[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crystallographic orientation and microstructure of metal oxide nanomaterials have great impact on their properties and applications. Here, we report [101̅0] oriented ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with a multichannel mesostructure. The NW has a preferential growth of low energy (101̅0) crystal plane and exhibits 2-3 orders of magnitude faster electron transport rate than that in nanoparticle (NP) films. Furthermore, the surface area of the as-prepared NW arrays is about 5 times larger than that of conventional NW arrays with similar thickness. These lead to the highest power conversion efficiency of ZnO NW array-based sensitized solar cells. We anticipate that the unique crystallographic orientation and mesostructure will endow ZnO NW arrays new properties and expand their application fields.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2014; 136(48). DOI:10.1021/ja5101195 · 12.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current lead halide perovskite solar cells use high work function (φ) precious metals, such as gold (φ = 5.1 eV), as the back cathode to maximize the attainable photovoltage. We report herein a set of perovskite-type solar cells that use nickel (φ = 5.04 eV), an earth-abundant element and non-precious metal, as back cathode and achieve the same open-circuit voltage as gold and an efficiency of 10.4%. This work opens a “nickel”-and-dimed (low-cost) way toward high-efficient perovskite solar cells.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 11/2014; 118(45):25878-25883. DOI:10.1021/jp506991x · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different lengths of single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires (NW) with wide-open space for effective material filling were used as photoanodes for perovskite solar cells. Cells with 900 nm nanowires as photoanodes exhibit current density of 22 mA/cm2 and efficiency of 11.7%, exceeding the reported TiO2 nanowire-based perovskite solar cells.
Chemical Communications 10/2014; 50(94). DOI:10.1039/C4CC07367C · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential and high activity, has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. A new electrocatalyst for H2O2 oxidation based on strongly coupled rhodium nanocrystal/reduced graphene oxide (Rh/RGO) hybrid nanomaterials is described. The Rh/RGO nanohybrids markedly reduce the oxidation potential to about +0.1 V, which is 0.5 V lower than that of a traditional platinum electrode. The nanohybrids have a strong synergetic effect and are catalytically more active than single-component Rh and RGO and state-of-the-art commercial Rh/C catalysts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing high surface area nanostructured electrodes with rapid charge transport is essential for artificial photosynthesis, solar cells, photocatalysis, and energy storage devices. Substantial research efforts have been recently focused on building 1D nano-blocks with fast charge transport into 3D hierarchical architectures. However, except for the enlargement in surface area, there is little experimental evidence of fast electron transport in these 3D nanostructure-based solar cells. In this communication, we report single-crystal-like 3D TiO2 branched nanowire arrays consisting of 1D branch epitaxially grown from the primary trunk. These 3D branched nanoarrays not only demonstrate 71% enlargement in large surface area (compared with 1D nanowire arrays) but also exhibit fast charge transport property (comparable to that in 1D single crystal nanoarrays), leading to 52% improvement in solar conversion efficiency . The orientated 3D assembly strategy reported here can be extended to assemble other metal oxides with one or multiple component, and thus represents a critical avenue towards high-performance optoelectronics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on low-cost, all solution fabrication of efficient air-stable nanostructured thin film photovoltaics comprised of n-type Sb(2)S(3) chemically deposited onto TiO(2) nanowire array films, forming coaxial Sb(2)S(3)/TiO(2) nanowire hybrids vertically oriented from the SnO(2):F coated glass substrate, which are then intercalated with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for hole transport and enhanced light absorption.
Chemical Communications 02/2012; 48(22):2818-20. DOI:10.1039/c2cc17573h · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We review the use of self-assembled, vertically oriented one-dimensional (1D) titania nanowire and nanotube geometries in several third-generation excitonic solar cell designs including those based upon bulk heterojunction, ordered heterojunction, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), and liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).
Journal of Nanotechnology 01/2012; 2012. DOI:10.1155/2012/645931
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal approach ultrafine Ptnanoparticles are synthesized and deposited in situ within high aspect ratio nanotube arrays. Adjusting the initial concentration of metal ion precursor inside the nanotube support controls the resulting Ptnanoparticle sizes. The Pt-nanoparticle/TiO2nanotube composite is shown to greatly promote the photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide and water vapor into methane, a behavior attributed to the homogeneous distribution of metal co-catalyst nanoparticles over the TiO2nanotube array surface providing a large number of active reduction sites. The novelty and flexibility of the technique, described herein, could prove useful for the deposition of metal, metal alloy, or metal oxidenanoparticles within a variety of nanotubular or nanoporous material systems with the resulting nanocomposites useful in catalysis, photocatalysis, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photocorrosion stable WO(3) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a solvothermal technique on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass. WO(3) morphologies of hexagonal and monoclinic structure, ranging from nanowire to nanoflake arrays, are tailored by adjusting solution composition with growth along the (001) direction. Photoelectrochemical measurements of illustrative films show incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies higher than 60% at 400 nm with a photocurrent of 1.43 mA/cm(2) under AM 1.5G illumination. Our solvothermal film growth technique offers an exciting opportunity for growth of one-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures with practical application in photoelectrochemical energy conversion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) has a band gap of approximately 2.07 eV, suitable for collecting more than 45% of the incident solar spectrum energy. We describe a simple method for scale fabrication of highly oriented Ta3N5 nanotube array films, by anodization of tantalum foil to achieve vertically oriented tantalum oxide nanotube arrays followed by a 700 degrees C ammonia anneal for sample crystallization and nitridation. The thin walled amorphous nanotube array structure enables transformation from tantalum oxide to Ta3N5 to occur at relatively low temperatures, while high-temperature annealing related structural aggregation that commonly occurs in particle films is avoided. In 1 M KOH solution, under AM 1.5 illumination with 0.5 V dc bias typical sample (nanotube length approximately 240 nm, wall thickness approximately 7 nm) visible light incident photon conversion efficiencies (IPCE) as high as 5.3% were obtained. The enhanced visible light activity in combination with the ordered one-dimensional nanoarchitecture makes Ta3N5 nanotube arrays films a promising candidate for visible light water photoelectrolysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanodrähte in der Sonne: Durch Hydrothermalsynthese wurden homogen tantaldotierte Titanoxid-Nanodrahtanordnungen auf transparenten leitfähigen Oxidsubstraten hergestellt. Mit dieser Methode sollten Titanoxid-Nanodrähte mit unterschiedlichen Übergangsmetallen dotiert werden können. So hergestellte Funktionseinheiten sind leistungsstärker, wie farbstoffsensibilisierte Solarzellen mit sehr hoher Photo-Ruhespannung belegen (siehe Bild).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the self-assembled fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanotube arrays, prepared by potentiostatic anodization of iron foil in an ethylene glycol electrolyte containing NH4F and deionized water. Vertically oriented nanotube arrays provide a highly ordered material architecture of high surface area that is nearly ideal for efficient transport and separation of photogenerated charges. We have achieved iron oxide nanotube arrays over a potential range of 30−60 V, using an electrolyte comprised of 0.2−0.5 wt % NH4F, and 2−4% DI water. The resulting nanotube arrays have a pore diameter ranging between 30 and 80 nm, with a minimum wall thickness of 10 nm. Nanotube formation is strongly dependent on the anodization bath temperature and fluoride concentration, with higher temperatures leading to increased rates of nanotube array growth, and with lower temperatures required in order to obtain identifiable nanotubes arrays for increased F− ion concentration. Crystallization of the as-synthesized, amorphous, iron oxide nanotube arrays to hematite is achieved through annealing in an oxygen-deficient ambient.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 09/2009; 113(36):16293-16298. DOI:10.1021/jp904560n · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we present recent advances that we have achieved toward improving the properties of anodically formed semiconducting TiO 2 nanotubes as well as nanowire arrays as electrodes for oxidative photoelectro-chemistry. The morphology, crystallinity, composition, and illumination geometry of nanotube or nanowire arrays are critical factors in their performance as photoelectrodes. We discuss the key aspects relating to each factor and the advances achieved in improving each. With respect to the more fully investigated nanotube arrays, the ability to control the morphological parameters such as pore size, tube length, and wall thickness of the nanotube architecture has enabled high performance in applications such as water photoelectrolysis, photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, and heterojunction TiO 2 -polymer hybrid solar cells. We begin by reviewing the photoelectrochemical performance of state-of-the-art nanotube arrays fabricated on planar substrates. We then present more recent results related to the growth of TiO 2 nanotube arrays on nonplanar substrates designed in such a way that reflected light normally lost to free space is instead directed to a different point on the device, in turn improving overall photoconversion efficiency. Insofar as the crystallinity of the nanotubes is concerned, the use of a high-temperature oxygen or air-ambient anneal to crystallize the nanotube arrays is disadvantageous, since it results in a thick barrier layer where recombination losses occur and also because it precludes compatibility with polymeric substrates. In this regard, we discovered a two-step fabrication process for synthesis of crystallized nanotube arrays at low-temperatures. The photoelectro-chemical applications of TiO 2 are limited by its large electronic band gap. We briefly review the cationic and anionic doping approaches popularly used to modify the TiO 2 band gap. We consider the use of ternary oxide systems containing titania as both a structural support and corrosion-inhibitor, in particular fabrication and performance of n-type Ti-Fe-O nanotubes and p-type copper-rich Cu-Ti-O nanotubes, with a note on our recent synthesis of iron oxide nanotube arrays by anodic oxidation of iron. Fabrication and photoelec-trochemical properties of CdS-TiO 2 and CdTe-TiO 2 nanotube array heterojunction photoelectrodes are discussed. The article concludes by examining low temperature synthesis, and resulting properties, of single crystal vertically oriented TiO 2 nanowire arrays on transparent conductive glass substrates; preliminary investigation of these nanowire array photoelectrodes for water photolysis reveals them to have low series resistance and provide excellent separation of photogenerated charges.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 04/2009; 113(16). DOI:10.1021/jp809385x · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern excitonic solar cells efficiently harvest photons in the 350-650 nm spectral range; however, device efficiencies are typically limited by poor quantum yields for red and near-infrared photons. Using Forster-type resonance energy transfer from zinc phthalocyanine donor molecules to ruthenium polypyridine complex acceptors, we demonstrate a four-fold increase in quantum yields for red photons in dye-sensitized nanowire array solar cells. The dissolved donor and surface anchored acceptor molecules are not tethered to each other, through either a direct chemical bond or a covalent linker layer. The spatial confinement of the electrolyte imposed by the wire-to-wire spacing of the close-packed nanowire array architecture ensures that the distances between a significant fraction of donors and acceptors are within a Förster radius. The critical distance for energy transfer from an isolated donor chromophore to a self-assembled monolayer of acceptors on a plane follows the inverse fourth power instead of the inverse sixth power relation. Consequently, we observe near quantitative energy transfer efficiencies in our devices. Our results represent a new design paradigm in excitonic solar cells and show it is possible to more closely match the spectral response of the device to the AM 1.5 solar spectrum through use of electronic energy transfer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of current dental and orthopedic biomaterials research is to design implants that induce controlled and guided tissue growth, and rapid healing. In addition to acceleration of normal wound healing phenomena, these implants should result in the formation of a characteristic interfacial layer with adequate biomechanical properties. To achieve these goals, however, a better understanding of events at the bone-material interface is needed, as well as the development of new materials and approaches that promote osseointegration. Here we present novel nanostructured nanoarrays from tantala that can promote cell adhesion and differentiation. Our results suggest that tantala nanotube arrays enhance osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The routes of fabrication of tantala nanotube arrays are flexible and cost-effective, enabling realization of desired platform topologies on existing non-planar orthopedic implants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-crystal one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor architectures are important in materials-based applications requiring a large surface area, morphological control, and superior charge transport. Titania has widespread utility in applications including photocatalysis, photochromism, photovoltaics, and gas sensors. While considerable efforts have focused on the preparation of 1D TiO2, no methods have been available to grow crystalline nanowire arrays directly onto transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrates, greatly limiting the performance of TiO2 photoelectrochemical devices. Herein, we present a straightforward low temperature method to prepare single crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays up to 5 microm long on TCO glass via a non-polar solvent/hydrophilic substrate interfacial reaction under mild hydrothermal conditions. The as-prepared densely packed nanowires grow vertically oriented from the TCO glass substrate along the (110) crystal plane with a preferred (001) orientation. In a dye sensitized solar cell, N719 dye, using TiO2 nanowire arrays 2-3 microm long we achieve an AM 1.5 photoconversion efficiency of 5.02%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein particles are the main carriers of cholesterol in human blood circulation and play a key role in cholesterol transfer and metabolism. Recognition of the importance of cholesterol as a strong risk factor for coronary artery diseases has resulted in great interest in means to rapidly, and accurately, quantify lipoprotein fractions in the blood stream. This work presents a novel bio-sensing platform based on magnetoelastic resonance sensors for the detection of lipoprotein particles. The measurement is based on the selective bio-chemical reaction between a precipitator (dextran sulfate sodium salt and divalent metal Mg2+) and lipoproteins, producing insoluble precipitate which deposit onto the sensor surface, resulting in a change in the sensor resonance amplitude. The sensors show approximately a 20% change in resonance amplitude in a 10 mg/dl low density lipoprotein (LDL) solution, and an approximate 4% amplitude change in a high density lipoprotein (HDL) solution of the same concentration. Our results demonstrate that magnetoelastic sensors are suitable for selective detection of both LDL and HDL.