[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study reported a method for preparing a blend of antibacterial quaternary ammonium silanes and quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silane (QAMS) based on the sol-gel reaction between dimethyldiethoxy silane and two trialkoxysilanes, one with an antibacterial quaternary ammonium functionality and the other with a methacryloxy functionality. Methods: Reaction products of the sol-gel reaction were characterised by direct infusion mass spectrometry, FT-IR and proton, carbon and silicon NMR. This blend of monomers wasincorporated into an experimental universal adhesive for evaluation of antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutansbiofilms, microtensile bond strength and cytotoxicty.Retention of quaternary ammonium species on polymerised adhesive, leaching of these species from the adhesive and the ability of resin-dentine interfaces to inhibit S. mutans biofilms were evaluated over a 3-month water-ageing period. Results: The antibacterial adhesive version killed bacteria in S. mutans biofilms not only through the release of non-copolymerisable quaternary ammonium silane species (release-killing), but also via immobilised quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silane that are copolymerised with adhesive resin comonomers (contact-killing). Contact-killing was retained after water-ageing. The QAMS-containing universal adhesive has similar tensile bond strength as the control and two commercially available universal adhesives,when it was used for bonding to dentine in the etch-and-rinse mode and self-etching mode. Incorporation of the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium species blend did not adversely affect the cytotoxicity of the universal adhesive formulation. Conclusions: Instead of using quaternary ammonium dimethacrylates and nanosilver, an alternative bimodal antimicrobial strategy for formulating antimicrobial universal dentine adhesives is achieved using the one-pot sol-gel synthesis scheme.
Journal of Dentistry 06/2014; 42(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2014.06.001 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur.
To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavour to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed.
By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented.
Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system.
Journal of dentistry 08/2013; 41(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.012 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of an 8% arginine-CaCO3 containing desensitizing polishing paste on bonding strength of two self-etching adhesives to dentin.
Thirty-six intact human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were collected within 1 month after extraction and randomly assigned into three groups using a table of random numbers (n = 12): specimens without any treatment served as control. In the polishing powder group specimens were polished with a slurry of pumice, and in the desensitizing polishing paste group dentin surfaces of the sample teeth were treated with 8% arginine-CaCO3 containing desensitizing polishing paste. Then each group was divided into two sub-groups using a table of random numbers in order to evaluate the bonding strength of two self-etching adhesive agents (G-Bond, GC; Fl-Bond II, Shofu). Microtensile bond strength test was conducted immediately and after 5000 thermocycling (n = 15). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the occluding effect of the desensitizing polishing paste.
In the pre-thermocycling stage, there were no significant differences in Fl-Bond II bonding strength among the three groups [control: (30.34 ± 5.42) MPa, polishing powder group: (29.72 ± 5.16) MPa, desensitizing polishing paste group: (31.53 ± 4.86) MPa] (P > 0.05). However there were significant differences among the three groups in G-Bond bonding strength [control: (38.19 ± 4.42) MPa, polishing powder group: (36.47 ± 4.72) MPa, desensitizing polishing paste group: (46.88 ± 7.83) MPa] (P < 0.05). After thermocycling precess, there were no significant differences in bonding strenght among the three groups in both G-Bond groups and Fl-Bond II groups. SEM observation showed that the desensitizing polishing paste could occlude open dentinal tubules effectively, and the application of self-etching adhesives could re-open the dentinal tubular orifices. An even layer can be seen on the dentin surface treated with self-etching adhesive containing functional monomers.
The 8% arginine-CaCO3 containing desensitizing polishing paste could effectively occlude dentinal tubules, thus may have potential benefits in preventing post-operative sensitivity. Additionally, it had no adverse effect on bonding strength of self-etching adhesives to dentin.
Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology 03/2013; 48(3):165-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the micropermeability on bonding hydrophobic adhesive to dentin with ethanol-wet bonding under simulated pulp pressure.
Twenty-four intact human third molars were used in the study. After the enamel of occlusal surfaces was removed, the molars were randomly divided into six groups. Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose was used in the control group; in the experimental groups, the dentin surfaces were saturated with ethanol for 20 s (group 1), 1 min (group 2), 2 min (group 3), 3 min (group 4) or with a series of increasing ethanol concentrations before application of hydrophobic adhesive (group 5). All the bonding procedures were done under simulated pulp pressure. After 24 hours, micro-tensile bond strength test were performed on the specimens. Bonding interfaces were observed under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) after the pulp chamber were filled with a water-soluble fluoroprobe rhodamine B for 3 hours.
Compared with the control group [(38.14 ± 4.97) MPa], bond strengths in group 1 [(21.02 ± 7.23) MPa] and group 2 [(29.64 ± 3.81) MPa] were statistically lower (P > 0.05), while bond strength in group 3 [(38.40 ± 5.03) MPa], group 4 [(37.26 ± 4.68) MPa] and group 5 [(40.12 ± 5.95) MPa] were similar to the control group (P < 0.05). The images taken by LSCM showed that with extension of ethanol-wet time, the deposition of fluorescent dye in hybrid layer and along the dentinal tubules decreased gradually. Especially in group 5, only spare fluorescent dye deposition could be detected in the hybrid layer.
Dentin saturated with ethanol for more than 2 min before bonding hydrophobic adhesive to dentin could provide favorable bond strength and decreased the micropermeability of bonding interfaces under simulated pulp pressure.
Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology 12/2011; 46(12):755-8.