[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varicose veins are elongated and dilated saphenous veins. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, its pathogenesis remains unclear.
In this study, we investigated the control of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression by prostaglandin (PG)E2 during the vascular wall remodeling of human varicose veins.
Varicose (small (SDv) and large diameter (LDv)) and healthy saphenous veins (SV) were obtained after surgery. Microsomal and cytosolic PGE-synthases (mPGES and cPGES) protein and mRNA responsible for PGE2 metabolism were analyzed in all veins. cPGES protein was absent while its mRNA was weakly expressed. mPGES-2 expression was similar in the different saphenous veins. mPGES-1 mRNA and protein were detected in healthy veins and a significant decrease was found in LDv. Additionally, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), responsible for PGE2 degradation, was over-expressed in varicose veins. These variations in mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH density account for the decreased PGE2 level observed in varicose veins. Furthermore, a significant decrease in PGE2 receptor (EP4) levels was also found in SDv and LDv. Active MMP-1 and total MMP-2 concentrations were significantly decreased in varicose veins while the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP -1 and -2), were significantly increased, probably explaining the increased collagen content found in LDv. Finally, the MMP/TIMP ratio is restored by exogenous PGE2 in varicose veins and reduced in presence of an EP4 receptor antagonist in healthy veins.
In conclusion, PGE2 could be responsible for the vascular wall thickening in human varicose veins. This mechanism could be protective, strengthening the vascular wall in order to counteract venous stasis.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88021. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostacyclin (PGI2) and its mimetics (iloprost, treprostinil, beraprost and MRE-269) are potent vasodilatators (via IP-receptor activation) and a major therapeutic intervention for pulmonary hypertension (PH). These PGI2 mimetics have anti-proliferative and potent vasodilatator effects on pulmonary vessels. We compared the relaxant effects induced by these recognized IP-agonists in isolated human pulmonary arteries (HPA) and veins (HPV). In addition, using selective antagonists, the possible activation of other prostanoid relaxant receptors (DP, EP4) was investigated. Iloprost and treprostinil were the more potent relaxant agonists when both vessels were analysed. HPA were significantly more sensitive to iloprost than to treprostinil, pEC50 values: 7.94±0.06 (n=23) and 6.73±0.08 (n=33), respectively. In contrast, in HPV these agonists were equipotent. The relaxations induced by treprostinil were completely or partially inhibited by IP-antagonists in HPA or HPV, respectively. The effects of the IP-agonists were not significantly modified by the EP4 antagonist. Finally, DP-antagonists inhibited the relaxations induced by treprostinil in HPV, suggesting that the DP-receptor plays a role in treprostinil-induced relaxation in the HPV. These data suggest that iloprost and treprostinil should be the most effective clinically available agonists to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance and to prevent oedema formation (by similar decrease in HPA and HPV resistance) in PH patients.
Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 07/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most vessels and has now been recognized as a regulator of vascular functions. This effect of PVAT has been mostly demonstrated in vessels obtained from rats and mice. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate anti-contractile effect of PVAT surrounding human coronary bypass grafts such as saphenous vein (SV) and internal mammary artery (IMA). Moreover, we aimed to determine the involvement of prostanoids in the anticontractile effect of PVAT. Human SV and IMA preparations were set up in an organ bath. The presence of PVAT in SV and IMA preparations significantly attenuated the contractile response to noradrenaline (NA). Preincubation with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, increased NA contraction in SV preparations with PVAT. This effect was not observed in IMA preparation with PVAT incubated with indomethacin. The lower measurements of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) released from PVAT surrounding IMA versus SV supported these effects. In conclusion, our results show that PVAT of SV could attenuate NA-induced contraction by releasing both PGE2 and prostacyclin (PGI2). In contrast to SV, PVAT of IMA exerts its anti-contractile effect independently from prostanoids. These observations suggest that retaining PVAT in human SV and IMA preparations may have potential clinical implications to improve coronary bypass graft patency.
Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 06/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PG) are the product of a cascade of enzymes such as cyclooxygenases and PG synthases. Among PG, PGE2 is produced by 3 isoforms of PGE synthase (PGES) and through activation of its cognate receptors (EP1-4), this PG is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. Some anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) interfere with its metabolism or effects. Vascular cells can initiate many of the responses associated with inflammation. In human vascular tissue, PGE2 is involved in many physiological processes, such as increasing vascular permeability, cell proliferation, cell migration and control of vascular smooth muscle tone. PGE2 has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm but also in physiologic/adaptive processes such as angiogenesis. Understanding the roles of PGE2 and its cognate receptors in vascular diseases could help to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, from these recent studies new promising therapeutic approaches like mPGES-1 inhibition and/or EP4-antagonism should be investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Varicose veins affect one-third of the adult population in western countries, but their pathogenesis is incompletely characterized. One of the most controversial issues is the role of inflammation. It is well known that inflammation involves an increased expression/activity of inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence or absence of mediators of inflammation in varicose as compared to healthy veins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using immunohistofluorescence on varicose and healthy veins, we investigated the presence of inflammatory cells. They were not detectable. Venous wall C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (EIA) and pentraxin-3 (Western blot) content were measured. CRP was significantly lower in varicose veins, but no difference was found for fibrinogen or pentraxin-3 between varicose and healthy veins. No difference was observed for enzymes involved in inflammation and responsible for arachidonic acid metabolism such as the acute phase reactant secreted phospholipase A(2)-IIA and cyclooxygenase-2, as determined in varicose and healthy veins by Western blot and real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments demonstrate no increase in the presence of mediators of inflammation in varicose as compared to healthy veins, suggesting that inflammation may not be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of varicose veins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E(2) is produced in inflammatory responses via the cyclooxygenase pathway and regulates a variety of physiological and pathological reactions through four different receptor subtypes; EP(1), EP(2), EP(3) and EP(4). The role of the classical prostanoid receptors stimulated by prostaglandin I(2) and thromboxane A(2) in the blood circulation has been largely studied, whereas the other receptors such as EP activated by prostaglandin E(2), have been recently shown to be also implicated. There is now increasing evidence suggesting an important role of EP(3) and EP(4) receptor subtypes in the control of the human vascular tone and remodeling of the vascular wall as well in platelet aggregation and thrombosis. These receptors are implicated in vascular homeostasis and in the development of some pathological situations, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms and hypertension. The use of specific EP agonists/antagonists would provide a novel cardiovascular therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the role of prostaglandin E(2) receptors in the control of human blood and vascular cells.
European journal of pharmacology 09/2012; 695(1-3):1-6. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial vascularization of the spinal cord may be mechanically or functionally altered during thoraco-abdominal surgery/intravascular procedures. Increased arterial pressure has been shown to restore spinal perfusion and function probably by increasing the blood flow through the intercostal arteries. The regulation of human intercostal artery (HICA) vascular tone is not well documented. Prostaglandin (PG)E(2) concentration is increased during inflammatory conditions and has been shown to regulate vascular tone in many preparations. In this context, the pharmacological response of HICA to PGE(2) and the characterization of the PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3) or EP(4)) involved are of importance and that is the aim of this study. Rings of HICA were prepared from 29 patients and suspended in organ baths for isometric recording of tension. Cumulative concentration-response curves were performed in these preparations with various EP receptor agonists in the absence or presence of different receptor antagonists or inhibitors. PGE(2) induced the contraction of HICA (E(max)=7.28 ± 0.16 g; pEC(50) value=0.79 ± 0.18; n=17); contractions were also observed with the EP(3) receptor agonists, sulprostone, 17-phenyl-PGE(2), misoprostol or ONO-AE-248. In conclusion, PGE(2) induced vasoconstriction of HICA via EP(3) receptor subtypes and this result was confirmed by the use of selective EP receptor antagonists (L-826266, ONO-8713, SC-51322) and by a strong detection of EP(3) mRNA. These observations suggest that in the context of perioperative inflammation, increased PGE(2) concentrations could trigger vasoconstriction of HICA and possibly alter spinal vascularization.
European journal of pharmacology 02/2012; 681(1-3):55-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are characterized by inappropriate constriction of the airway smooth muscle. In this context, the physiological response of the human airways to selective relaxant agonists like PGE(2) is highly relevant. The aim of this study was thus to characterize the PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(2) or EP(4)) involved in the relaxation of human bronchial preparations.
Human bronchial preparations cut as rings were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension and a pharmacological study was performed using selective EP(2) or EP(4) ligands.
In the presence of a thromboxane TP receptor antagonist and indomethacin, PGE(2) induced the relaxation of human bronchi (E(max) = 86 ± 04% of papaverine response; pEC(50) value = 7.06 ± 0.13; n = 6). This bronchodilation was significantly blocked by a selective EP(4) receptor antagonist (GW627368X, 1 and 10 μmol/L) with a pK(B) value of 6.38 ± 0.19 (n = 5). In addition, the selective EP(4) receptor agonists (ONO-AE1-329; L-902688), but not the selective EP(2) receptor agonist (ONO-AE1-259), induced potent relaxation of bronchial preparations pre-contracted with histamine or anti-IgE.
PGE(2) and EP(4) agonists induced potent relaxations of human bronchial preparations via EP(4) receptor. These observations suggest that EP(4) receptor agonists could constitute therapeutic agents to treat the increased airway resistance in asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human internal mammary arteries (IMA) and saphenous veins (SV) are frequently used for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Intra- and postoperatively, the bypass grafts are exposed to inflammatory conditions, under which there is a striking increase in the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ). In this context, the physiological response of these vascular grafts to PGE(2) is highly relevant. The aim of this study was thus to characterize the PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP(1) , EP(2) , EP(3) or EP(4) ) involved in modulation of the vascular tone in these two vessels.
Rings of IMA and SV were prepared from 48 patients. The rings were mounted in organ baths for isometric recording of tension, and a pharmacological study was performed, together with associated reverse transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments.
PGE(2) induced contractions of IMA (E(max) = 1.43 ± 0.20 g; pEC(50) = 7.50 ± 0.10); contractions were also observed with the EP(3) receptor agonists, sulprostone, 17-phenyl-PGE(2) , misoprostol or ONO-AE-248. In contrast, PGE(2) induced relaxation of the precontracted SV (E(max) =-0.22 ± 0.02 g; pEC(50) = 7.14 ± 0.09), as did the EP(4) receptor agonist, ONO-AE1-329. These results were confirmed by the use of selective EP receptor antagonists (GW627368X, L-826266, ONO-8713, SC-51322) and by molecular biology and immunostaining.
PGE(2) induced potent and opposite effects on the human vascular segments used for grafting, namely vasoconstriction of the IMA and vasodilatation of the SV via EP(3) and EP(4) receptors respectively. These observations suggest that EP(3) and EP(4) receptors could constitute therapeutic targets to increase vascular graft patency.
British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2011; 163(4):826-34. · 5.07 Impact Factor