[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small GTPase Rho and mDia2, a Rho-regulated actin nucleator, function as critical regulators of cytokinesis in cultured cells. However, their involvement in cytokinesis during mammalian development remains unknown. Here, we generated mice deficient in mDia2 and examined the role of Rho signaling in cytokinesis during development. mDia2-deficient mice survive until embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), exhibit severe anemia with multinucleate erythroblasts, and die in utero by E12.5. mDia2-deficient erythroid cells differentiate normally, though in a delayed manner, but exhibit cytokinesis failure with decreased accumulation of F-actin in the cleavage furrow during late differentiation from proerythroblasts. On the other hand, inactivation of Rho induces cytokinesis failure from the earlier progenitor stage. mDia2-deficient erythroblasts, however, are able to enucleate their nuclei. Our findings have thus revealed that mDia2 functions critically in cytokinesis in vivo during erythropoiesis and further suggest that the cytokinesis mechanism in development diverges downstream of Rho. They also demonstrate that cytokinesis and enucleation utilize different mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In brain development, distinct types of migration, radial migration and tangential migration, are shown by excitatory and inhibitory neurons, respectively. Whether these two types of migration operate by similar cellular mechanisms remains unclear. We examined neuronal migration in mice deficient in mDia1 (also known as Diap1) and mDia3 (also known as Diap2), which encode the Rho-regulated actin nucleators mammalian diaphanous homolog 1 (mDia1) and mDia3. mDia deficiency impaired tangential migration of cortical and olfactory inhibitory interneurons, whereas radial migration and consequent layer formation of cortical excitatory neurons were unaffected. mDia-deficient neuroblasts exhibited reduced separation of the centrosome from the nucleus and retarded nuclear translocation. Concomitantly, anterograde F-actin movement and F-actin condensation at the rear, which occur during centrosomal and nuclear movement of wild-type cells, respectively, were impaired in mDia-deficient neuroblasts. Blockade of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), which regulates myosin II, also impaired nuclear translocation. These results suggest that Rho signaling via mDia and ROCK critically regulates nuclear translocation through F-actin dynamics in tangential migration, whereas this mechanism is dispensable in radial migration.