Kristin E Bullok

Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States

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Publications (8)28.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This preliminary, 32-week study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of duloxetine in pediatric patients (aged 7-17 years) with major depressive disorder. Patients received flexible duloxetine doses of 20-120 mg once daily, with dose changes made based on clinical improvement and tolerability. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected across all duloxetine doses, and data were analyzed using population modeling. Primary outcome measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), vital signs, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Of the 72 enrolled patients, 48 (66.7%) completed acute treatment (18 weeks) and 42 (58.3%) completed extended treatment. Most patients (55/72; 76%) required doses ≥ 60 mg once daily to optimize efficacy based on investigator judgment and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score. Body weight and age did not significantly affect duloxetine pharmacokinetic parameters. Typical duloxetine clearance in pediatric patients was ≈ 42%-60% higher than that in adults. Four patients (5.6%) discontinued due to TEAEs. Many (36/72, 50%) patients experienced potentially clinically significant (PCS) elevations in blood pressure, with most cases (21/36, 58%) being transient. As assessed via C-SSRS, one nonfatal suicidal attempt occurred, two patients (2.8%) experienced worsening of suicidal ideation, and among the 19 patients reporting suicidal ideation at baseline, 17 (90%) reported improvement in suicidal ideation. Results suggested that pediatric patients generally tolerated duloxetine doses of 30 to 120 mg once daily, although transient PCS elevations in blood pressure were observed in many patients. Pharmacokinetic results suggested that adjustment of total daily dose based on body weight or age is not warranted for pediatric patients and different total daily doses may not be warranted for pediatric patients relative to adults.
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 02/2012; 22(1):48-55. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an important process involved in diverse developmental pathways, homeostasis, and response to therapy for a variety of diseases. Thus, noninvasive methods to study regulation and to monitor cell death in cells and whole animals are desired. To specifically detect apoptosis in vivo, a novel cell-permeable activatable caspase substrate, TcapQ647, was synthesized and Km, kcat, and Ki values were biochemically characterized. Specific cleavage of TcapQ647 by effector caspases was demonstrated using a panel of purified recombinant enzyme assays. Of note, caspase 3 was shown to cleave TcapQ647 with a kcat 7-fold greater than caspase 7 and 16-fold greater than caspase 6. No evidence of TcapQ647 cleavage by initiator caspases was observed. In KB 3-1 or Jurkat cells treated with cytotoxic agents or C6-ceramide, TcapQ647 detected apoptosis in individual- and population-based fluorescent cell assays in an effector caspase inhibitor-specific manner. Further, only background fluorescence was observed in cells incubated with dTcapQ647, a noncleavable all d-amino acid control peptide. Finally, in vivo experiments demonstrated the utility of TcapQ647 to detect parasite-induced apoptosis in human colon xenograft and liver abscess mouse models. Thus, TcapQ647 represents a sensitive, effector caspase-specific far-red "smart" probe to noninvasively monitor apoptosis in vivo.
    Biochemistry 05/2007; 46(13):4055-65. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the pattern of retinal uptake of modified Tat peptide-fluorophore conjugates in the rat after ex vivo application and intravitreal injection. Modified Tat peptide (RKKRRORRRGC) was conjugated at the C terminus to Alexa Fluor 594 to enable visualization of uptake. In the ex vivo model, posterior segments were incubated for up to 120 minutes in peptide solution. In the in vivo model, intravitreal injections of 5 microL peptide solution were performed in anesthetized rats, which were then euthanatized from 1 hour to 7 days after injection. Retinal and optic nerve paraffin sections were examined for fluorescent labeling. Immunohistochemistry for retinal cell markers was performed to identify cell types exhibiting uptake. The pattern of labeling seen in retinal sections was highly similar for the ex vivo and in vivo experiments, with specific uptake by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and by a subset of inner nuclear layer cells. The pattern of labeling remained specific even at the later time points. In the in vivo model, fluorescence was also noted in the nerve fiber layer and anterior optic nerve, extending posteriorly along the optic nerve at later time points. A specific pattern of uptake for modified Tat peptides was consistently seen in the rodent retina. Given the preferential uptake of these peptides by RGCs and the potential to conjugate diverse moieties, modified Tat peptides may be useful for delivery of therapeutic agents or molecular imaging probes to RGCs.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 07/2006; 47(6):2589-95. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is a key pathogenic mechanism in sepsis that induces extensive death of lymphocytes and dendritic cells, thereby contributing to the immunosuppression that characterizes the septic disorder. Numerous animal studies indicate that prevention of apoptosis in sepsis improves survival and may represent a potential therapy for this highly lethal disorder. Recently, novel cell-penetrating peptide constructs such as HIV-1 TAT basic domain and related peptides have been developed to deliver bioactive cargoes and peptides into cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sepsis-induced apoptosis in Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice and in wild-type mice treated with an antiapoptotic TAT-Bcl-x(L) fusion protein and TAT-BH4 peptide. Lymphocytes from Bcl-x(L) transgenic mice were resistant to sepsis-induced apoptosis, and these mice had a approximately 3-fold improvement in survival. TAT-Bcl-x(L) and TAT-BH4 prevented Escherichia coli-induced human lymphocyte apoptosis ex vivo and markedly decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in an in vivo mouse model of sepsis. In conclusion, TAT-conjugated antiapoptotic Bcl-2-like peptides may offer a novel therapy to prevent apoptosis in sepsis and improve survival.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2006; 176(9):5471-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Kristin Bullok, David Piwnica-Worms
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    ABSTRACT: To image apoptosis in vivo with a small, membrane-permeant probe, TcapQ(647) was synthesized comprising a Tat-peptide-based permeation peptide sequence, an effector caspase recognition sequence, DEVD, and a flanking optically activatable pair comprising a far-red quencher, QSY 21, and a fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 647. Under baseline conditions, high quenching efficiencies were observed resulting in low background fluorescence. Upon exposure to executioner caspases, TcapQ(647) was specifically cleaved, thereby releasing the fluorophore from the quencher and enabling imaging of apoptosis.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2005; 48(17):5404-7. · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Kristin Bullok, David Piwnica-worms
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    ABSTRACT: To image apoptosis in vivo with a small, membrane-permeant probe, TcapQ(647) was synthesized comprising a Tat-peptide-based permeation peptide sequence, an effector caspase recognition sequence, DEVD, and a flanking optically activatable pair comprising a far-red quencher, QSY 21, and a fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 647. Under baseline conditions, high quenching efficiencies were observed resulting in low background fluorescence. Upon exposure to executioner caspases, TcapQ(647) was specifically cleaved, thereby releasing the fluorophore from the quencher and enabling imaging of apoptosis.
    Society 01/2005; 48(17):5404-5407. · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To enable concurrent whole body scintigraphy and direct imaging of subcellular localization of permeation peptides, dual-labeled Tat-peptides useful for both radiometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy are desired for molecular imaging applications. Thus, novel dual-labeled D-Tat-peptides comprising Tat-basic domain (hgrkkrrqrrrgc), C-terminus conjugated with fluorescein-5-maleimide (FM) and N-terminus chelated with [(99m)Tc(CO)(3)] via histidine coordination, were synthesized and characterized. In human Jurkat cells, radiotracer uptake and washout studies revealed concentration-dependent accumulation of the dual-labeled Tat-peptide within cells. Subcellular localization of Tat-peptide was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy using an analogous [Re(CO)(3)] dual-labeled Tat-peptide. As seen with C-terminus single-labeled Tat-peptides, localization to the nucleoli was observed with the dual-labeled Tat-peptide, suggesting that the mechanism of Tat-peptide uptake and localization was not dependent on free peptide termini at either end. In Balb/c mice, biodistribution studies performed with the dual-labeled Tat-peptide showed fluorescence intensity by microscopic analysis that visually confirmed and correlated directly with scintigraphic and radiometric data. Of note, following intravenous administration, little brain penetration of these permeation sequences was observed in vivo. His[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]-, DTPA[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)]-, and epsilon-lys-gly-cys[(99m)Tc(O)]-labeled Tat-peptides showed significant pharmacokinetic differences in liver and kidney depending on labeling strategy, indicating that Tat-peptide biodistribution can be impacted by the chelation moiety coordinated with (99m)Tc. Thus, we have shown that dual-labeled (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl Tat-peptide-FM conjugates can be conveniently synthesized and enable direct comparison of quantitative radiometric and qualitative fluorescence data both in vitro as well as in vivo.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 01/2002; 13(6):1226-37. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid and efficient delivery of imaging probes to the cell interior using permeation peptides has enabled novel applications in molecular imaging. Membrane permeant peptides based on the HIV-1 Tat basic domain sequence, GRKKRRQRRR, labeled with fluorophores and fluorescent proteins for optical imaging or with appropriate peptide-based motifs or macrocycles to chelate metals, such as technetium for nuclear scintigraphy and gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging, have been synthesized. In addition, iron oxide complexes have been functionalized with the Tat basic domain peptides for magnetic resonance imaging applications. Herein we review current applications of permeation peptides in molecular imaging and factors influencing permeation peptide internalization. These diagnostic agents show concentrative cell accumulation and rapid kinetics and display cytosolic and focal nuclear accumulation in human cells. Combining methods, dual-labeled permeation peptides incorporating fluorescein maleimide and chelated technetium have allowed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular uptake. Imaging studies in mice following intravenous administration of prototypic diagnostic permeation peptides show rapid whole-body distribution allowing for various molecular imaging applications. Strategies to develop permeation peptides into molecular imaging probes have included incorporation of targeting motifs such as molecular beacons or protease cleavable domains that enable selective retention, activatable fluorescence, or targeted transduction. These novel permeation peptide conjugates maintain rapid translocation across cell membranes into intracellular compartments and have the potential for targeted in vivo applications in molecular imaging and combination therapy.
    Molecular Imaging 5(1):1-15. · 3.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

212 Citations
28.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Surgery
      Seattle, WA, United States