Lucia Di Micco

Università degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano, Campania, Italy

Are you Lucia Di Micco?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)68.77 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess potential effects of hightone external muscle stimulation (HTEMS) on parameters of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Background: The bad outcome of AKI patients is markedly influenced by ED, microinflammation, oxidative stress and protein hypercatabolism. Recently, we have shown that intradialytic application of HTMS was associated with a faster resolution of AKI. Here, we investigated in the same cohort of patients whether parameters of ED such as nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric-dimethylarginine (ADMA), and endothelin 1 (ET-1) are modulated by HTEMS as compared to non-HTEMS-treated AKI patients. Methods: In a post-hoc study we analyzed plasma samples of the 34 AKI patients stage 5, of whom 17 underwent intradialytic HTEMS treatment while the other 17 served as AKI dialysis controls. Measurements included plasma nitrate and nitrite (NOx), ADMA, ET-1 and were performed before and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after start of daily dialysis. Additional 16 healthy volunteers served as controls. Results: Initially, in both AKI groups NOx levels were markedly lower and ADMA and ET-1 levels were higher compared to the healthy controls. After initiation of daily hemodialysis the HTEMS group showed a faster improvement of NOx and ET-1 (after 1 week) and ADMA levels (after 2 weeks) compared to the No- HTEMS group. After 2 weeks, all parameters of the HTEMS group were not different from healthy controls, while the No-HTEMSAKI group needed 3 - 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our findings suggest for the first time that in AKI patients, application of HTEMS is associated with a faster normalization of lowered NOx and elevated ADMA and ET-1 plasma levels. We hypothesize that the more rapid amelioration of these parameters in the HTEMS group contributed to the accelerated recovery of AKI. With regard to the small study groups with different causes of AKI, investigations in a greater number of AKI patients is required.
    Clinical nephrology. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous ureteric ruptures is a rare condition [1]and bilateral ureteric rupture is even more uncommon. Few cases are described in the literature in which bilateral ureteric rupture is associated to dermatomyositis [2]or to intra-arterial contrast medium application for infrarenal aortic stent placement [3]. We discuss here a case of bilateral ureteric rupture in a 74-year-old man with bladder cancer, presenting oliguric acute kidney failure and a light abdominal pain.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 07/2014; 31(4).
  • Journal of nephrology 12/2013; 26(Suppl. 22):66-76. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of nephrology 12/2013; 26(Suppl. 22):143-152. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), calculated by pulse wave analysis, is an index of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Here we analyze the relation between SEVR and cardiovascular mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population of a post hoc analysis of a multicenter, prospective, randomized, nonblinded study. Methods: We studied 212 consecutive asymptomatic outpatients receiving care at 12 nephrology clinics in south Italy. Inclusion criteria were age >18 years, 6 months of follow-up before the enrollment and stage 3-4 CKD. Results: During follow-up, 34 subjects died, 29 of them for cardiovascular causes. SEVR correlated inversely with vascular calcifications (r = -0.37) and myocardial mass (r = -0.45); SEVR changed from 1.33 ± 0.24 to 1.36 ± 0.16 (p = NS; baseline and final values, respectively) in living patients, and from 1.16 ± 0.31 to 0.68 ± 0.26 in deceased patients (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves show that that a greater reduction of SEVR values during the study (third tertile) significantly predicts cardiovascular mortality (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This post hoc analysis shows that a reduction of SEVR values impacts cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.
    Blood Purification 05/2013; 36(1):26-28. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: High levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and increased mortality in CKD patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether a very low protein diet (VLPD; 0.3 g/kg bw/day), with a consequent low phosphorus intake, would reduce IS serum levels compared to a low protein diet (LPD; 0.6 g/kg bw/day) in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. Material and Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of a preceding cross-over study aimed to analyze FGF23 during VLPD. Here we performed a prospective randomized controlled crossover study in which 32 patients were randomized to receive either a VLPD (0.3 g/kg bw/day) supplemented with ketoanalogues during the first week and an LPD during the second week (group A, n = 16), or an LPD during the first week and a VLPD during the second week (group B, n = 16 patients). IS serum levels were measured at baseline and at the end of each study period. We compared them to 24 hemodialysis patients (HD) and 14 healthy subjects (control). Results: IS serum concentration was significantly higher in the HD (43.4 ± 12.3 µM) and CKD (11.1 ± 6.6 µM) groups compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1 µM; p < 0.001). IS levels also correlated with creatinine values in CKD patients (R(2) = 0.42; p < 0.0001). After only 1 week of a VLPD, even preceded by an LPD, CKD patients showed a significant reduction of IS serum levels (37%). Conclusions: VLPD supplemented with ketoanalogues reduced IS serum levels in CKD patients not yet on dialysis.
    Blood Purification 03/2013; 35(1-3):196-201. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is responsible for a significantly increased burden of cardiovascular events and it is cause and a consequence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and a determinant factor in its progression to End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD). Therefore, nephrologists have been focusing their attention on hypertension control to prevent CKD progression, delaying it but with poor results on cardiovascular mortality reduction. An important effect is the difficulty to adequately reduce BP levels in CKD patients and especially in dialysis patients despite the polipharmacological therapy. We have to take into account other aspects influencing mortality risk in CKD patients .The first aspect to consider is whether brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement is sufficient to describe the complex relationship between the alteration of BP and outcomes in renal subjects. The second aspect to consider is the variability of BP (BPV). We think that BP measurement cannot only take into account brachial BP, because it represents a limited measure of a complex clinical condition in CKD or ESRD patients. The inability to evaluate hypertension in its complexity explains why several aspects are still unrecognized.
    Current Hypertension Reviews 02/2013; 9(1):60-5.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet agents are widely used to prevent cardiovascular events. The risks and benefits of antiplatelet treatment may be different in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for whom occlusive atherosclerotic events are less prevalent, and bleeding hazards might be increased. To summarise the effects of antiplatelet treatment (antiplatelet agent versus control or other antiplatelet agent) for the prevention of cardiovascular and adverse kidney outcomes in individuals with CKD. In January 2011 we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register without language restriction. We selected randomised controlled trials of any antiplatelet treatment versus placebo or no treatment, or direct head-to-head antiplatelet agent studies in people with CKD. Studies were included if they enrolled participants with CKD, or included people in broader at-risk populations in which data for subgroups with CKD could be disaggregated. Two authors independently extracted data from primary study reports and any available supplementary information for study population, interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from numbers of events and numbers of participants at risk which were extracted from each included study. The reported RRs were extracted where crude event rates were not provided. Data was pooled using the random-effects model. We included 50 studies, enrolling 27,139 participants; 44 studies (21,460 participants) compared an antiplatelet agent with placebo or no treatment, and six studies (5679 participants) directly compared one antiplatelet agent with another. Compared to placebo or no treatment, antiplatelet agents reduced the risk of myocardial infarction (17 studies; RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99), but not all-cause mortality (30 studies; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06), cardiovascular mortality (19 studies; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.12) or stroke (11 studies; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.72). Antiplatelet agents increased the risk of major (27 studies; RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.65) and minor bleeding (18 studies; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.97). In terms of dialysis access outcomes, antiplatelet agents reduced access thrombosis or patency failure but had no effect on suitability for dialysis. Meta-regression analysis indicated no differences in the relative benefit or harms of treatment (risk of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or major bleeding) by type of antiplatelet agent or stage of CKD. Limited data were available for direct head-to-head comparisons of antiplatelet drugs, treatment in kidney transplant recipients, primary prevention, or risk of ESKD. Antiplatelet agents reduce myocardial infarction but increase major bleeding. Risks may outweigh harms among people with low annual risks of cardiovascular events, including those with early stages of CKD who do not have clinically-evident occlusive cardiovascular disease.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2013; 2:CD008834. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet agents are widely used to prevent cardiovascular events. The risks and benefits of antiplatelet treatment may be different in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for whom occlusive atherosclerotic events are less prevalent, and bleeding hazards might be increased. To summarise the effects of antiplatelet treatment (antiplatelet agent versus control or other antiplatelet agent) for the prevention of cardiovascular and adverse kidney outcomes in individuals with CKD. In January 2011 we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register without language restriction. We selected randomised controlled trials of any antiplatelet treatment versus placebo or no treatment, or direct head-to-head antiplatelet agent studies in people with CKD. Studies were included if they enrolled participants with CKD, or included people in broader at-risk populations in which data for subgroups with CKD could be disaggregated. Two authors independently extracted data from primary study reports and any available supplementary information for study population, interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from numbers of events and numbers of participants at risk which were extracted from each included study. The reported RRs were extracted where crude event rates were not provided. Data was pooled using the random-effects model. We included 50 studies, enrolling 27,139 participants; 44 studies (21,460 participants) compared an antiplatelet agent with placebo or no treatment, and six studies (5679 participants) directly compared one antiplatelet agent with another. Compared to placebo or no treatment, antiplatelet agents reduced the risk of myocardial infarction (17 studies; RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.99), but not all-cause mortality (30 studies; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06), cardiovascular mortality (19 studies; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.12) or stroke (11 studies; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.72). Antiplatelet agents increased the risk of major (27 studies; RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.65) and minor bleeding (18 studies; RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.97). In terms of dialysis access outcomes, antiplatelet agents reduced access thrombosis or patency failure but had no effect on suitability for dialysis. Meta-regression analysis indicated no differences in the relative benefit or harms of treatment (risk of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or major bleeding) by type of antiplatelet agent or stage of CKD. Limited data were available for direct head-to-head comparisons of antiplatelet drugs, treatment in kidney transplant recipients, primary prevention, or risk of ESKD. Antiplatelet agents reduce myocardial infarction but increase major bleeding. Risks may outweigh benefits among people with low annual risks of cardiovascular events, including those with early stages of CKD who do not have clinically-evident occlusive cardiovascular disease.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2013; 4:CD008834. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Renal Nutrition 11/2012; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis vascular access failure occurs often and increases morbidity for people on hemodialysis therapy. Antiplatelet agents may prevent hemodialysis vascular access failure, but potentially may be hazardous in people with end-stage kidney disease who have impaired hemostasis. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING & POPULATION: Adults on long-term hemodialysis therapy. SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials evaluating hemodialysis vascular access outcomes identified by searches in Cochrane CENTRAL and Renal Group Trial Registers and Embase, without language restriction. INTERVENTION: Antiplatelet therapy. OUTCOMES: Hemodialysis vascular access failure (thrombosis or loss of patency), failure to attain vascular access suitable for dialysis, need for intervention to attain patency or assist maturation, major bleeding, minor bleeding, and antiplatelet treatment withdrawal. Treatment effects were summarized as RRs with 95% CIs using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: 21 eligible trials (4,826 participants) comparing antiplatelet treatment with placebo or no treatment were included. 12 trials (3,118 participants) started antiplatelet therapy around the time of dialysis vascular access surgery and continued treatment for approximately 6 months. Antiplatelet treatment reduced fistula failure (thrombosis or loss of patency) by one-half (6 trials, 1,222 participants; RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) but had uncertain effects on graft patency and attaining fistula or graft function suitable for dialysis. Overall, antiplatelet treatment had uncertain effects on major bleeding. LIMITATIONS: Unclear or high risk of bias in most trials and few trial data, particularly for antiplatelet effects on graft function and vascular access suitability for dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Antiplatelet treatment protects fistula from thrombosis or loss of patency, but has little or no effect on graft patency and uncertain effects on vascular access maturation for dialysis and major bleeding. Interventions that demonstrably improve vascular access suitability for dialysis are needed.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2012; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background We investigated the effects of visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on both mortality and dialysis inception in a cohort of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not requiring dialysis therapy. Furthermore, we also explored the carry-over effect of visit-to-visit SBPV on mortality after dialysis initiation.Methods We conducted a longitudinal retrospective, observational, multi-centre study in three tertiary care nephrology outpatient clinics. All the ambulatory CKD patients admitted to the outpatient clinics from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2005 were screened for study eligibility. We selected all consecutive patients older than 18 years of age with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/m(2), free from cardiovascular disease. SBPV was defined as the ratio of the SD to the mean SBP of five values recorded during a run-in phase of 4-5 months. Data on dialysis inception and mortality were recorded through 31 December 2010.ResultsOverall, we selected a cohort of 374 elderly (median age: 79 years) subjects. A total of 232 (62%) and 103 (29%) patients were male and had diabetes, respectively. A significant association between SBPV and the risk of death but not of CKD progression to dialysis was noted at univariate and after multivariable adjustments (hazard ratio for all-cause mortality per 1% increase in SBPV: 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09; P = 0.001). Notably, no lethal event was recorded after dialysis initiation.Conclusions Current findings suggest that SBPV may be of use for risk stratification in CKD patients.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet agents are used to prevent cardiovascular events; however, treatment effects may differ in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) because atherosclerotic disease is less prevalent, whereas bleeding hazards may be increased in this population. To summarize the effects of antiplatelet treatment on cardiovascular events, mortality, and bleeding in persons with CKD. Embase and Cochrane databases through November 2011 without language restriction. Randomized trials that included adults with CKD and compared antiplatelet agents with standard care, placebo, or no treatment. Data for populations, interventions, outcomes, and risk for bias were extracted. Quality of evidence for treatment effects on myocardial infarction, death, and bleeding was summarized by using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines. Nine trials (all post hoc subgroup analyses for CKD) involving 9969 persons who had acute coronary syndromes or were undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and 31 trials involving 11,701 persons with stable or no cardiovascular disease were identified. Low-quality evidence has found that in persons with acute coronary syndromes, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or clopidogrel plus standard care compared with standard care alone had little or no effect on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality or on myocardial infarction but increased serious bleeding. Compared with placebo or no treatment in persons with stable or no cardiovascular disease, antiplatelet agents prevented myocardial infarction but had uncertain effects on mortality and increased minor bleeding according to generally low-quality evidence. Data for antiplatelet agents in persons with CKD are frequently derived from post hoc analyses of trials of broader populations. Definitions for bleeding outcomes and trial duration were heterogeneous. Benefits for antiplatelet therapy among persons with CKD are uncertain and are potentially outweighed by bleeding hazards. None.
    Annals of internal medicine 03/2012; 156(6):445-59. · 13.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Hemodialysis patients have a high cardiovascular mortality, and hypertension is the most prevalent treatable risk factor. We aimed to assess the predictive significance of dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. Methods: We performed a historical cohort study in 1,088 prevalent hemodialysis patients, followed up for 5 years. The risk of cardiovascular death was determined in relation to dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure, maximum blood pressure and pulse pressure. Results: Variability in blood pressure was a predictor of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.242; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.004-1.537; p=0.046). Also age (HR=1.021; 95% CI, 1.011-1.048; p=0.049), diabetes (HR=1.134; 95% CI, 1.128-1.451; p=0.035), creatinine (HR=0.837; 95% CI, 0.717-0.977; p=0.024) and albumin (HR=0.901; 95% CI, 0.821-0.924; p=0.022) influenced mortality. Maximum blood pressure and pulse pressure did not show any effect on cardiovascular death. Conclusion: Dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, and blood pressure variability may be used in managing hypertension and predicting outcomes in dialysis patients.
    Journal of nephrology 03/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 are associated with mortality, CKD progression, and calcification in CKD patients. The aim of this pilot study is to assess whether a very-low-protein diet (0.3 g/kg per day) with a consequent low intake of phosphorus would reduce fibroblast growth factor 23 compared with a low-protein diet (0.6 g/kg per day) in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. A prospective, randomized, controlled crossover study was performed in which 32 patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (16 patients) received a very-low-protein diet (0.3 g/kg body wt per day) supplemented with ketoanalogues during the first week and a low-protein diet during the second week, and group B (16 patients) received a low-protein diet during the first week and a very-low-protein diet during the second week. Fibroblast growth factor 23, seric, and urinary phosphate levels were measured at baseline and the end of each study period. After only 1 week of the very-low-protein diet, reductions in fibroblast growth factor 23 levels (33.5%), serum phosphate (12%), and urinary phosphate (34%) with the very-low-protein diet compared with the low-protein diet were observed. Serum and urinary phosphate levels and protein intake were significant determinants of fibroblast growth factor 23 (95% confidence interval=1.04-1.19, 1.12-1.37, and 1.51-2.23, respectively). A very-low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues reduced fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in CKD patients not yet on dialysis.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2012; 7(4):581-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Dialysis patients show cyclic changes in PWV related to their hydration status and blood pressure. Our aim is to assess the impact of daily dialysis on PWV. We performed a randomized crossover study of 60 patients who underwent standard hemodialysis (HD) three times per week for at least 6 months. Patients were classified into three groups according to their PWV values before (pre-) and after (post-) HD, with a cutoff value of 12 m s(-1), as follows: the low-low (LL) group had normal pre-HD and post-HD PWV; the high-low (HL) group had high pre-HD PWV and normal post-HD PWV; and the high-high (HH) group had high pre- and post-HD PWV. All patients continued standard HD for 2 weeks. A total of 10 patients from each group were randomly assigned to continue standard HD for 1 week and then underwent daily dialysis for 1 week. The remaining 10 patients underwent daily dialysis for 1 week and then underwent standard HD for 1 week. PWV values were measured before and 1 h after each dialysis session. With daily dialysis treatment, 2 of 20 patients (10%) moved from the PWV-HH group to the PWV-HL group, whereas 18 of 20 patients (90%) moved from the PWV-HL group to the PWV-LL group (P = 0.030). Daily dialysis reduces PWV in the ESRD patients. As PWV is a strong predictor of mortality in ESRD and has cyclic variations in patients who are on standard HD, we believe that daily dialysis may be used in patients with high PWV levels to reduce their mortality risk.
    Hypertension Research 01/2012; 35(5):518-22. · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Serum concentrations of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) influence ionic currents and play an important role in the duration of ventricular action potential. Further, the influence of alkalosis in reducing ionized calcium has been well known for a long time. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dialysate electrolytes and bicarbonate concentrations on changes of QTc interval in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Methods: The study hemodialysis sessions were performed in 22 patients, with different electrolyte and bicarbonate concentrations in dialysate. Tested dialysate concentrations were K of 2 and 3 mmol/L; Ca 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 mmol/L; and bicarbonate 30 and 34 mmol/L. An electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded 1 hour before, at the end and every hour for 4 hours after each study dialysis session. QTc interval was measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of a T wave on a 12-lead ECG. Blood was collected and K, total Ca, ionic Ca and pH evaluated. Results: At the end of the study hemodialysis session with dialysate containing low K (2 mmol/L), low Ca (1.25 mmol/L) and high bicarbonate concentration (34 mmol), mean QTc interval was significantly prolonged compared with that recorded with dialysate containing high K (3 mmol/L), high Ca (1.75 mmol/L) and bicarbonate (30 mmol) (40 ± 10 milliseconds vs. 2 ± 2 milliseconds; p<0.01). Dialysate with low concentration of low Ca, K and high concentration of bicarbonate was an independent predictor of QTc; the combination of low Ca and K and high bicarbonate strongly increased the risk of prolonged QTc interval. Conclusion: The present pilot study shows that changes in QTc interval during hemodialysis depend on both electrolyte and bicarbonate concentrations in dialysate.
    Journal of nephrology 10/2011; 25(5):653-60. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether low-protein-diet (LPD) as opposed to moderate-protein-diet (MPD) regimens improve the long-term survival of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or induce protein-caloric malnutrition is unknown. Intention-to-treat analysis of follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial. 423 patients with CKD (stages 4-5) were randomly assigned between January 1999 and January 2003 and followed up until December 2006 or death. The first phase of follow up was from January 1999 to June 2004; additional follow-up was from July 2004 to December 2006. LPD versus MPD (protein intake, 0.55 vs 0.80 g/kg/d). Protein-caloric malnutrition (defined as the occurrence of 1 of the following: loss of body weight > 5% in 1 month or 7.5% in 3 months or body mass index < 20 kg/m(2) with serum albumin level < 3.2 g/dL and normal C-reactive protein level [<0.5 mg/dL]), dialysis, death, or the composite outcome of dialysis and death. Baseline mean age was 61 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate was 16 mL/min/1.73 m(2), proteinuria had protein excretion of 1.67 g/d, body mass index was 27.1 kg/m(2), protein intake was 0.95 g/kg/d, and there were 57% men. Duration of follow-up was 32 months (median, 30 months; 25th-75th percentiles, 21-39). Average protein intakes were 0.73 +/- 0.04 g/kg/d for the LPD and 0.9 +/- 0.06 g/kg/d for the MPD. 3 patients (0.7%) met criteria for protein-caloric malnutrition. 48 patients died (11%), 83 initiated dialysis therapy (20%), and 113 (27%) reached the composite outcome. In unadjusted Cox survival analyses, effects of the LPD on these outcomes were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.57-1.79), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.62-1.48), and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.68-1.42), respectively. Low event rates for dialysis therapy initiation and death. Most patients, who were regularly followed up in CKD clinics, were acceptably adherent to the prescribed dietary protein intake restrictions; the LPD and MPD did not lead to protein wasting; and the LPD did not decrease the risk of death or dialysis therapy initiation compared with the MPD.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2009; 54(6):1052-61. · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: End-stage renal disease care requires enormous economic resources. A timely dialysis start could reduce the costs of the renal replacement therapy (RRT). Our aim was to measure the time to dialysis in CKD patients, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <or=11.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (MDRD derived), and to evaluate the safety, economic impact and the quality of life (QoL). In a prospective, observational study, 70 consecutive CKD patients, stage 5, were screened and 30 patients were selected and followed up monthly, for 24 months or until the start of RRT, set at an eGFR = 6.0 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2) or at the occurrence of pre-defined urgent criteria. The SF-36 questionnaire to evaluate the QoL was performed at the first and the last visit. The median time to the start of dialysis was 11.8 (25th and 75th: 5.5-17.3) months. Only seven patients urgently started dialysis, after 8 months (25th and 75th: 4.8-20). The mean monthly cost of care was euro 1146 +/- 917 per patient. The QoL was similar to that of the general population and did not change at the last assessment. Discussion. This is the first study evaluating the economic impact of intensive conservative management of CKD stage 5 to postpone start of dialysis in tertiary care. This strategy allows us to safely gain a significant amount of time free from dialysis, with good QoL and major savings in the costs of nation's dialysis budget. The present results, however, are applicable only to low comorbidity patients referred to nephrology care and may not be generalized to all patients starting RRT.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2009; 24(11):3434-40. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence has been accumulating in recent years that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disease associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with CKD, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality is 10-30-fold higher in dialysis patients than in age-, gender- and race-matched controls. On the basis of this evidence it has been suggested that the cardiovascular risk profile of CKD patients is different from that of the general population, resulting from a complex and peculiar interaction of risk factors. In fact, traditional risk factors such as hypertension, aging, smoking, diabetes, and lipid disorders do not fully explain the high frequency of cardiovascular disease in CKD, so other factors must be involved in the high mortality rate in uremic patients. In this article we will provide an overview of the epidemiology of the cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Among the non-traditional risk factors we have focused particularly on those related to mineral metabolism, which contribute the high rates of cardiovascular events observed in CKD.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2009; 26 Suppl 49:S3-10.