ABSTRACT: The potential effect of blocking the CCR5 receptor on HIV disease progression biomarkers is not well understood. We showed that an 8-day maraviroc (MVC) monotherapy clinical test (MCT) can be used in selecting patients to receive MVC-containing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using this MCT model, we assessed the effect of MVC on several HIV disease progression biomarkers during the MCT (MVC-specific effect) and following short-term (12-week) cART. We compared 45 patients on MVC monotherapy with a control group of 25 patients on MVC-sparing cART. We found that MVC did not modify any biomarkers in patients that had no virological response after the MCT. MVC-specific effects in patients with virological responses included increased CD8(+) T-cell activation and senescence levels, preservation of an increase in soluble CD14 (sCD14), and a decrease in D dimer levels. After 12 weeks, MVC-containing cART increased CD8(+) T-cell counts and preserved CD4(+) T-cell senescence levels compared with MVC-sparing cART. Moreover, there was a decrease in sCD14 levels in patients that received MVC-containing cART. In conclusion, effects compatible with CD8(+) T-cell redistribution in peripheral blood were observed after MVC therapy. However, MVC was associated with a favorable profile in HIV disease progression biomarkers only in patients with a virological response. These results support a potential clinical benefit of a therapy which includes MVC in HIV-infected patients.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2012; 56(11):5858-64. · 4.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels have been indistinctly used to measure bacterial translocation independently of the immunovirological stage in HIV infection; however, when the association of both markers with different HIV-progression end-points has been studied, discrepant results have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between LPS and sCD14 in different HIV-infection immune stages and to determine the relationship between these biomarkers with established HIV-disease-progression-related markers, as T-cell immune activation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and D-dimer.
Seventy-three chronically HIV-1-infected patients with detectable HIV-1 RNA levels were analyzed. LPS levels by use of limulus lysate assay, sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein and inflammation-coagulation-associated biomarkers were assessed.
In this study, we found that LPS and sCD14 levels were only associated when low CD4+ T-cell levels and high HIV RNA levels were present. In addition, only sCD14 levels, but not LPS, were independently associated with HIV-disease progression-related markers, supporting the clinical importance of sCD14.
These results indicate that LPS and sCD14 have a different biological significance and should not be indistinctly used without taking the HIV immunovirological stage into account.
The Journal of infection 06/2012; 65(5):431-8. · 4.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This study examined the homeostatic parameters possibly related to HIV-infected patients who, despite being under suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), show low-level CD4 T cell repopulation (LLR).
Twenty-one LLR individuals, 20 HIV-infected controls with satisfactory CD4 T cell repopulation (R) and 14 healthy subjects were studied. Markers related to activation, senescence and proliferation were analysed for both the CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets. Additionally, soluble CD14 (sCD14) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured, and the CD34+ cells and the levels of interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor were quantified.
The frequency of naive CD4 T cells from LLR patients was significantly reduced, and these cells showed increased expression of markers for activation, senescence and proliferation as compared with naive CD4 T cells from R patients. Naive CD8 T cells were also reduced when compared with those from R patients, but did not exhibit an altered phenotype. Moreover, frequencies of effector memory T cells were higher in LLR than R patients. No differences between LLR and R patients were observed for sCD14 levels, CD34+ cells and the IL-7 receptor, although LLR patients showed a tendency toward increased levels of hsCRP >2 μg/mL.
Patients with low CD4 T cell restoration under suppressive HAART show significant alterations in T cell homeostasis that do not appear to be related to a reduction in haematopoietic progenitors. sCD14 levels were not specifically altered in these patients. Our results agree with our previously proposed model of premature immunosenescence in LLR patients and further describe homeostatic features associated with poor CD4 recovery.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 02/2012; 67(5):1228-37. · 5.07 Impact Factor