[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate fetal echocardiographic measurements at the time of the first fetal echocardiogram as predictors of neonatal outcome for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
The study reviewed all infants with a prenatal diagnosis of TOF from January 2004 to June 2011. Aortic valve (AoV), pulmonary valve (PV), main pulmonary artery (MPA), left and right pulmonary artery diameters, and ductus arteriosus flow were evaluated on fetal echocardiograms, and associations between the fetal echocardiogram and the neonatal echocardiogram measurements and outcomes were assessed.
The study identified 67 TOF patients who had an initial fetal echocardiogram at a mean gestational age of 25.0 ± 5.2 weeks. Patients with absent PV syndrome or major aortopulmonary collaterals were excluded from the study, as were those without anterograde pulmonary blood flow at the first fetal echocardiogram. Of the remaining 44 patients, 10 were ductal dependent and required neonatal surgery. Infants who were ductal dependent had lower fetal PV (-5.38 ± 2.95 vs. -3.51 ± 1.66; p < 0.05) and MPA (-3.94 ± 1.66 vs. -2.87 ± 1.04; p < 0.05) z-scores. A fetal PV z-score of -5 predicted ductal dependence with 78 % sensitivity and 87 % specificity, and a PV z-score of -3 showed 100 % sensitivity and 34 % specificity (p < 0.001). Fetuses with a reversed left-to-right flow across the ductus arteriosus (DA) were more likely to be ductal dependent (odds ratio, 25; p < 0.001) than those who had normal ductal flow.
In TOF, fetal PV and MPA z-scores and direction of the DA blood flow predict neonatal ductal dependence. Patients with fetal PV z-scores lower than -3 or any left-to-right flow at the level of the DA should be admitted to a center where prostaglandin is available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While survival rates for preterm infants have increased, the risk for adverse long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes remains very high. In response to the need for novel, evidence-based interventions that prevent such outcomes, we have assessed Family Nurture Intervention (FNI), a novel dual mother-infant intervention implemented while the infant is in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Here, we report the first trial results, including the primary outcome measure, length of stay in the NICU and, the feasibility and safety of its implementation in a high acuity level IV NICU.
The FNI trial is a single center, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital for mothers and their singleton or twin infants of 26--34 weeks gestation. Families were randomized to standard care (SC) or (FNI). FNI was implemented by nurture specialists trained to facilitate affective communication between mother and infant during specified calming interactions. These interactions included scent cloth exchange, sustained touch, vocal soothing and eye contact, wrapped or skin-to-skin holding, plus family-based support interactions.
A total of 826 infants born between 26 and 34 weeks during the 3.5 year study period were admitted to the NICU. After infant and mother screening plus exclusion due to circumstances that prevented the family from participating, 373 infants were eligible for the study. Of these, we were unable to schedule a consent meeting with 56, and consent was withheld by 165. Consent was obtained for 150 infants from 115 families. The infants were block randomized to groups of N = 78, FNI and N = 72, SC. Sixteen (9.6%) of the randomized infants did not complete the study to home discharge, 7% of those randomized to SC and 12% of FNI infants. Mothers in the intervention group engaged in 3 to 4 facilitated one- to two-hour sessions/week. Intent to treat analyses revealed no significant difference between groups in medical complications. The mean length of stay was not significantly affected by the intervention.
There was no significant effect demonstrated with this intervention amount on the primary short-term outcome, length of stay. FNI can be safely and feasibly implemented within a level IV NICU.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01439269.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of the arterial switch operation for Taussig-Bing anomaly demonstrate significant rates of reintervention and mortality, particularly after initial palliation to delay complete repair. We aimed to describe the long-term outcomes of our 21-year practice of single-stage arterial switch operation for all patients with Taussig-Bing anomaly.
A retrospective study was performed, and 43 patients with Taussig-Bing anomaly were identified between 1990 and 2011. Median age at arterial switch operation was 7 (range, 2-192) days, and median operative weight was 3.2 (1.4-6.2) kg. Aortic arch obstruction was present in 30 patients (70%). Hospital mortality was 7% (n=3). Follow-up was available for 37 hospital survivors at a mean of 8.1 (±6.3) years. Late mortality was 2% (n=1). At follow-up, all patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I. Freedom from transcatheter or surgical reintervention was 73% at 1 year, 64% at 5 years, and 60% at 10 years. Eleven patients underwent 13 catheter reinterventions on the pulmonary arteries (n=8) or aortic arch (n=5). Seven patients underwent 11 reoperations, including relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (n=5), pulmonary arterioplasty (n=3), recoarctation repair (n=2), and tricuspid valve repair (n=1). By multivariate analysis, a preoperative aortic valve annulus z score of ≤-2.5 was associated with reintervention (hazard ratio, 7.66 [95% confidence interval, 1.29-45.6], P=0.03).
Although reintervention is common, primary correction of Taussig-Bing anomaly with arterial switch operation can be achieved in all patients with low mortality and good long-term outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, only one genome-wide study has assessed the contribution of CNVs to Parkinson's Disease (PD). We conducted a genome-wide scan for CNVs in a case-control dataset of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) origin (268 PD cases and 178 controls). Using high-confidence CNVs, we examined the global genome wide burden of large (≥100Kb) and rare (≤1% in the dataset) CNVs between cases and controls. A total of 986 such CNVs were observed in our dataset of 432 subjects. Overall global burden analyses did not reveal significant differences between cases and controls in CNV rate, distribution of deletions or duplications or number of genes affected by CNVs. Overall deletions (total CNV size and >2x frequency) were found 1.4 times more often in cases than in controls (p=0.019). The large CNVs (>500kb) were also significantly associated with PD (p=0.046, 1.24-folder higher in cases than in controls). Global burden was elevated for rare CNV regions. Specifically, for OVOS2 on Chr12p11.21, CNVs were observed only in PD cases (n=7) but not in controls (p=0.028) and this was experimentally validated. A total of 81 PD cases carried a rare genic CNV that was absent in controls. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified ATXN3, FBXW7, CHCHD3, HSF1, KLC1 and MBD3 in the same disease pathway with known PD genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among patients with Alzheimer's disease who have had a response to antipsychotic medication for psychosis or agitation-aggression, the risk of a recurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of the medication has not been established.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease and psychosis or agitation-aggression received open-label treatment with risperidone for 16 weeks. Those who had a response to risperidone therapy were then randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to one of three regimens: continued risperidone therapy for 32 weeks (group 1), risperidone therapy for 16 weeks followed by placebo for 16 weeks (group 2), or placebo for 32 weeks (group 3). The primary outcome was the time to relapse of psychosis or agitation.
A total of 180 patients received open-label risperidone (mean dose, 0.97 mg daily). The severity of psychosis and agitation were reduced, although there was a mild increase in extrapyramidal signs; 112 patients met the criteria for response to treatment, of whom 110 underwent randomization. In the first 16 weeks after randomization, the rate of relapse was higher in the group that received placebo than in the groups that received risperidone (60% [24 of 40 patients in group 3] vs. 33% [23 of 70 in groups 1 and 2]; P=0.004; hazard ratio with placebo, 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 3.45; P=0.02). During the next 16 weeks, the rate of relapse was higher in the group that was switched from risperidone to placebo than in the group that continued to receive risperidone (48% [13 of 27 patients in group 2] vs. 15% [2 of 13 in group 1]; P=0.02; hazard ratio, 4.88; 95% CI, 1.08 to 21.98; P=0.02). The rates of adverse events and death after randomization did not differ significantly among the groups, although comparisons were based on small numbers of patients, especially during the final 16 weeks.
In patients with Alzheimer's disease who had psychosis or agitation that had responded to risperidone therapy for 4 to 8 months, discontinuation of risperidone was associated with an increased risk of relapse. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00417482.).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2012; 367(16):1497-507. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stress that results from preterm birth, requisite acute care and prolonged physical separation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can have adverse physiological/psychological effects on both the infant and the mother. In particular, the experience compromises the establishment and maintenance of optimal mother-infant relationship, the subsequent development of the infant, and the mother's emotional well-being. These findings highlight the importance of investigating early interventions that are designed to overcome or reduce the effects of these environmental insults and challenges.
This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded assessment comparing Standard Care (SC) with a novel Family Nurture Intervention (FNI). FNI targets preterm infants born 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and their mothers in the NICU. The intervention incorporates elements of mother-infant interventions with known efficacy and organizes them under a new theoretical context referred to collectively as calming activities. This intervention is facilitated by specially trained Nurture Specialists in three ways: 1) In the isolette through calming interactions between mother and infant via odor exchange, firm sustained touch and vocal soothing, and eye contact; 2) Outside the isolette during holding and feeding via the Calming Cycle; and 3) through family sessions designed to engage help and support the mother. In concert with infant neurobehavioral and physiological assessments from birth through 24 months corrected age (CA), maternal assessments are made using standard tools including anxiety, depression, attachment, support systems, temperament as well as physiological stress parameters. Quality of mother-infant interaction is also assessed. Our projected enrolment is 260 families (130 per group).
The FNI is designed to increase biologically important activities and behaviors that enhance maternally-mediated sensory experiences of preterm infants, as well as infant-mediated sensory experiences of the mother. Consequently, we are enlarging the testing of preterm infant neurodevelopment beyond that of previous research to include outcomes related to mother-infant interactions and mother-infant co-regulation. Our primary objective is to determine whether repeated engagement of the mother and her infant in the intervention's calming activities will improve the infant's developmental trajectory with respect to multiple outcomes. Our secondary objective is to assess the effectiveness of FNI in the physiological and psychological co-regulation of the mother and infant. We include aspects of neurodevelopment that have not been comprehensively measured in previous NICU interventions.