Dave Shelton

Pfizer Inc., New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (3)12.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals and in the community emphasize the urgency for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Our approach was to evaluate the potential of harnessing the human immune system to guide the development of novel therapeutics. We explored the role of preexisting antibodies against S. aureus α-hemolysin in the serum of human individuals by isolating and characterizing one antibody with a remarkably high affinity to α-hemolysin. The antibody provided protection in S. aureus pneumonia, skin, and bacteremia mouse models of infection and also showed therapeutic efficacy when dosed up to 18h post-infection in the pneumonia model. Additionally, in pneumonia and bacteremia animal models, the therapeutic efficacy of the α-hemolysin antibody appeared additive to the antibiotic linezolid. To better understand the mechanism of action of this isolated antibody, we solved the crystal structure of the α-hemolysin:antibody complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the crystal structure of the α-hemolysin monomer. The structure of the complex shows that the antibody binds α-hemolysin between the cap and the rim domains. In combination with biochemical data, the structure suggests that the antibody neutralizes the activity of the toxin by preventing binding to the plasma membrane of susceptible host cells. The data presented here suggest that protective antibodies directed against S. aureus molecules exist in some individuals and that such antibodies have a therapeutic potential either alone or in combination with antibiotics.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bispecific antibodies and antibody fragments are a new class of therapeutics increasingly utilized in the clinic for T cell recruitment (catumaxomab anti-EpCAM/CD3 and blinatumomab anti-CD19/CD3), increase in the selectivity of targeting, or simultaneous modulation of multiple cellular pathways. While the clinical potential for certain bispecific antibody formats is clear, progress has been hindered because they are often difficult to manufacture, may suffer from suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties, and may be limited due to potential immunogenicity issues. Current state-of-the-art human IgG-like bispecific technologies require co-expression of two heavy chains with a single light chain, use crossover domains to segregate light chains, or utilize scFv (single-chain fragment variable)-Fc fusion. We have engineered both human IgG1 and IgG2 subtypes, with minimal point mutations, to form full-length bispecific human antibodies with high efficiency and in high purity. In our system, the two antibodies of interest can be expressed and purified separately, mixed together under appropriate redox conditions, resulting in a formation of a stable bispecific antibody with high yields. With this approach, it is not necessary to generate new antibodies that share a common light chain, therefore allowing the immediate use of an existing antibody regardless of whether it has been generated via standard hybridoma or display methods. We demonstrate the generality of the approach and show that these bispecific antibodies have properties similar to those of wild-type IgGs, and we further demonstrate the utility of the technology with an example of a CD3/CD20 bispecific antibody that effectively depletes B cells in vitro and in vivo.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2012; 420(3):204-19. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Target-mediated clearance and high antigen load can hamper the efficacy and dosage of many antibodies. We show for the first time that the mouse, cynomolgus, and human cross-reactive, antagonistic anti-proprotein convertase substilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies J10 and the affinity-matured and humanized J16 exhibit target-mediated clearance, resulting in dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profiles. These antibodies prevent the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor, thus lowering serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and potently reducing serum cholesterol in mice, and selectively reduce LDL-cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys. In order to increase the pharmacokinetic and efficacy of this promising therapeutic for hypercholesterolemia, we engineered pH-sensitive binding to mouse, cynomolgus, and human PCSK9 into J16, resulting in J17. This antibody shows prolonged half-life and increased duration of cholesterol lowering in two species in vivo by binding to endogenous PCSK9 in mice and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. The proposed mechanism of this pH-sensitive antibody is that it binds with high affinity to PCSK9 in the plasma at pH 7.4, whereas the antibody-antigen complex dissociates at the endosomal pH of 5.5-6.0 in order to escape from target-mediated degradation. Additionally, this enables the antibody to bind to another PCSK9 and therefore increase the antigen-binding cycles. Furthermore, we show that this effect is dependent on the neonatal Fc receptor, which rescues the dissociated antibody in the endosome from degradation. Engineered pH-sensitive antibodies may enable less frequent or lower dosing of antibodies hampered by target-mediated clearance and high antigen load.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(14):11090-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor