Howard Rush

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (4)6.31 Total impact

  • Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 09/2015; 54(5):487-96. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine if a multimineral natural product derived from red marine algae could reduce colon polyp formation in mice on a high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 mo either on a high-fat "Western-style" diet or on a low-fat diet (AIN 76A), with or without the multimineral-supplement. To summarize, colon polyps were detected in 22 of 70 mice (31%) on the high-fat diet but in only 2 of 70 mice (3%) receiving the mineral-supplemented high-fat diet (P < 0.0001). Colon polyps were detected in 16 of 70 mice (23%) in the low-fat group; not significantly different from high-fat group but significantly higher than the high-fat-supplemented group (P = 0.0006). This was in spite of the fact that the calcium level in the low-fat diet was comparable to the level of calcium in the high-fat diet containing the multimineral-product. Supplementation of the low-fat diet reduced the incidence to 8 of 70 mice (11% incidence). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that a multimineral natural product can protect mice on a high-fat diet against adenomatous polyp formation in the colon. These data suggest that increased calcium alone is insufficient to explain the lower incidence of colon polyps.
    Nutrition and Cancer 10/2012; 64(7):1020-8. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2012.713160 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common, spontaneous condition in mice with a C57BL/6 background. Although initial lesions may be mild, UD is a progressive disease that often results in ulcerations or debilitating fibrotic contractures. In addition, lesions typically are unresponsive to treatment. Euthanasia is often warranted in severe cases, thereby affecting study outcomes through the loss of research subjects. Because the clinical assessment of UD can be subjective, a quantitative scoring method and documentation of the likely time-frame of progression may be helpful in predicting when animals that develop dermatitis should be removed from a study. Such a system may also be helpful in quantitatively assessing success of various treatment strategies and be valuable to clinical laboratory animal veterinarians. In this 1.5-y, prospective cohort study, we followed 200 mice to monitor the development and course of UD. Mice were examined every 2 wk. A clinical sign (alopecia, pruritus, or peripheral lymphadenopathy) was not identified that predicted development of UD lesions in the subsequent 2-wk period. Once UD developed, pruritus, the character of the lesion (single or multiple crust, coalescing crust, erosion, or ulceration), and the size of the lesion were the only parameters that changed (increased) over the course of the disease. Pruritus was a factor in the rapid progression of UD lesions. We used these findings to develop a quantitative scoring system for the severity of UD. This enhanced understanding of the progression of UD and the quantitative scoring system will enhance the monitoring of UD.
    Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 09/2012; 51(5):586-93. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C57BL/6 mice were maintained for up to 18 months on high-fat and low-fat diets with or without a multi-mineral supplement derived from the skeletal remains of the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum. Numerous grossly observable liver masses were visible in animals on the "western-style" high-fat diet sacrificed at 12 and 18 months. The majority of the masses were in male mice (20 out of 100 males versus 3 out of 100 females; p = 0.0002). There were more liver masses in animals on the high-fat diet than on the low-fat diet (15 out of 50 on high-fat versus 5 out of 50 on low-fat; p = 0.0254). The multi-mineral supplement reduced the number of liver masses in mice on both diets (3 out of 25 male mice in the low-fat diet group without the supplement versus 1 out of 25 mice with supplement; 12 of 25 male mice in the high-fat diet group without the supplement versus 3 of 25 mice with supplement [p = 0.0129]). Histological evaluation revealed a total of 17 neoplastic lesions (9 adenomas and 8 hepatocellular carcinomas), and 18 pre-neoplastic lesions. Out of eight hepatocellular carcinomas, seven were found in unsupplemented diet groups. Steatosis was widely observed in livers with and without grossly observable masses, but the multi-mineral supplement had no effect on the incidence of steatosis or its severity. Taken together, these findings suggest that a multi-mineral-rich natural product can protect mice against neoplastic and pre-neoplastic proliferative liver lesions that may develop in the face of steatosis.
    Biological trace element research 01/2012; 147(1-3):267-74. DOI:10.1007/s12011-011-9316-2 · 1.75 Impact Factor