Bonnie Bruce

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States

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Publications (37)148.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To improve the assessment of physical function by enhancing precision of physical function assessment as it pertains to subjects at extreme ends of the health continuum (i.e., subjects with extremely poor function ["floor"] or extremely good health ["ceiling"]). Under the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) (a National Institutes of Health initiative), we developed new items to assess floor and ceiling physical function in order to supplement the existing item bank. Using item response theory and standard PROMIS methodology, we developed 31 floor items and 31 ceiling items and administered the items during a 12-month prospective, observational study of 737 subjects whose health status was at either extreme. Effect size was calculated and change over time was compared across anchor instruments and across items. Using the observed changes in scores, we back-calculated sample size requirements for the new and comparison measures. We studied 444 subjects who had been diagnosed as having a chronic illness and/or were of old age and 293 generally fit subjects (including athletes in training). Item response theory analyses confirmed that the new floor and ceiling items outperformed reference items (P < 0.001). The estimated post hoc sample size requirements were reduced by a factor of 2-4 for the floor population and a factor of 2 for the ceiling population. Extending the range of items by which physical function is measured can substantially improve measurement quality, reduce sample size requirements, and improve research efficiency. The paradigm shift from assessing disability to assessing physical function focuses assessment on the entire spectrum of physical function, signals improvement in the conceptual base of outcome assessment, and may be transformative as medical goals more closely approach societal goals for health.
    Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 05/2014; 66(5):1378-1387.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. Study Design and Setting The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n > 2,200/item) on the Internet, with oversampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 Short Form-36 and 20 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index items. A graded response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD] = 10) in a US general population sample. Results The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living. In simulations, a 10-item computerized adaptive test (CAT) eliminated floor and decreased ceiling effects, achieving higher measurement precision than any comparable length static tool across four SDs of the measurement range. Improved psychometric properties were transferred to the CAT's superior ability to identify differences between age and disease groups. Conclusion The item bank provides a common metric and can improve the measurement of PF by facilitating the standardization of patient-reported outcome measures and implementation of CATs for more efficient PF assessments over a larger range.
    Journal of clinical epidemiology 01/2014; 67(5):516–526. · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disability and Physical Function (PF) outcome assessment has had limited ability to measure functional status at the floor (very poor functional abilities) or the ceiling (very high functional abilities). We sought to identify, develop and evaluate new floor and ceiling items to enable broader and more precise assessment of PF outcomes for the NIH Patient-Reported-Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). We conducted two cross-sectional studies using NIH PROMIS item improvement protocols with expert review, participant survey and focus group methods. In Study 1, respondents with low PF abilities evaluated new floor items, and those with high PF abilities evaluated new ceiling items for clarity, importance and relevance. In Study 2, we compared difficulty ratings of new floor items by low functioning respondents and ceiling items by high functioning respondents to reference PROMIS PF-10 items. We used frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations to analyze the data. In Study 1, low (n = 84) and high (n = 90) functioning respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and disability scores of 0.62 and 0.30. More than 90% of the 31 new floor and 31 new ceiling items were rated as clear, important and relevant, leaving 26 ceiling and 30 floor items for Study 2. Low (n = 246) and high (n = 637) functioning Study 2 respondents were mostly White, women, 70 years old, with some college, and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores of 1.62 and 0.003. Compared to difficulty ratings of reference items, ceiling items were rated to be 10% more to greater than 40% more difficult to do, and floor items were rated to be about 12% to nearly 90% less difficult to do. These new floor and ceiling items considerably extend the measurable range of physical function at either extreme. They will help improve instrument performance in populations with broad functional ranges and those concentrated at one or the other extreme ends of functioning. Optimal use of these new items will be assisted by computerized adaptive testing (CAT), reducing questionnaire burden and insuring item administration to appropriate individuals.
    Arthritis research & therapy 01/2013; 15(5):R144. · 4.27 Impact Factor
  • James F Fries, Bonnie Bruce, Stanford Shoor
    The Journal of Rheumatology 04/2012; 39(4):669-71. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that if left untreated may substantially impair physical functioning. Etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab are tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers whose FDA-approved indications in the US include moderate to severe RA. TNF-blocker dose escalation has been well documented in the literature; however, the comparative effectiveness of these agents remains uncertain. To compare the effectiveness and dose escalation rates of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab in US community settings. We hypothesized that etanercept would be equivalent to infliximab and adalimumab in patient-reported disability 9-15 months after therapy initiation, and that fewer etanercept patients would experience dose escalation. This is a retrospective analysis of the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS). Adult patients with no biologic use 6 months before TNF-blocker initiation (index) and with Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) scores at index and 9-15 months after index were analyzed (218 etanercept, 93 infliximab, and 40 adalimumab). HAQ-DI change scores at 9-15 months did not differ by treatment (-0.12, -0.10, and -0.08 points for etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab, respectively; p = 0.52). Dose increases were observed in 1.4% of etanercept, 10.8% of infliximab (p < 0.001), and 12.5% of adalimumab patients (p = 0.004). HAQ-DI change was associated with pre-index HAQ-DI score (p < 0.0001) and disease duration (p = 0.001). Fewer etanercept patients escalated dose than infliximab or adalimumab patients, but improvements in functional disability were similar. These differences may have been influenced by package labeling, mode of administration, or other factors. RA treatment with infliximab and adalimumab in community settings, characterized by dose escalation, did not yield greater disability improvements compared to etanercept, which remained at a relatively stable dose. Uncontrolled treatment selection in this observational design may have influenced outcomes, and prior methotrexate treatment may partly explain disability improvements smaller than typically observed in clinical trials.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 03/2012; 28(4):569-80. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Associations between modifiable health risk factors during middle age with disability and mortality in later life are critical to maximizing longevity while preserving function. Positive health effects of maintenance of normal weight, routine exercise, and nonsmoking are known for the short and intermediate term. We studied the effects of these risk factors into advanced age. A cohort of 2327 college alumnae aged 60 years or more was followed annually (1986-2005) by questionnaires addressing health risk factors, history, and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability. Mortality data were ascertained from the National Death Index. Low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were created on the basis of the number (0, 1, ≥2) of health risk factors (overweight, smoking, inactivity) at baseline. Disability and mortality for each group were estimated from unadjusted data and regression analyses. Multivariable survival analyses estimated time to disability or death. The medium- and high-risk groups had higher disability than the low-risk group throughout the study (P<.001). Low-risk subjects had onset of moderate disability delayed 8.3 years compared with high-risk subjects. Mortality rates were higher in the high-risk group (384 vs 247 per 10,000 person-years). Multivariable survival analyses showed the number of risk factors to be associated with cumulative disability and increased mortality. Seniors with fewer behavioral risk factors during middle age have lower disability and improved survival. These data document that the associations of lifestyle risk factors on health continue into the ninth decade.
    The American journal of medicine 02/2012; 125(2):190-7. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disabling disease. The authors studied the impact of new, expensive and occasionally toxic biological treatments on disability outcomes in real-world populations of patients with RA. The authors analysed Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index data on 4651 adult patients with RA collected prospectively from 1983 to 2006. They studied trends in disability using multilevel mixed-effects multivariable linear regression (mixed) models that adjusted for the effects of time trends in gender, ethnicity, age, smoking behaviour and disease duration. Overall, the patients were predominantly female (76%), were predominantly white (88%), had 13 years of education and have had RA for 13 years, on average. The time period from 1983 to 2006 saw major increases in the use of disease-modifying agents and biological agents, and a decrease in smoking. After adjustments, the disability rates declined at annual rates of 1.7% (1.5-1.8%) overall and 2.7% (2.4-3.1%) among men. The annual rate of disability declines in the biological era was greater than that in the preceding period, suggesting accelerated improvement. These declines were documented in all patient subgroups such as men, women, African-Americans, obese, older age groups and early disease (p<0.001), but not among the 1401 patients (where disability remained stable) who died on follow-up. Aggressive use of traditional disease-modifying agents and introduction of biological agents were associated with substantial gains in disability outcomes. Our finding supports the prevailing notion that 'tight inflammation control' is a desirable therapeutic strategy.
    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 09/2011; 71(2):213-8. · 8.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and the SF-36 PF-10, among other instruments, yield sensitive and valid Disability (Physical Function) endpoints. Modern techniques, such as Item Response Theory (IRT), now enable development of more precise instruments using improved items. The NIH Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is charged with developing improved IRT-based tools. We compared the ability to detect change in physical function using original (Legacy) instruments with Item-Improved and PROMIS IRT-based instruments. We studied two Legacy (original) Physical Function/Disability instruments (HAQ, PF-10), their item-improved derivatives (Item-Improved HAQ and PF-10), and the IRT-based PROMIS Physical Function 10- (PROMIS PF 10) and 20-item (PROMIS PF 20) instruments. We compared sensitivity to detect 12-month changes in physical function in 451 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and assessed relative responsiveness using P-values, effect sizes (ES), and sample size requirements. The study sample was 81% female, 87% Caucasian, 65 years of age, had 14 years of education, and had moderate baseline disability. All instruments were sensitive to detecting change (< 0.05) in physical function over one year. The most responsive instruments in these patients were the Item-Improved HAQ and the PROMIS PF 20. IRT-improved instruments could detect a 1.2% difference with 80% power, while reference instruments could detect only a 2.3% difference (P < 0.01). The best IRT-based instruments required only one-quarter of the sample sizes of the Legacy (PF-10) comparator (95 versus 427). The HAQ outperformed the PF-10 in more impaired populations; the reverse was true in more normal populations. Considering especially the range of severity measured, the PROMIS PF 20 appears the most responsive instrument. Physical Function scales using item improved or IRT-based items can result in greater responsiveness and precision across a broader range of physical function. This can reduce sample size requirements and thus study costs.
    Arthritis research & therapy 09/2011; 13(5):R147. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis-positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability-was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year prospective longitudinal studies of lifestyle progression of disability, national population studies of trends in disability, and randomized controlled trials of risk factor reduction with life-style-based "healthy aging" interventions. From the perspective of this influential and broadly cited paradigm, we review its current history, the development of a theoretical structure for healthy aging, and the challenges to develop coherent health policies directed at reduction in morbidity.
    Journal of aging research 01/2011; 2011:261702.
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    ABSTRACT: Content validity of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is evaluated primarily during item development, but subsequent psychometric analyses, particularly for item response theory (IRT)-derived scales, often result in considerable item pruning and potential loss of content. After selecting items for the PROMIS banks based on psychometric and content considerations, we invited external content expert reviews of the degree to which the initial domain names and definitions represented the calibrated item bank content. A minimum of four content experts reviewed each item bank and recommended a domain name and definition based on item content. Domain names and definitions then were revealed to the experts who rated how well these names and definitions fit the bank content and provided recommendations for definition revisions. These reviews indicated that the PROMIS domain names and definitions remained generally representative of bank content following item pruning, but modifications to two domain names and minor to moderate revisions of all domain definitions were needed to optimize fit with the item bank content. This reevaluation of domain names and definitions following psychometric item pruning, although not previously documented in the literature, appears to be an important procedure for refining conceptual frameworks and further supporting content validity.
    Quality of Life Research 11/2010; 19(9):1311-21. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 01/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical function is a key component of patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in rheumatology. Modern psychometric methods, such as Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computerized Adaptive Testing, can materially improve measurement precision at the item level. We present the qualitative and quantitative item-evaluation process for developing the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank. The process was stepwise: we searched extensively to identify extant Physical Function items and then classified and selectively reduced the item pool. We evaluated retained items for content, clarity, relevance and comprehension, reading level, and translation ease by experts and patient surveys, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We then assessed items by using classic test theory and IRT, used confirmatory factor analyses to estimate item parameters, and graded response modeling for parameter estimation. We retained the 20 Legacy (original) Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and the 10 SF-36's PF-10 items for comparison. Subjects were from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and healthy aging cohorts (n = 1,100) and a national Internet sample of 21,133 subjects. We identified 1,860 items. After qualitative and quantitative evaluation, 124 newly developed PROMIS items composed the PROMIS item bank, which included revised Legacy items with good fit that met IRT model assumptions. Results showed that the clearest and best-understood items were simple, in the present tense, and straightforward. Basic tasks (like dressing) were more relevant and important versus complex ones (like dancing). Revised HAQ-DI and PF-10 items with five response options had higher item-information content than did comparable original Legacy items with fewer response options. IRT analyses showed that the Physical Function domain satisfied general criteria for unidimensionality with one-, two-, three-, and four-factor models having comparable model fits. Correlations between factors in the test data sets were > 0.90. Item improvement must underlie attempts to improve outcome assessment. The clear, personally important and relevant, ability-framed items in the PROMIS Physical Function item bank perform well in PRO assessment. They will benefit from further study and application in a wider variety of rheumatic diseases in diverse clinical groups, including those at the extremes of physical functioning, and in different administration modes.
    Arthritis research & therapy 12/2009; 11(6):R191. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing self-reported physical function/disability with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and other instruments has become central in arthritis research. Item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) techniques can increase reliability and statistical power. IRT-based instruments can improve measurement precision substantially over a wider range of disease severity. These modern methods were applied and the magnitude of improvement was estimated. A 199-item physical function/disability item bank was developed by distilling 1865 items to 124, including Legacy Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Physical Function-10 items, and improving precision through qualitative and quantitative evaluation in over 21,000 subjects, which included about 1500 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Four new instruments, (A) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information (PROMIS) HAQ, which evolved from the original (Legacy) HAQ; (B) "best" PROMIS 10; (C) 20-item static (short) forms; and (D) simulated PROMIS CAT, which sequentially selected the most informative item, were compared with the HAQ. Online and mailed administration modes yielded similar item and domain scores. The HAQ and PROMIS HAQ 20-item scales yielded greater information content versus other scales in patients with more severe disease. The "best" PROMIS 20-item scale outperformed the other 20-item static forms over a broad range of 4 standard deviations. The 10-item simulated PROMIS CAT outperformed all other forms. Improved items and instruments yielded better information. The PROMIS HAQ is currently available and considered validated. The new PROMIS short forms, after validation, are likely to represent further improvement. CAT-based physical function/disability assessment offers superior performance over static forms of equal length.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 10/2009; 36(9):2061-6. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • James F Fries, Eswar Krishnan, Bonnie Bruce
    The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2009; 36(6):1093-5. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Bonnie Bruce, James F Fries
    Journal of clinical rheumatology: practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases 05/2009; 15(3):145-7. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    Bonnie Bruce, James F Fries, Helen Hubert
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship of regular exercise and body weight to disability among healthy seniors. We assessed body mass index (BMI) and vigorous exercise yearly (1989-2002) in 805 participants aged 50 to 72 years at enrollment. We studied 4 groups: normal-weight active (BMI< 25 kg/m(2); exercise> 60 min/wk); normal-weight inactive (exercise<or= 60 min/wk); overweight active (BMI>or= 25 kg/m(2)); and overweight inactive. Disability was measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0-3; 0= no difficulty, 3= unable to do). We used multivariable analysis of covariance to determine group differences in disability scores after adjustment for determinants of disability. The cohort was 72% men and 96% White, with a mean age of 65.2 years. After 13 years, overweight active participants had significantly less disability than did overweight inactive (0.14 vs 0.19; P= .001) and normal-weight inactive (0.22; P= .03) participants. Similar differences were found between normal-weight active (0.11) and normal-weight inactive participants (P< .001). Being physically active mitigated development of disability in these seniors, largely independent of BMI. Public health efforts that promote physically active lifestyles among seniors may be more successful than those that emphasize body weight in the prevention of functional decline.
    American Journal of Public Health 08/2008; 98(7):1294-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    James F Fries, Bonnie Bruce, Matthias Rose
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 05/2008; 59(4):598-9; author reply 599. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine disparities in disability, pain, and global health between Caucasian (n = 4294) and African American (n = 283) and Caucasian and Hispanic (n = 153) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were from 9 Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System databanks. Cross-sectional data were derived from the Health Assessment Questionnaire. Staged multivariate analysis of covariance was used to explore roles of possible contributing factors (age, sex, education, disease duration, number of comorbid conditions, and treatment) to ethnic minority disparities. The cohort was 91% Caucasian and 76% female. Caucasians were significantly older than African Americans and Hispanics (62 vs 56 and 55 yrs; both p < 0.0001 from Caucasians), better educated (13 vs 12 and 12 yrs; both p < 0.0001 from Caucasians), and had their RA longer (16 vs 13 and 15 yrs; p < 0.01 for African Americans). Unadjusted disability scores were statistically indistinguishable, but pain was worse in both ethnic groups (p < 0.01), and global health worse in Hispanics (p < 0.05). After adjustment for covariates, African Americans had the poorest outcomes in all 3 measures, although only pain in African Americans (p < 0.05) was statistically different from Caucasians. Results of this exploratory study suggest that in a relatively similar cohort of patients with RA, minority health disparities exist. Both ethnic groups had poorer outcomes for all 3 measures than Caucasians after adjustment. Additional study and longitudinal research with larger numbers of patients are needed to improve our understanding of these differences and to assess potential causal roles.
    The Journal of Rheumatology 07/2007; 34(7):1475-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Roadmap initiative (www.nihpromis.org) is a 5-year cooperative group program of research designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure patient-reported outcomes (PROs) relevant across common medical conditions. In this article, we will summarize the organization and scientific activity of the PROMIS network during its first 2 years. The network consists of 6 primary research sites (PRSs), a statistical coordinating center (SCC), and NIH research scientists. Governed by a steering committee, the network is organized into functional subcommittees and working groups. In the first year, we created an item library and activated 3 interacting protocols: Domain Mapping, Archival Data Analysis, and Qualitative Item Review (QIR). In the second year, we developed and initiated testing of item banks covering 5 broad domains of self-reported health. The domain mapping process is built on the World Health Organization (WHO) framework of physical, mental, and social health. From this framework, pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning, social role participation, and global health perceptions were selected for the first wave of testing. Item response theory (IRT)-based analysis of 11 large datasets supplemented and informed item-level qualitative review of nearly 7000 items from available PRO measures in the item library. Items were selected for rewriting or creation with further detailed review before the first round of testing in the general population and target patient populations. The NIH PROMIS network derived a consensus-based framework for self-reported health, systematically reviewed available instruments and datasets that address the initial PROMIS domains. Qualitative item research led to the first wave of network testing which began in the second year.
    Medical Care 06/2007; 45(5 Suppl 1):S3-S11. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Bonnie Bruce, Kate Lorig, Diana Laurent
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    ABSTRACT: Participation in evidenced-based arthritis self-management programs (SMPs) has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the participation rate and participant characteristics in a closed cohort of subjects in a geographic region where arthritis SMPs have been offered multiple times and continuously for 2 decades. Data were from osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis subjects participating in the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS) who resided in the San Francisco (SF) Bay area who had responded to questions about ever participating in an SMP. Differences between participants and nonparticipants were examined by t-tests and chi-square tests. Questions added to the Health Assessment Questionnaire were returned by 1,176 patients; 618 resided in the SF Bay area. Of the SF Bay area sample, 41.9% had participated in an SMP. Small group SMPs, which had been offered multiple times, in diverse settings, continuously over the past 2 decades, were attended by the highest proportion (28%) of participants. Characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in the SF Bay area were similar ( approximately 70 years old, 15 years of education, and the majority had OA [ approximately 72%]). However, a higher proportion of participants were white (88% versus 82%; P = 0.046) and female (82% versus 73%; P < 0.05). When arthritis SMPs were offered multiple times in diverse settings and continuously over many years, >40% of the cohort was reached. More research is needed with larger samples and different geographic regions to identify participation rates in more diverse populations.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2007; 57(5):851-4. · 7.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
148.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Stanford University
      • • Division of Rheumatology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States