[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) have been detected in experimental and clinical prostate tumors. Mice with enforced prostate-specific expression of one such receptor variant, AR-E231G, invariably develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia by 12 weeks and metastatic prostate cancer by 52 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify genes with altered expression in the prostates of AR-E231G mice at an early stage of disease that may act as drivers of AR-mediated tumorigenesis. The gene expression profile of AR-E231G prostate tissue from 12-week-old mice was compared to an equivalent profile from mice expressing the AR-T857A receptor variant (analogous to the AR-T877A variant in LNCaP cells), which do not develop prostate tumors. One hundred and thirty-two genes were differentially expressed in AR-E231G prostates. Classification of these genes revealed enrichment for cellular pathways known to be involved in prostate cancer, including cell cycle and lipid metabolism. Suppression of two genes upregulated in the AR-E231G model, ADM and CITED1, increased cell death and reduced proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. Many genes differentially expressed in AR-E231G prostates are also deregulated in human tumors. Three of these genes, ID4, NR2F1 and PTGDS, which were expressed at consistently lower levels in clinical prostate cancer compared to nonmalignant tissues, formed a signature that predicted biochemical relapse (hazard ratio 2.2, p = 0.038). We believe that our findings support the value of this novel mouse model of prostate cancer to identify candidate therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers of human disease.
International Journal of Cancer 08/2012; 131(3):662-72. DOI:10.1002/ijc.26414 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the major active form of vitamin D, is antiproliferative in tumor cells and tumor-derived endothelial cells (TDEC). These actions of calcitriol are mediated at least in part by vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed in many tissues including endothelial cells. To investigate the role of VDR in calcitriol effects on tumor vasculature, we established TRAMP-2 tumors subcutaneously into either VDR wild-type (WT) or knockout (KO) mice. Within 30 days post-inoculation, tumors in KO mice were larger than those in WT (P < 0.001). TDEC from WT expressed VDR and were able to transactivate a reporter gene whereas TDEC from KO mice were not. Treatment with calcitriol resulted in growth inhibition in TDEC expressing VDR. However, TDEC from KO mice were relatively resistant, suggesting that calcitriol-mediated growth inhibition on TDEC is VDR-dependent. Further analysis of the TRAMP-C2 tumor sections revealed that the vessels in KO mice were enlarged and had less pericyte coverage compared with WT (P < 0.001). Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed an increase in vascular volume of TRAMP tumors grown in VDR KO mice compared with WT mice (P < 0.001) and FITC-dextran permeability assay suggested a higher extent of vascular leakage in tumors from KO mice. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis, there was an increase of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB levels observed in tumors from KO mice. These results indicate that calcitriol-mediated antiproliferative effects on TDEC are VDR-dependent and loss of VDR can lead to abnormal tumor angiogenesis.
Cancer Research 01/2009; 69(3):967-75. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2307 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence demonstrates that the androgen receptor (AR) continues to influence prostate cancer growth despite medical therapies that reduce circulating androgen ligands to castrate levels and/or block ligand binding. Whereas the mutation, amplification, overexpression of AR, or cross-talk between AR and other growth factor pathways may explain the failure of androgen ablation therapies in some cases, there is little evidence supporting a causal role between AR and prostate cancer. In this study, we functionally and directly address the role whereby AR contributes to spontaneous cancer progression by generating transgenic mice expressing (i) AR-WT to recapitulate increased AR levels and ligand sensitivity, (ii) AR-T857A to represent a promiscuous AR ligand response, and (iii) AR-E231G to model altered AR function. Whereas transgenes encoding either AR-WT or AR-T857A did not cause prostate cancer when expressed at equivalent levels, expression of AR-E231G, which carries a mutation in the most highly conserved signature motif of the NH2-terminal domain that also influences interactions with cellular coregulators, caused rapid development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that progressed to invasive and metastatic disease in 100% of mice examined. Taken together, our data now demonstrate the oncogenic potential of steroid receptors and implicate altered AR function and receptor coregulator interaction as critical determinants of prostate cancer initiation, invasion, and metastasis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2005; 102(4):1151-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0408925102 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used the autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model to investigate the relationship between somatic mutation in the androgen receptor (AR) and the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here we report the identification, isolation, and characterization of distinct classes of AR variants from spontaneous prostate tumors in the TRAMP model. Using cDNA cloning, single stranded conformation polymorphism and sequencing strategies, 15 unique somatic mutations in the AR were identified in prostate tumors obtained from eight TRAMP mice between 24 and 29 weeks of age. At least one mutation was isolated from each mouse. All mutations were single base substitutions, 10 were missense and 5 were silent. Nine mutations in the AR were identified in tumors of four mice that were castrated at 12 weeks of age. Interestingly, the majority of mutations (seven out of nine, 78%) identified in the androgen-independent tumors colocalized in the AR transactivation domain. The remaining mutations colocalized in the AR ligand binding domain. In general, the AR variants demonstrated promoter-, cell-, and cofactor-specific activities in response to various hormones. All AR variants isolated in this study maintained strong sensitivity for androgens, and four AR variants isolated from castrated mice demonstrated increased activities in the absence of ligand. The K638M and F677S variants demonstrated increased activities in response to androgen, and K638M also demonstrated increased response to estradiol. In the presence of AR coactivator ARA70 the E231G variant demonstrated increased activity in response to both androgen and estradiol. However, in the presence of AR coactivator ARA160 the E231G variant was selectively responsive to androgen. Collectively these analyses not only indicate that somatic mutations in the AR gene occur spontaneously in TRAMP tumors but also how changes in the hormonal environment may drive the selection of spontaneous somatic mutations that provide a growth advantage.