early or late in the post-operative course after surgical ablation. Early arrhythmias are generally treated with prompt electrical cardioversion with or without antiarrhythmic therapy and do not necessarily represent treatment failure. The mechanism of persistent or late occurring atrial arrhythmias is complex, and these arrhythmias may be resistant to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The characterization and management of recurrent atrial arrhythmias following surgical ablation of AF are discussed below.
Annals of cardiothoracic surgery. 01/2014; 3(1):91-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thank you for giving us the opportunity to respond to Dr. Feld's valid concerns. As stated in the article, the ablation strategy was altered when heating was encountered along the posterior wall. Specifically, in addition to limiting power to 25 watts and duration to 30 seconds, the catheter was moved away from the esophagus along with a further decrease in power and/or duration of ablation lesions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 10/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior work has demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strain can separate necrotic/stunned myocardium from healthy myocardium in the left ventricle (LV). We surmised that high-resolution MRI strain, using navigator-echo-triggered DENSE, could differentiate radiofrequency ablated tissue around the pulmonary vein (PV) from tissue that had not been damaged by radiofrequency energy, similarly to navigated 3D myocardial delayed enhancement (3D-MDE).METHODS AND RESULTS: A respiratory-navigated 2D-DENSE sequence was developed, providing strain encoding in two spatial directions with 1.2 × 1.0 × 4 mm(3) resolution. It was tested in the LV of infarcted sheep. In four swine, incomplete circumferential lesions were created around the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) using ablation catheters, recorded with electro-anatomic mapping, and imaged 1 h later using atrial-diastolic DENSE and 3D-MDE at the left atrium/RSPV junction. DENSE detected ablation gaps (regions with >12% strain) in similar positions to 3D-MDE (2D cross-correlation 0.89 ± 0.05). Low-strain (<8%) areas were, on average, 33% larger than equivalent MDE regions, so they include both injured and necrotic regions. Optimal DENSE orientation was perpendicular to the PV trunk, with high shear strain in adjacent viable tissue appearing as a sensitive marker of ablation lesions.CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging strain may be a non-contrast alternative to 3D-MDE in intra-procedural monitoring of atrial ablation lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD).
Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification.
The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation-based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method.
We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium.
LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for the primary prevention of SCD. Strategic guidance on ICD therapy by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with NIDC warrants further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the posterior left atrium has risk of thermal injury to the adjacent esophagus. Increased intraluminal esophageal temperature has been correlated with risk of esophageal injury. The objective of this study was to compare esophageal temperature monitoring (ETM) using a multi-sensor temperature probe with 12 sensors to a single-sensor probe during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the detection of intraluminal esophageal temperature rises in 543 patients undergoing RF ablation for AF with ETM. Esophageal endoscopy (EGD) was performed on all patients with maximum esophageal temperature ≥39°C. Esophageal lesions were classified by severity as mild or severe ulcerations. Four hundred fifty-five patients underwent RF ablation with single-sensor ETM and 88 patients with multi-sensor ETM. Thirty-nine percent of patients with single-sensor versus 75% with multi-sensor ETM reached a maximum detected esophageal temperature ≥39°C (P < 0.0001). Esophageal injury was detected by EGD in 29% of patients with maximum temperature ≥39°C by single-sensor versus 46% of patients with multi-sensor ETM (P = 0.021). Thirty-nine percent of patients with lesions in the single-sensor probe group had severe ulcerations compared to 33% of patients in the multi-sensor probe group (P = 0.641). CONCLUSIONS: Intraluminal esophageal temperature ≥39°C is detected more frequently by the multi-sensor temperature probe versus the single-sensor probe, with more frequent esophageal injury and with comparable severity of injury. Despite detecting esophageal temperature rises in more patients, the multi-sensor probe may not have any measurable benefit compared to a single-sensor probe.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 05/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current 3D mapping systems have difficulty rendering complex cardiac structures. Different electroanatomical mapping software has been recently developed which uses a mathematical algorithm to improve interpolation between mapped points and delineation of closely spaced structures. This study tested the feasibility and accuracy of this software in comparison to traditional software. METHODS: In vivo 3D impedance-based mapping using a multielectrode catheter with a single geometry point cloud was performed in the left atria and pulmonary veins (PV) in 23 patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. The maps were analyzed with traditional (NavX, St. Jude Medical, Minnetonka, MN, USA), either with or without multichamber mapping versus St. Jude OneModel™ software and dimensions of cardiac chambers in human studies were compared to preprocedural computed tomographic (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) scans to determine the relative accuracy of the maps. RESULTS: Maps created by the OneModel software provided greater detail of complex cardiac structures compared to traditional software. Comparison of the left atrial/pulmonary vein electroanatomical maps with the CT and MR scans as reference standard demonstrated significantly less error in measurement of all PV ostial long- and short-axis dimensions, inter-PV distance, and ridge width (left PV to left atrial appendage) with the OneModel versus traditional software (P < 0.001 for all dimensions measured). CONCLUSIONS: The OneModel software produces maps that are more accurate in rendering complex cardiac structures compared to traditional software.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of isthmus location of atypical atrial flutters/atrial tachycardias (ATs) on outcomes of catheter ablation. Atrial tachycardias are clinically challenging arrhythmias that can occur in the presence of atrial scar-often due to either cardiac surgery or prior ablation for atrial fibrillation. We previously demonstrated a catheter ablation approach employing rapid multielectrode activation mapping with targeted entrainment manoeuvrs. However, the role that AT isthmus location plays in acute and long-term success of ablation remains uncertain.METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective multicenter analysis of 91 consecutive AT patients undergoing ablation using a systematic four-step approach: (i) high-density activation mapping; (ii) analysis of atrial activation to identify wavefronts of electrical propagation; (iii) targeted entrainment of putative channels; and (iv) irrigated radiofrequency ablation of constrained regions of the circuit. Clinical outcomes, procedural details, and clinical profiles were determined. A total of 171 ATs (1.9 ± 1.0 per patient, 26% septal ATs) were targeted for ablation. The acute success rates were 97 and 77% for patients with either non-septal ATs or septal ATs, respectively (P = 0.0023). Similarly, the long-term success rates were 82 and 67% for patients with either no septal ATs or at least one septal AT, respectively (P = 0.1057). The long-term success rates were 75, 88, and 57% for patients with ATs associated with prior catheter ablation, cardiac surgery or MAZE, and idiopathic atrial scar, respectively.CONCLUSION: Catheter ablation of AT can be successfully performed employing a strategy of combined high-density activation and entrainment mapping. Septal ATs are associated with higher rates of acute and long-term recurrences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Conventional electroanatomical mapping systems employ roving catheters with one or a small number of electrodes. Maps acquired using these systems usually contain a small number of points and take a long time to acquire. Use of a multielectrode catheter could facilitate rapid acquisition of higher-resolution maps through simultaneous collection of data from multiple points in space; however, a large multielectrode array could potentially limit catheter maneuverability. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using a novel, multielectrode catheter to map the right atrium and the left ventricle. METHODS: Electroanatomical mapping of the right atrium and the left ventricle during both sinus and paced rhythm were performed in five swine using a conventional mapping catheter and a novel, multielectrode catheter. RESULTS: Average map acquisition times for the multielectrode catheter (with continuous data collection) ranged from 5.2 to 9.5 min. These maps contained an average of 2,753 to 3,566 points. Manual data collection with the multielectrode catheter was less rapid (average map completion in 11.4 to 18.1 min with an average of 870 to 1,038 points per map), but the conventional catheter was slower still (average map completion in 28.6 to 32.2 min with an average 120 to 148 points per map). CONCLUSIONS: Use of this multielectrode catheter is feasible for mapping the left ventricle as well as the right atrium. The multielectrode catheter facilitates acquisition of electroanatomical data more rapidly than a conventional mapping catheter. This results in shorter map acquisition times and higher-density electroanatomical maps in these chambers.
Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 11/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The termination of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) during catheter ablation has been associated in some, but not all, studies with reduced arrhythmia during clinical follow-up. We sought to determine the rate of persistent AF termination achievable with a stepwise ablation strategy, the predictors of AF termination, and the clinical outcomes associated with termination and nontermination. A total of 143 consecutive patients (age 62 ± 9 years, AF duration 5.7 ± 5.2 years) with persistent and longstanding persistent AF resistant to antiarrhythmic medication who presented in AF for catheter ablation were studied. Ablation was done with a stepwise approach, including pulmonary vein isolation, followed by complex fractionated atrial electrogram ablation and ablation of resultant atrial tachycardias. Clinical follow-up was then performed after a 2-month blanking period to assess arrhythmia recurrence, defined as AF or atrial tachycardia lasting ≥ 30 seconds. AF termination by ablation was achieved in 95 (66%) of the 143 patients. Multivariate predictors of AF termination included longer baseline AF cycle length (p <0.001) and smaller left atrial size (p = 0.002). AF termination by ablation was associated with both a lower incidence of arrhythmia recurrence after a single procedure without antiarrhythmic drugs (p = 0.01) and overall clinical success (single or multiple procedures, with or without antiarrhythmic drugs; p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, the predictors of overall clinical success included AF termination by ablation (p = 0.001), a shorter ablation duration (p = 0.002), younger age (p = 0.02), male gender (p = 0.03), and the presence of hypertension (p = 0.03). In conclusion, among patients with persistent AF, termination of AF by ablation can be achieved in most patients and is associated with reduced recurrence of arrhythmia.
The American journal of cardiology 05/2012; 110(4):545-51. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a relatively new procedure for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. We report a case of a new left ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia following TAVR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that 4-[(18)F]fluorophenyltriphenylphosphonium ((18)F-TPP) is useful for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Its utility as a blood flow tracer also was evaluated.
Tetraphenylphosphonium is useful for in vitro measurement of ΔΨm. In vivo measurement of ΔΨm has potential value in the assessment of heart failure pathophysiology and therapy as well as assessment of myocardial viability and so may be a very useful clinical tool.
Anesthetized swine (N = 6) with a balloon catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery were studied. Microsphere measurements of myocardial blood flow (MBF) were made after balloon inflation (baseline) and ∼10 min after intravenous administration of adenosine and phenylephrine after which ∼10 mCi (18)F-TPP was injected intravenously and dynamic PET data acquisition obtained for 30 min. After the swine were killed, the hearts were sectioned for microsphere measurement of MBF and (18)F-TPP measured by well counter in these same samples. PET images provided whole blood and myocardial (18)F-TPP concentration for determination of ΔΨm by the Nernst equation, corrected for nonspecific (18)F-TPP binding. Microsphere MBF, absolute (ml/min/g) and relative, was compared with PET data (standard uptake value and K1).
Nonspecific binding of (18)F-TPP overestimated ΔΨm measured by -37 ± 4 mV (mean ± SD). Normal zone ΔΨm of ex vivo samples (-91 ± 11 mV; N = 52; sample weight, 1.07 ± 0.18 g) correlated strongly (R(2)= 0.93) with normal zone by PET (-81 ± 13 mV). Both ex vivo and PET normal zone ΔΨm, although somewhat lower, compared well with that reported for tritium labeled triphenylphosphonium in normal working Langendorff rat heart (-100 mV). Although the relative MBF by (18)F-TPP correlated strongly with relative microsphere MBF (R(2)= 0.83), there was no correlation between absolute MBF by (18)F-TPP and microsphere MBF.
(18)F-TPP is a promising tracer for noninvasive PET measurement of ΔΨm in living subjects. It is useful as well for assessment of relative but not absolute MBF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timing of the most recent cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedure, either a permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, influences the clinical presentation and outcome of lead-associated endocarditis (LAE).
The CIED infection rate has increased at a time of increased device use. LAE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
The clinical presentation and course of LAE were evaluated by the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort) registry, an international registry enrolling patients with CIED infection. Consecutive LAE patients enrolled in the Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort registry between January 2009 and May 2011 were analyzed. The clinical features and outcomes of 2 groups were compared based on the time from the most recent CIED procedure (early, <6 months; late, >6 months).
The Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort registry entered 145 patients with LAE (early = 43, late = 102). Early LAE patients presented with signs and symptoms of local pocket infection, whereas a remote source of bacteremia was present in 38% of patients with late LAE but only 8% of early LAE (p < 0.01). Staphylococcal species were the most frequent pathogens in both early and late LAE. Treatment consisted of removal of all hardware and intravenous administration of antibiotics. In-hospital mortality was low (early = 7%, late = 6%).
The clinical presentation of LAE is influenced by the time from the most recent CIED procedure. Although clinical manifestations of pocket infection are present in the majority of patients with early LAE, late LAE should be considered in any CIED patient who presents with fever, bloodstream infection, or signs of sepsis, even if the device pocket appears uninfected. Prompt recognition and management may improve outcomes.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2012; 59(7):681-7. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Predictable progression to battery depletion is necessary for device management in patients with pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, particularly in patients who either are pacemaker dependent or have required implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies.
To determine the incidence and characteristics of unexpected battery depletion in patients implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy - defibrillator (CRT-D) device.
All patients with a St Jude Atlas+ HF or Atlas II HF CRT-D device implanted between 2004 and 2007 at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Nashville VA Medical Center (Vanderbilt University) were studied. All patients with early generator depletion (transition of generator voltage above specified elective replacement indicator [ERI] to end of life [EOL] in less than 90 days) were evaluated further.
Eight cases (mean age 69.6 ± 9 years) with abrupt battery depletion were identified among 191 patients (4.2%) implanted with a St Jude Atlas CRT-D device. The longevity of 8 premature depletion devices was 46.4 ± 10 months (median 45 months). The battery voltage in these 8 devices decreased from a mean of 2.48 ± 0.03 V (above ERI) to 2.3 ± 0.08 V (below ERI) over 33.3 ± 23 days (range 1-59 days; median 38.5 days). One device reached EOL status within 1 day of having battery voltage above ERI and another device within 12 days.
The incidence of abrupt battery depletion was 4.2% in patients implanted with a St Jude Atlas CRT-D device. No common mechanism has been identified for this failure. Close monitoring of battery voltage and timely generator replacement are required in patients with these devices.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12/2011; 9(5):717-20. · 4.56 Impact Factor