John Hardy

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (595)5280.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We and others have described the neurodegenerative disorder caused by G51D SNCA mutation which shares characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). The objective of this investigation was to extend the description of the clinical and neuropathological hallmarks of G51D mutant SNCA-associated disease by the study of two additional cases from a further G51D SNCA kindred and to compare the features of this group with a SNCA duplication case and a H50Q SNCA mutation case. All three G51D patients were clinically characterised by parkinsonism, dementia, visual hallucinations, autonomic dysfunction and pyramidal signs with variable age at disease onset and levodopa response. The H50Q SNCA mutation case had a clinical picture that mimicked late-onset idiopathic PD with a good and sustained levodopa response. The SNCA duplication case presented with a clinical phenotype of frontotemporal dementia with marked behavioural changes, pyramidal signs, postural hypotension and transiently levodopa responsive parkinsonism. Detailed post-mortem neuropathological analysis was performed in all cases. All three G51D cases had abundant α-synuclein pathology with characteristics of both PD and MSA. These included widespread cortical and subcortical neuronal α-synuclein inclusions together with small numbers of inclusions resembling glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendrocytes. In contrast the H50Q and SNCA duplication cases, had α-synuclein pathology resembling idiopathic PD without GCIs. Phosphorylated α-synuclein was present in all inclusions types in G51D cases but was more restricted in SNCA duplication and H50Q mutation. Inclusions were also immunoreactive for the 5G4 antibody indicating their highly aggregated and likely fibrillar state. Our characterisation of the clinical and neuropathological features of the present small series of G51D SNCA mutation cases should aid the recognition of this clinico-pathological entity. The neuropathological features of these cases consistently share characteristics of PD and MSA and are distinct from PD patients carrying the H50Q or SNCA duplication.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 12/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13024-015-0038-3 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mutations in the thanatos-associated protein domain containing apoptosis-associated protein 1 gene (THAP1) are responsible for adult-onset isolated dystonia (DYT6). However, no neuropathological studies of genetically proven DYT6 cases have been previously reported. Objective: We report the first detailed neuropathological investigation carried out on two DYT6 brains. Methods: Genetic screening for THAP1 gene mutations using standard Sanger polymerase chain reaction sequencing identified 2 cases, 1 with a known pathogenic mutation and the other with a novel mutation. A detailed neuropathological assessment of the cases was performed. Results: Both DYT6 cases showed no significant neurodegeneration and no specific disease-related pathology. Conclusions: No neuropathological features that could be defined as hallmark features of DYT6 dystonia were identified. Our study supports the notion that in isolated dystonia, there is no significant neurodegeneration or morphological lesions that can be identified using routine methods.
    Neurodegenerative Diseases 11/2015; DOI:10.1159/000440863 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The similarities between Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and both Parkinson’s (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are many and range from clinical presentation, to neuropathological characteristics, to more recently identified, genetic determinants of risk. Because of these overlapping features, diagnosing DLB is challenging and has clinical implications since some therapeutic agents that are applicable in other diseases have adverse effects in DLB. Having shown that DLB shares some genetic risk with PD and AD, we have now quantified the amount of sharing through the application of genetic correlation estimates, and show that, from a purely genetic perspective, and excluding the strong association at the APOE locus, DLB is equally correlated to AD and PD.
    Neurobiology of Aging 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.10.028 · 5.01 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: To date, a large spectrum of genetic variants has been related to familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) in diverse populations worldwide. However, very little is known about the genetic landscape of PD in Southern Spain, despite its particular genetic landscape coming from multiple historical migrations. We included 134 PD patients in this study, of which 97 individuals were diagnosed with late-onset sporadic PD (LOPD), 28 with early-onset sporadic PD (EOPD), and 9 with familial PD (FPD). Genetic analysis was performed through a next-generation sequencing panel to screen 8 PD-related genes (LRRK2, SNCA, PARKIN, PINK1, DJ-1, VPS35, GBA, and GCH1) in EOPD and FPD groups and direct Sanger sequencing of GBA exons 8-11 and LRRK2 exons 31 and 41 in the LOPD group. In the EOPD and FPD groups, we identified 11 known pathogenic mutations among 15 patients (40.5 %). GBA (E326K, N370S, D409H, L444P) mutations were identified in 7 patients (18.9 %); LRRK2 (p.R1441G and p.G2019S) in 3 patients (8.1 %); biallelic PARK2 mutations (p.N52fs, p.V56E, p.C212Y) in 4 cases (10.8%) and PINK1 homozygous p.G309D in 1 patient (2.7 %). An EOPD patient carried a single PARK2 heterozygous mutation (p.R402C), and another had a novel heterozygous mutation in VPS35 (p.R32S), both of unknown significance. Moreover, pathogenic mutations in GBA (E326K, T369M, N370S, D409H, L444P) and LRRK2 (p.R1441G and p.G2019S) were identified in 13 patients (13.4 %) and 4 patients (4.1 %), respectively, in the LOPD group. A large number of known pathogenic mutations related to PD have been identified. In particular, GBA and LRRK2 mutations appear to be considerably frequent in our population, suggesting a strong Jewish influence. Further research is needed to study the contribution of the novel found mutation p.R32S in VPS35 to the pathogenesis of PD.
    Neurobiology of aging 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.09.020 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of subjects at high risk for Alzheimer's disease is important for prognosis and early intervention. We investigated the polygenic architecture of Alzheimer's disease and the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease prediction models, including and excluding the polygenic component in the model. This study used genotype data from the powerful dataset comprising 17 008 cases and 37 154 controls obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). Polygenic score analysis tested whether the alleles identified to associate with disease in one sample set were significantly enriched in the cases relative to the controls in an independent sample. The disease prediction accuracy was investigated in a subset of the IGAP data, a sample of 3049 cases and 1554 controls (for whom APOE genotype data were available) by means of sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive and negative predictive values. We observed significant evidence for a polygenic component enriched in Alzheimer's disease (P = 4.9 × 10(-26)). This enrichment remained significant after APOE and other genome-wide associated regions were excluded (P = 3.4 × 10(-19)). The best prediction accuracy AUC = 78.2% (95% confidence interval 77-80%) was achieved by a logistic regression model with APOE, the polygenic score, sex and age as predictors. In conclusion, Alzheimer's disease has a significant polygenic component, which has predictive utility for Alzheimer's disease risk and could be a valuable research tool complementing experimental designs, including preventative clinical trials, stem cell selection and high/low risk clinical studies. In modelling a range of sample disease prevalences, we found that polygenic scores almost doubles case prediction from chance with increased prediction at polygenic extremes.
    Brain 10/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv268 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is wide variation in the phenotypic expression of Parkinson's disease (PD), which is driven by both genetic and epidemiological influences. Objectives: To define and explain variation in the clinical phenotype of PD, in relation to genotypic variation. Methods: Tracking Parkinson's is a multicentre prospective longitudinal epidemiologic and biomarker study of PD. Patients attending specialist clinics in the United Kingdom with recent onset (<3.5 years) and young onset (diagnosed <50 years of age) PD were enrolled. Motor, non-motor and quality of life assessments were performed using validated scales. Cases are followed up 6 monthly up to 4.5 years for recent onset PD, and up to 1 year for young onset PD. We present here baseline clinical data from this large and demographically representative cohort. Results: 2247 PD cases were recruited (1987 recent onset, 260 young onset). Recent onset cases had a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 67.6 years (9.3) at study entry, 65.7% males, with disease duration 1.3 years (0.9), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 22.9 (12.3), LEDD 295 mg/day (211) and PDQ-8 score 5.9 (4.8). Young onset cases were 53.5 years old (7.8) at study entry, 66.9% male, with disease duration 10.2 years (6.7), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 27.4 (15.3), LEDD 926 mg/day (567) and PDQ-8 score 11.6 (6.1). Conclusions: We have established a large clinical PD cohort, consisting of young onset and recent onset cases, which is designed to evaluate variation in clinical expression, in relation to genetic influences, and which offers a platform for future imaging and biomarker research.
    10/2015; DOI:10.3233/JPD-150662

  • Annals of Neurology 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/ana.24527 · 9.98 Impact Factor
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    John Hardy ·

    09/2015; DOI:10.1093/jlb/lsv035
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis and early detection of complex diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, has the potential to be of great benefit for researchers and clinical practice. We aimed to create a non-invasive, accurate classification model for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, which could serve as a basis for future disease prediction studies in longitudinal cohorts. We developed a model for disease classification using data from the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) study for 367 patients with Parkinson's disease and phenotypically typical imaging data and 165 controls without neurological disease. Olfactory function, genetic risk, family history of Parkinson's disease, age, and gender were algorithmically selected by stepwise logistic regression as significant contributors to our classifying model. We then tested the model with data from 825 patients with Parkinson's disease and 261 controls from five independent cohorts with varying recruitment strategies and designs: the Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers Program (PDBP), the Parkinson's Associated Risk Study (PARS), 23andMe, the Longitudinal and Biomarker Study in PD (LABS-PD), and the Morris K Udall Parkinson's Disease Research Center of Excellence cohort (Penn-Udall). Additionally, we used our model to investigate patients who had imaging scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD). In the population from PPMI, our initial model correctly distinguished patients with Parkinson's disease from controls at an area under the curve (AUC) of 0·923 (95% CI 0·900-0·946) with high sensitivity (0·834, 95% CI 0·711-0·883) and specificity (0·903, 95% CI 0·824-0·946) at its optimum AUC threshold (0·655). All Hosmer-Lemeshow simulations suggested that when parsed into random subgroups, the subgroup data matched that of the overall cohort. External validation showed good classification of Parkinson's disease, with AUCs of 0·894 (95% CI 0·867-0·921) in the PDBP cohort, 0·998 (0·992-1·000) in PARS, 0·955 (no 95% CI available) in 23andMe, 0·929 (0·896-0·962) in LABS-PD, and 0·939 (0·891-0·986) in the Penn-Udall cohort. Four of 17 SWEDD participants who our model classified as having Parkinson's disease converted to Parkinson's disease within 1 year, whereas only one of 38 SWEDD participants who were not classified as having Parkinson's disease underwent conversion (test of proportions, p=0·003). Our model provides a potential new approach to distinguish participants with Parkinson's disease from controls. If the model can also identify individuals with prodromal or preclinical Parkinson's disease in prospective cohorts, it could facilitate identification of biomarkers and interventions. National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Michael J Fox Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Neurology 08/2015; 14(10). DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00178-7 · 21.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome, which arises in individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21, is associated with a greatly increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer disease. It is thought that this risk is conferred by the presence of three copies of the gene encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) - an Alzheimer disease risk factor - although the possession of extra copies of other chromosome 21 genes may also play a part. Further study of the mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer disease in people with Down syndrome could provide insights into the mechanisms that cause dementia in the general population.
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience 08/2015; 16(9). DOI:10.1038/nrn3983 · 31.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies is an α-synucleinopathy characterized by neocortical Lewy-related pathology (LRP). We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on neocortical LRP in a population-based sample of subjects aged 85 or over.MethodsLRP was analyzed in 304 subjects in the Vantaa 85+ sample from Southern Finland. The GWAS included 41 cases with midbrain, hippocampal, and neocortical LRP and 177 controls without midbrain and hippocampal LRP. The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) material was used for replication (51 cases and 131 controls).ResultsBy analyzing 327,010 markers the top signal was obtained at the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 locus (P = 1.29 × 10−7); five other loci on chromosomes 15q14, 2p21, 2q31, 18p11, and 5q23 were associated with neocortical LRP at P < 10−5. Two loci were marked by multiple markers, 2p21 (P = 3.9 × 10−6, upstream of the SPTBN1 gene), and HLA-DPA1/DPB1; these were tested in the CFAS material. Single marker (P = 0.0035) and haplotype (P = 0.04) associations on 2p21 were replicated in CFAS, whereas HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association was not. Bioinformatic analyses suggest functional effects for the HLA-DPA1/DPB1 markers as well as the 15q14 marker rs8037309.InterpretationWe identified suggestive novel risk factors for neocortical LRP. SPTBN1 is the candidate on 2p21, it encodes beta-spectrin, an α-synuclein binding protein and a component of Lewy bodies. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 association suggests a role for antigen presentation or alternatively, cis-regulatory effects, one of the regulated neighboring genes identified here (vacuolar protein sorting 52) plays a role in vesicular trafficking and has been shown to interact with α-synuclein in a yeast model.
    08/2015; 2(9). DOI:10.1002/acn3.231
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    ABSTRACT: Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a very rare movement disorder, caused in approximately 30-50% of cases by mutations in SGCE. The CACNA1B variant c.4166G>A; (p.R1389H) was recently reported as the likely causative mutation in a single 3-generation Dutch pedigree with 5 subjects affected by a unique dominant M-D syndrome and cardiac arrhythmias. In an attempt to replicate this finding, we assessed by direct sequencing the frequency of CACNA1B c.4166G>A; (p.R1389H) in a cohort of 520 M-D cases, in which SGCE mutations had been previously excluded. 146 cases (28%) had a positive family history of M-D. The frequency of the variant was also assessed in 489 neurologically healthy controls and in publicly available datasets of genetic variation (1000 Genomes, Exome Variant Server and Exome Aggregation Consortium). The variant was detected in a single sporadic case with M-D, but in none of the 146 probands with familial M-D. Overall, the variant was present at comparable frequencies in M-D cases (1/520; 0.19%) and healthy controls (1/489; 0.2%). A similar frequency of the variant was also reported in all publicly available databases. These results do not support a causal association between the CACNA1B c.4166G>A; (p.R1389H) variant and M-D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2015; 24(18). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv255 · 6.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detecting and treating Alzheimer’s disease, before cognitive deficits occur, has become the health challenge of our time. The earliest known event in Alzheimer’s disease is rising Aβ. Previous studies have suggested that effects on synaptic transmission may precede plaque deposition. Here we report how relative levels of different soluble Aβ peptides in hippocampus, preceding plaque deposition, relate to synaptic and genomic changes. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry was used to measured the early rise of different Aβ peptides in a mouse model of increasing Aβ (‘TASTPM’, transgenic for familial Alzheimer’s disease genes APP/PSEN1). In the third postnatal week, several Aβ peptides were above the limit of detection, including Aβ40, Aβ38 and Aβ42 with an intensity ratio of 6:3:2, respectively. By 2 months Aβ levels had only increased by 50% and, although the ratio of the different peptides remained constant, the first changes in synaptic currents, compared to WT mice could be detected with patch-clamp recordings. Between 2 and 4 months old, levels of Aβ40 rose by about seven-fold but Aβ42 rose by 25-fold, increasing Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio to 1:1. Only at 4 months did plaque deposition become detectable and only in some mice, however synaptic changes were evident in all hippocampal fields. These changes included increased glutamate release probability (P<0.001, n=7-9; consistent with the proposed physiological effect of Aβ) and loss of spontaneous action potential-mediated activity in the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus (P<0.001, n=7). Hence synaptic changes occur when the Aβ levels and Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio are still low compared to those necessary for plaque deposition. Genome-wide microarray analysis revealed changes in gene expression at 2-4 months including synaptic genes being strongly affected but often showing significant changes only by 4 months. We thus demonstrate that, in a mouse model of rising Aβ, the initial deposition of plaques does not occur until several months after the first Aβ becomes detectable but coincides with a rapid acceleration in the rise of Aβ levels and the Aβ42:Aβ40 ratio. Prior to acceleration however, there is already a pronounced synaptic dysfunction, reflected as changes in synaptic transmission and altered gene expression, indicating that restoring synaptic function early in the disease progression may represent the earliest possible target for intervention in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Brain 07/2015; · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human CNS. Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC-neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analysed the expression, and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10+16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10+16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time-points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2015; 24(18). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv246 · 6.39 Impact Factor
  • Stuart Pickering-Brown · John Hardy ·

    Brain 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv173 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African-American (AA) individuals have a higher risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) than Americans of primarily European ancestry (EA). Recently, the largest genome-wide association study in AAs to date confirmed that six of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genetic variants originally discovered in EA cohorts are also risk variants in AA; however, the risk attributable to many of the loci (e.g., APOE, ABCA7), differed substantially from previous studies in EA. There likely are risk variants of higher frequency in AAs that have not been discovered. We performed a comprehensive analysis of genetically determined local and global ancestry in AAs with regard to LOAD status. Compared to controls, LOAD cases showed higher levels of African ancestry, both globally and at several LOAD relevant loci, which explained risk for AD beyond global differences. Exploratory post hoc analyses highlight regions with greatest differences in ancestry as potential candidate regions for future genetic analyses. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.02.012 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most prevalent form of early onset dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a case-control association study in an Italian FTD cohort (n = 530) followed by the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-to-genes approach and functional annotation analysis. We identified 2 novel potential loci for FTD. Suggestive SNPs reached p-values ∼10(-7) and odds ratio > 2.5 (2p16.3) and 1.5 (17q25.3). Suggestive alleles at 17q25.3 identified a disease-associated haplotype causing decreased expression of -cis genes such as RFNG and AATK involved in neuronal genesis and differentiation and axon outgrowth, respectively. We replicated this locus through the SNPs-to-genes approach. Our functional annotation analysis indicated significant enrichment for functions of the brain (neuronal genesis, differentiation, and maturation), the synapse (neurotransmission and synapse plasticity), and elements of the immune system, the latter supporting our recent international FTD-genome-wide association study. This is the largest genome-wide study in Italian FTD to date. Although our results are not conclusive, we set the basis for future replication studies and identification of susceptible molecular mechanisms involved in FTD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of aging 06/2015; 75(10). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.06.005 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PLA2G6 gene encodes a group VIA calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta enzyme that selectively hydrolyses glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids. Mutations in PLA2G6 have been associated with disorders such as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type II and Karak syndrome. More recently, PLA2G6 was identified as the causative gene in a subgroup of patients with autosomal recessive early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism. Neuropathological examination revealed widespread Lewy body pathology and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau, supporting a link between PLA2G6 mutations and parkinsonian disorders. Here we show that knockout of the Drosophila homologue of the PLA2G6 gene, iPLA2-VIA, results in reduced survival, locomotor deficits and organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of iPLA2-VIA function leads to a number of mitochondrial abnormalities, including mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction, reduced ATP synthesis and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, we show that loss of iPLA2-VIA is strongly associated with increased lipid peroxidation levels. We confirmed our findings using cultured fibroblasts taken from two patients with mutations in the PLA2G6 gene. Similar abnormalities were seen including elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane defects, as well as raised levels of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Finally, we demonstrated that deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids, which inhibit lipid peroxidation, were able to partially rescue the locomotor abnormalities seen in aged flies lacking iPLA2-VIA gene function, and restore mitochondrial membrane potential in fibroblasts from patients with PLA2G6 mutations. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that loss of normal PLA2G6 gene activity leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent mitochondrial membrane abnormalities. Furthermore we show that the iPLA2-VIA knockout fly model provides a useful platform for the further study of PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
    Brain 05/2015; 138(7). DOI:10.1093/brain/awv132 · 9.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

45k Citations
5,280.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • University College London
      • Department of Molecular Neuroscience
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011-2014
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • L'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Campinas
      Conceição de Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • Banner Alzheimer's Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Medicine
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2011
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Laboratory of Neurogenetics (LNG)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002-2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Neurogenetics
      Maryland, United States
  • 1992-2009
    • University of South Florida
      • Morsani College of Medicine
      Tampa, Florida, United States
  • 2001-2008
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Pathology
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
    • University of Wales
      • College of Medicine
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Chang Gung University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Hospital Universitario Fundacion Alcorcon
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1997-2003
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 1996-2002
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1998
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Neurology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Essex
      Colchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 1991
    • University of Antwerp
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 1990-1991
    • Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom