[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a very rare case of a 43-year-old patient with fatal left ventricular subepicardial aneurysm rupture complicating embolic myocardial infarction due to mitral valve infective endocarditis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Optimum duration of dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT) after coronary stenting remains uncertain, with an unknown efficacy to safety ratio of extended treatment leading to discrepancies between international guidelines and clinical practice. We assessed whether DAPT continuation beyond 1 year after coronary stenting is beneficial.
This analysis was a planned extension of the previously published ARCTIC-Monitoring trial, in which we randomly allocated 2440 patients to a strategy of platelet function testing with antiplatelet treatment adjustment or a conventional strategy after coronary stenting with drug-eluting stent (DES). We recruited patients (aged 18 years or older) scheduled for planned DES implantation at 38 centres in France. After 1 year of follow-up, patients without contraindication to interruption of DAPT were eligible for a second randomisation to this second phase of the study (ARCTIC-Interruption). Using a computer-generated randomisation sequence (1:1; stratified by centre), we allocated patients to a strategy of interruption of DAPT where the thienopyridine was interrupted and single aspirin antiplatelet treatment was maintained (interruption group) or a strategy of DAPT continuation for 6–18 months (continuation group). The primary endpoint was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or urgent revascularisation, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00827411.
Between Jan 4, 2011, and March 3, 2012, 1259 eligible patients were randomly allocated to treatment in ARCTIC-Interruption: 624 to the interruption group and 635 to the continuation group. After a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 15–18), the primary endpoint occurred in 27 (4%) patients in the interruption group and 24 (4%) patients in the continuation group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·17 [95% CI 0·68–2·03]; p=0·58). STEEPLE major bleeding events occurred more often in the continuation group (seven [1%] patients) compared with the interruption group (one [<0·5%] patient; HR 0·15 [0·02–1·20]; p=0·073). Major or minor bleedings were also more common in the continuation group compared with the interruption group (12 [2%] patients vs three [1%] patients; HR 0·26 [0·07–0·91]; p=0·04).
Our finding suggests no apparent benefit but instead harm with extension of DAPT beyond 1 year after stenting with DES when no event has occurred within the first year after stenting. No conclusion can be drawn for high-risk patients who could not be randomised. The consistency between findings from all trials of such interruption suggests the need for a reappraisal of guidelines for DAPT after coronary stenting towards shorter duration of treatment.
Allies in Cardiovascular Trials Initiatives and Organized Networks (ACTION Study Group), Fondation de France, Sanofi-Aventis, Cordis, Medtronic, Boston Scientific, Fondation SGAM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To date, no randomized study has investigated the value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in optimizing the results of coronary angioplasty for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS).
DOCTORS is a randomized, prospective, multicentre, open-label clinical trial to evaluate the utility of OCT to optimize results of angioplasty of a lesion responsible for NSTE-ACS. Patients (n = 250) will be randomized to undergo OCT-guided angioplasty (use of OCT to optimise procedural result, including change to strategy with the possibility of additional interventions); or angioplasty under fluoroscopy alone.
The primary endpoint is the functional result of the angioplasty procedure as assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured at the end of the procedure. Secondary endpoints include safety of OCT in the context of angioplasty for ACS; percentage of patients in whom OCT reveals sub-optimal result of stenting; percentage of patients in whom a change in procedural strategy is decided based on OCT data; correlation between quantitative measures by OCT and FFR; determination of a threshold for quantitative OCT measure that best predicts FFR ≥0.90; identification of OCT variables that predict post-procedure FFR. Adverse cardiac events (death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, repeat target lesion revascularisation) at 6 months will be recorded.
The DOCTORS randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01743274) is designed to investigate whether use of OCT yields useful additional information beyond that obtained by angiography alone, and if so, whether this information changes physician strategy and impacts on the functional result of angioplasty as assessed by FFR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to assess the appropriateness of using transcatheter aortic valves in terms of indication, financial and health traceability with regard to the regulatory guidance and the French recommendations. Our analysis was retrospective and included all patients who were implanted aortic valves until June 30, 2011 in our institution. The cohort included 54 patients with an average age of 83 years (range: 71–91). Valve implantation was successful in 50 patients (93%) and 30-day mortality was 14.8%. Despite the fact that some criteria might not comply with recommendations or were missing, the indication of percutaneous valve implantation was always respected. The proof of delivery of health traceability information to the patient was found in only five cases. The health traceability and the financial rating system were completed in 49 and 45 cases, respectively. The indications of aortic valve implantations were appropriate with respect to the French guidelines. Some gaps have been identified regarding the long-term monitoring of patients and the health traceability information delivery. Our survey of professional practice has emphasized the need for traceability and financial recovery. Measures have been implemented to improve the traceability requirements.
Le Pharmacien Hospitalier et Clinicien. 06/2013; 48(2):88–94.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was the study objective to determine whether glycaemic control affects the extent of platelet inhibition by thienopyridines as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the proportion of high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity is higher in DM, the contributions of glycaemic control and other factors associated with DM, such as excess body weight and inflammation, to this impaired platelet inhibition by thienopyridines have not yet been fully characterised. In this study, the extent of P2Y12 ADP receptor pathway inhibition was evaluated by the VASP-FCT. Platelet activation was expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel (LR) was defined as a PRI of >61%. Four hundred forty-five consecutive ACS patients (DM = 160, NDM = 285) were enrolled. The proportion of LR was higher in DM patients (50 vs. 37.5%). In DM, PRI was not correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or glycaemia. In a univariate analysis, LR was associated with age, male sex, overweight, and white blood cell count (WBC). In a multivariate analysis, WBC >10,000 and body weight >80 kg were the sole independent predictors of LR to clopidogrel (hazard ratio (HR) 3.02 [1.36-6.68], p=0.006 and HR 2.47 [1.14-5.35], p = 0.021, respectively). Conversely, in non-DM patients, ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the sole independent predictor of LR. In conclusion, in ACS DM patients undergoing PCI, the extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel is not related to glycaemic control but is related to body weight and inflammatory status as assessed by the WBC.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2012; 108(2):338-48. · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging intervention for the treatment of high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and coexisting illnesses. We report the results of a prospective multicenter study of the French national transcatheter aortic-valve implantation registry, FRANCE 2.
All TAVIs performed in France, as listed in the FRANCE 2 registry, were prospectively included in the study. The primary end point was death from any cause.
A total of 3195 patients were enrolled between January 2010 and October 2011 at 34 centers. The mean (±SD) age was 82.7±7.2 years; 49% of the patients were women. All patients were highly symptomatic and were at high surgical risk for aortic-valve replacement. Edwards SAPIEN and Medtronic CoreValve devices were implanted in 66.9% and 33.1% of patients, respectively. Approaches were either transarterial (transfemoral, 74.6%; subclavian, 5.8%; and other, 1.8%) or transapical (17.8%). The procedural success rate was 96.9%. Rates of death at 30 days and 1 year were 9.7% and 24.0%, respectively. At 1 year, the incidence of stroke was 4.1%, and the incidence of periprosthetic aortic regurgitation was 64.5%. In a multivariate model, a higher logistic risk score on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE), New York Heart Association functional class III or IV symptoms, the use of a transapical TAVI approach, and a higher amount of periprosthetic regurgitation were significantly associated with reduced survival.
This prospective registry study reflected real-life TAVI experience in high-risk elderly patients with aortic stenosis, in whom TAVI appeared to be a reasonable option. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences and Medtronic.).
New England Journal of Medicine 05/2012; 366(18):1705-15. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reasons that decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) might alter the clinical efficacy of clopidogrel are poorly understood.
In this study, we sought to evaluate whether decreased GFR alters platelet response to clopidogrel in patients receiving a maintenance dose of clopidogrel (75 mg/d for at least 8 days).
126 consecutive patients categorized by estimated GFR: stages 1-2 (>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 29), stage 3a (45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 21); stage 3b (30-44 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 26), stage 4 (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 14), and stage 5 (<15 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 36) were prospectively enrolled.
Residual platelet reactivity, defined in the VASP (Vasodilator Stimulated Phosphoprotein) flow cytometry test as platelet reactivity index (PRI) ≥61% and in the VerifyNow turbidimetric-based assay as a value >235 PRU (adenosine diphosphate receptor reaction units) or percentage of platelet inhibition <15%.
We examined factors associated with low response to clopidogrel using logistic regression.
A significant relationship between estimated GFR, PRI, PRU, and percentage of inhibition was found. The prevalence of residual platelet reactivity was highest in patients with GFR stage 5. PRI ≥61% occurred in 52.8% of patients with stage 5 versus 30.8% of stage 3b and 24.1% of stages 1-2 (P = 0.1). PRU >235 was found in 63.6% of patients with stage 5 versus 36.8% of stage 3b and 17.2% of stages 1-2 (P = 0.005). Inhibition <15% affected 66.7% of patients with stage 5 versus 21.1% of stage 3b and 17.2% of stages 1-2 (P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, GFR stage 5 (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR], 3.10; 95% CI, 1.23-9.43; P = 0.02), and obesity (adjusted PR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.34-2.23; P = 0.004) were the sole predictors of residual platelet reactivity.
Interference of hemodialysis with the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel could not be excluded.
GFR stage 5 is associated with substantial impairment of platelet inhibition independently of diabetes mellitus.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2012; 59(6):777-85. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) and β-arrestin-2 (β-arr2) are cytosolic proteins well-known to participate in G protein-coupled receptor desensitisation and signalling. We used genetically-inactivated mice to evaluate the role of β-arr1 or β-arr2 in platelet function, P2Y receptor desensitisation, haemostasis and thrombosis. Platelet aggregation, soluble fibrinogen binding and P-selectin exposure induced by various agonists were near normal in β-arr1-/- and β-arr2-/- platelets. In addition, deficiency in β-arr1 or β-arr2 was not critical for P2Y receptors desensitisation. A functional redundancy between β-arr1 and β-arr2 may explain these unchanged platelet responses. Interestingly, β-arr1-/- but not β-arr2-/- mice were protected against laser- and FeCl3-induced thrombosis. The tail bleeding times, number of rebleeds and volume of blood loss were unchanged in β-arr1-/- and β-arr2-/- mice, suggesting no defect in haemostasis. β-arr1-/- platelet activation upon adhesion to immobilised fibrinogen was inhibited, as attested by a 37 ± 5% (n = 3, p<0.0001) decrease in filopodia extension, suggesting defective signalling through integrin αIIbβ3. β-arr1 appeared to be located downstream of Src family kinases and to regulate αIIbβ3 signalling by increasing Akt phosphorylation. Overall, this study supports a role for β-arr1 in promoting thrombus formation, in part through its participation in αIIbβ3 signalling, and no role of β-arr1 and β-arr2 in agonist-induced platelet activation and P2Y receptors desensitisation.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2012; 107(4):735-48. · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The value of prehospital initiation of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors remains a controversial issue. We sought to investigate whether in-ambulance initiation of abciximab in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improves ST-segment elevation resolution (STR) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
MISTRAL (Myocardial Infarction with ST-elevation Treated by Primary Percutaneous Intervention Facilitated by Early Reopro Administration in Alsace) is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Two hundred and fifty-six patients with acute STEMI were allocated to receive abciximab either in the ambulance (ambulance group, n=127) or in the catheterization laboratory (hospital group, n=129). The primary end point was complete (>70%) STR after PCI. Complete STR was not significantly different between the 2 groups (before PCI, 21.6% versus 15.5%, P=0.28; after PCI, 70.3% versus 65.8%, P=0.49). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 2 to 3 flow rates before PCI tended to be higher in the ambulance group (46.8% versus 35%, P=0.08) but not after PCI (70.3% versus 65.8%, P=0.49). Slow flow tended to be lower (5.6% versus 13.4%, P=0.07), and distal embolization occurred significantly less often in the ambulance group (8.1% versus 21.1%, P=0.008). One- and 6-month major adverse cardiac event rates were low and similar in both groups.
Early ambulance administration of abciximab in STEMI did not improve either STR or TIMI flow rate after PCI. However, it tended to improve TIMI flow pre-PCI and decreased distal embolization during procedure. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the value of coronary flow measurement by transthoracic Doppler technique in the detection of "no-reflow" phenomenon.
Fourteen patients with first anterior wall infarction treated by successful (TIMI3) primary percutaneous angioplasty and left descending coronary artery stenting were investigated. Myocardial perfusion following PCI was assessed by (i) ST-segment resolution, (ii) MRI-detected microvascular obstruction (early hypoenhancement), (iii) coronary flow pattern measurement by transthoracic Doppler technique.
Sustained impairment of myocardial perfusion following PCI was observed in a large proportion of the cohort (36% by MRI, 43% by ST regression analysis). Patients with a diastolic deceleration time inferior to 482 ms had higher troponin and CK peak value, higher wall motion index score, lower ST resolution and lower LVEF assessed by MRI. The concordance of the three methods was 80%.
The measurement of diastolic deceleration time by transthoracic Doppler technique is a reliable technique to identify microvascular obstruction following PCI in acute anterior STEMI. A DDT inferior to 482 ms is associated with sustained "no-reflow" phenomenon.
Annales de cardiologie et d'angeiologie 06/2011; 60(3):119-26. · 0.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether low platelet response (LR) to the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) differentially affects outcome in patients with or without diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
While both DM and LR to clopidogrel are known to predict an unfavorable outcome after PCI, the deleterious effect of their association is less well established. The VASP-FCT is specific for the P2Y(12) ADP receptor pathway. In this test, platelet activation is expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI).
Patients were assigned to four different groups according to the presence or not of DM (DM, NDM) and LR to clopidogrel (LR, R). LR was defined as a PRI of >61%, a threshold previously identified as the optimal cut-off value to predict cardiac death following PCI.
A total of 436 consecutive patients (163 DM, 273 NDM) were enrolled. The proportion of LR patients was higher in DM (47.9% vs. 35.2% p=0.011). At 9±2 months follow-up, the rates of total and cardiac mortality and possible and overall stent thrombosis were higher in DM-LR patients. Conversely, the cardiovascular outcome of DM-R patients was comparable to that of NDM (-LR or -R) patients. In DM, a multivariate analysis identified LR to clopidogrel (HR 6.09 [1.27-29.08], p=0.023) as the sole independent predictor of cardiac mortality.
In DM patients undergoing PCI, LR to clopidogrel is an independent predictor of cardiac death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether low platelet response to the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist clopidogrel as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry test (VASP-FCT) differentially affects outcomes in patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Although both CKD and impaired platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel are strong predictors of unfavorable outcome after PCI, the impact of their association is unknown. The platelet VASP-FCT assay is specific for the P2Y(12) ADP receptor pathway. In this test, platelet activation is expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI).
Four-hundred forty unselected patients (CKD: 126, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), no-CKD: 314 eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) undergoing urgent (n = 336) or planned (n = 104) PCI were prospectively enrolled. In each subgroup, patients were classified as low-responders (LR: PRI ≥ 61%) or responders (R: PRI <61%) to clopidogrel.
At a mean follow-up of 9 ± 2 months, all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and possible stent thrombosis were higher in CKD than in no-CKD patients. Within the CKD group, the LR status was associated with higher rates of all-cause mortality (25.5% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001), cardiac death (23.5% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001), all stent thrombosis (19.6% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.003), and MACE (33.3% vs. 12.3%, p = 0.007). Conversely, in no-CKD patients, the LR status did not affect outcomes. Multivariate analysis identified Killip class ≥ 3, drug-eluting stent implantation, and the interaction between LR and CKD (hazard ratio: 11.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 116.82; p = 0.033) as independent predictors of cardiac death.
In CKD patients, the presence of low platelet response to clopidogrel is associated with worse outcomes after PCI.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2011; 57(4):399-408. · 14.09 Impact Factor