Li Li

Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, United States

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Publications (77)211.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory bioassays were performed to investigate the specific odors utilized as host location cues by the beetle parasitoid, Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a primary biological control agent against Monochamus alternates (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), the most important vector beetle of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), the causal agent for pine wilt disease. Female parasitoids were tested with volatiles and extracts derived from their host beetle. Behavioral assays (Y-olfactometer bioassay and circle arena) demonstrated the response of female parasitoids to odors from host plants damaged by beetle larvae and from their excreta. When available contact cues were additionally provided, the parasitoids showed particularly strong preferences for samples of fresh brown frass of larval beetles. To confirm the electroantennograms (EAG) activity of identified compounds, analyses were repeated with a synthetic blend composed predominantly of compounds in the crude extracts that had revealed apparent electrophysiological activity. Antennal responses to four monoterpenes and three oxygenated monoterpenes were among the strongest, which indicated their potential for use in development of semichemial-based management of the beetle.
    BioControl 06/2015; 60(3). DOI:10.1007/s10526-015-9651-x · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1/Mule/ARF-BP1 plays an important role in integrating/coordinating diverse cellular processes such as DNA damage repair and apoptosis. A previous study has shown that HUWE1 is required for the early step of DNA damage-induced apoptosis, by targeting MCL-1 for proteasomal degradation. However, HUWE1 is subsequently inactivated, promoting cell survival and the subsequent DNA damage repair process. The mechanism underlying its regulation during this process remains largely undefined. Here, we show that the Cullin4B-RING E3 ligase (CRL4B) is required for proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage. CUL4B is activated in a NEDD8-dependent manner, and ubiquitinates HUWE1 in vitro and in vivo. The depletion of CUL4B stabilizes HUWE1, which in turn accelerates the degradation of MCL-1, leading to increased induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, cells deficient in CUL4B showed increased sensitivity to DNA damage reagents. More importantly, upon CUL4B depletion, these phenotypes can be rescued through simultaneous depletion of HUWE1, consistent with the role of CUL4B in regulating HUWE1. Collectively, these results identify CRL4B as an essential E3 ligase in targeting the proteasomal degradation of HUWE1 in response to DNA damage, and provide a potential strategy for cancer therapy by targeting HUWE1 and the CUL4B E3 ligase. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv325 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) make up the most common form of mutations in human cytochrome P450 enzymes family, and have the potential to bring with different drug responses or specific diseases in individual patients. Here, based on machine learning technology, we aim to explore an effective set of sequence-based features for improving prediction of SNPs by using support vector machine algorithms. The features are derived from the target residues and flanking protein sequences, such as amino acid types, sequences composition, physicochemical properties, position-specific scoring matrix, phylogenetic entropy and the number of possible codons of target residues. In order to deal with the imbalance data with a majority of non-SNPs and a minority of SNPs, a preprocessing strategy based on fuzzy set theory was applied to the datasets. Our final model achieves the performance of 93.8% in sensitivity, 88.8% in specificity, 91.3% in accuracy and 0.971 of AUC value, which is significantly higher than the previous DNA sequence-based or protein sequence-based methods. Furthermore, our study also suggested the roles of individual features for prediction of SNPs. The most important features consist of the amino acid type, the number of available codons, position-specific scoring matrix and phylogenetic entropy. The improved model will be a promising tool for SNP predictions, and assist in the research of genome mutation and personalized prescriptions.
    Interdisciplinary Sciences Computational Life Sciences 03/2015; 7(1):65-77. DOI:10.1007/s12539-014-0257-2 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in apoptosis and was shown to increase the risk of diabetes. Visfatin, an adipokine, has anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, and regulating inflammatory properties. In this study we investigated the effect of visfatin on IFN-γ-induced apoptosis in rat pancreatic β-cells. The RINm5F (rat insulinoma cell line) cells exposed to IFN-γ were treated with or without visfatin. The viability and apoptosis of the cells were assessed by using MTT and flow cytometry. The expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The exposure of RINm5F cells to IFN-γ for 48 h led to increased apoptosis percentage of the cells. Visfatin pretreatment significantly increased the cell viability and reduced the cell apoptosis induced by IFN-γ. IFN-γ-induced increase in expression of p53 mRNA and cytochrome c protein, decrease in mRNA and protein levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were attenuated by visfatin pretreatment. Visfatin also increased AMPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the anti-apoptotic action of visfatin was attenuated by the AMPK and ERK1/2 inhibitor. These results suggested that visfatin protected pancreatic islet cells against IFN-γ-induced apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. The anti-apoptotic action of visfatin is mediated by activation of AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling molecules. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 03/2015; 28(3):169-77. DOI:10.3967/bes2015.023 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the antitumor activity of the novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester LRD-22 in vitro and in vivo. Several cancer cell lines were employed to determine the effect of LRD-22 on cell growth, and the MTT assay showed there was a significant decrease in viable tumor cell numbers in the presence of LRD-22, especially in the HepG2 cell line. Colony formation assay also showed LRD-22 strongly inhibits HepG2 cell growth. Evaluation of the mechanism involved showed that inhibitory effects of LRD-22 on cell growth are due to induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest. LRD-22 inhibited Aurora-A phosphorylation at Thr288 and subsequently impaired p53 phosphorylation at Ser315 which was associated with the proteasome degradation pathway. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized by this mechanism and accumulates through inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity via treatment with LRD-22. In vivo study of HepG2 xenograft in nude mice also shows LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth at a concentration of 5mg/kg without animals suffering loss of body weight. In conclusion, our results demonstrate LRD-22 acts as an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in HepG2 cells, and should be considered as a promising targeting agent for HCC therapy.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2015; 458(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.01.102 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Neonatal hypoxia occurs in approximately 60% of premature births and is associated with a multitude of neurological disorders. While various treatments have been developed, translating them from bench to bedside has been limited. We previously showed G-CSF administration was neuroprotective in a neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat pup model, leading us to hypothesize that G-CSF inactivation of GSK-3β via the PI3K/Akt pathway may attenuate neuroinflammation and stabilize the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB).
    Experimental Neurology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.12.020 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    Li Li, Dongqing Wei
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    ABSTRACT: With the high speed DNA sequencing of genome, databases of genome data continue to grow, and the understanding of genetic variation between individuals grows as well. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a main type of genetic variation, are increasingly important resource for understanding the structure and function of the human genome and become a valuable resource for investigating the genetic basis of disease. During the past years, in addition to experimental approaches to characterize specific variants, intense bioinformatics techniques were applied to understand effects of these genetic changes. In the genetics studies, one intends to understand the molecular basis of disease, and computational methods are becoming increasingly important for SNPs selection, prediction and understanding the downstream effects of genetic variation. The review provides systematic information on the available resources and methods for SNPs discovery and analysis. We also report some new results on DNA sequence-based prediction of SNPs in human cytochrome P450, which serves as an example of computational methods to predict and discovery SNPs. Additionally, annotation and prediction of functional SNPs, as well as a comprehensive list of existing tools and online recourses, are reviewed and described.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2015; 827:287-310. DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-9245-5_17 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor, has known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models. Herein we show that G-CSF administration attenuates neuronal apoptosis after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) via glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) inhibition. Ten day old Sprague-Dawley rat pups (n = 157) were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia or sham surgery. HI animals received control siRNA, GSK-3 beta siRNA (4 mu L/pup), G-CSF (50 mu g/kg), G-CSF combined with 0.1 or 0.4 nM G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) siRNA, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin (86 ng/pup), or DMSO (vehicle for Wortmannin). Pups were euthanized 48 h post-HI to quantify brain infarct volume. G-CSFR, activated Akt (p-Akt), activated GSK-3 beta (p-GSK-3 beta), Cleaved Caspase-3 (CC3), Bcl-2, and Bax were quantified using Western blot analysis and the localizations of each was visualized via immunofluorescence staining. Neuronal cell death was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Our results showed p-GSK-3 beta increased after HI until its peak at 48 h post-ictus, and both GSK-3 beta siRNA and G-CSF administration reduced p-GSK-3 beta expression, as well as infarct volume. p-GSK-3 beta and CC3 were generally co-localized in neurons. Furthermore, G-CSF increased p-Akt expression and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and also decreased p-GSK-3 beta and CO expression levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere, which were all reversed by G-CSFR siRNA, Wortmannin, and GSK-3 beta siRNA. In conclusion, G-CSF attenuated caspase activation and reduced brain injury by inhibiting GSK-3 beta activity after experimental HI in rat pups. This neuroprotective effect was abolished by both G-CSFR siRNA and Wortmannin.
    Experimental Neurology 01/2015; 263. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.10.004 · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue, because TDR-associated mutation may affect the outcome of antiretroviral treatment potentially or directly. Men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a major risk group for HIV transmission. However, current reports are scarce on HIV TDR-associated mutations and their co-variation among MSM.Methods Blood samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM, were collected from January 2011 and December 2013 in Beijing. The polymerase viral genes were sequenced to explore TDR-associated mutations and mutation co-variation.ResultsA total of 223 samples were sequenced and analyzed. Among them, HIV-1 CRF01_AE are accounted for 60.5%, followed by CRF07_BC (27.8%), subtype B (9.9%), and others. Fifty-seven samples had at least one TDR-associated mutation, mainly including L10I/V (6.3%), A71L/T/V (6.3%), V179D/E (5.4%), and V106I (2.7%), with different distributions of TDR-associated mutations by different HIV-1 subtypes and by each year. Moreover, eight significant co-variation pairs were found between TDR-associated mutations (V179D/E) and seven overlapping polymorphisms in subtype CRF01_AE.Conclusions To date, this work consists the most comprehensive genetic characterization of HIV-1 TDR-associated mutations prevalent among MSM. It provides important information for understanding TDR and viral evolution among Chinese MSM, a population currently at particularly high risk of HIV transmission.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 14(1):689. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0689-7 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is an injury that can lead to neurological impairments such as behavioral and learning disabilities. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in ischemic stroke however it has also been shown to induce neutrophilia, ultimately exacerbating neuronal injury. Our hypothesis is that coadministration of anti-neutrophil antibody (Ab) with G-CSF will decrease blood neutrophil counts thereby reducing infarct volume and improving neurological function post HI brain injury.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2014; 69:192–199. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.05.024 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (RIPC) is a promising therapeutic intervention wherein a sub-lethal ischemic insult induced in one organ (limb) improves ischemia in an organ distant to it (brain). The main objective of this study was to investigate the long-term functional effects of delayed RIPC in a neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) rat model. 10 day old rat pups were subjected to delayed RIPC treatment and randomized into four groups: 1) Sham, 2) HI induced, 3) HI +24 hr delayed RIPC, and 4) HI +24 hr delayed RIPC with three consecutive daily treatments. Neurobehavioral tests, brain weights, gross and microscopic brain tissue morphologies, and systemic organ weights were evaluated at five weeks post surgery. HI induced rats performed significantly worse than sham but both groups of delayed RIPC treatment showed improvement of sensory motor functions. Furthermore, compared to the HI induced group, the delayed RIPC treatment groups showed no further detrimental changes on brain tissue, both grossly and morphologically, and no changes on the systemic organ weights. Delayed RIPC significantly improves long term sensory motor deficits in a neonatal HI rat model. A 24 hr delayed treatment does not significantly attenuate morphological brain injury but does attenuate sensory motor deficits. Sensory motor deficits improve with both a single treatment and with three consecutive daily treatments, and the consecutive treatments are possibly being more beneficial.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90258. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090258 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Shizhuyuan Polymetallic Mine in Chenzhou City is an important multi-metal deposit in China. After a dam accident in 1985, there are still a number of mining plants, smelters and tailing ponds in this area. These had the potential to pollute the surrounding groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 20 residents’ wells in this area during both dry and wet seasons. In particular, this study focused on the exposure and the health risk assessment of trace heavy metal in groundwater. Multiple statistical analysis and fuzzy comprehensive method were employed to reveal the distribution characteristics of heavy metal and to assess the groundwater quality. Results indicated that Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ba, Hg and Pb were widespread with low exposure levels. There were 19 wells with low level exposure and one well with a moderate level exposure in the dry season. All of the wells were in low level exposure during the wet season. As and Mn exhibited potential noncarcinogenic concern, because their maximum hazard quotient (HQ) was higher than 1.0. This may cause adverse health effect on adults in dry season or on children in both seasons. Only As, showed that the maximum carcinogenic risk was more than 10−4, suggesting a high cancer risk for children in both dry and wet seasons. Therefore, analysis and reduction the concentrations of As and Mn in groundwater are needed in order to protect the health of residents and especially children in the area.
    01/2014; 9(3). DOI:10.1007/s11783-014-0675-8
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we identify HUWE1, a HECT-domain E3 ligase, as a novel BRCA1-interacting protein. The NLS region of HUWE1 binds BRCA1 through its N-terminus degron domain. Depletion of HUWE1 by siRNA-mediated interference significantly increases BRCA1 protein levels and prolongs the half-life of BRCA1. Moreover, exogenous expression of HUWE1 promotes BRCA1 degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which could explain an inverse correlation between HUWE1 and BRCA1 levels in MCF10F, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Consistent with a functional role for HUWE1 in regulating BRCA1-mediated cellular response to DNA damage, HUWE1 siRNA confers increased resistance to ionizing radiation and mitomycin. These data indicate that HUWE1 is a critical negative regulator of BRCA1 and suggest a new molecular mechanism for breast cancer pathogenesis.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; 444(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.12.053 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into four age groups: 3-10 years, 11-17 years, 18-54 years, and more than 55 years. Each age group was then randomized (2:1) to receive either influenza vaccine or control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B) for one dose. Also each influenza vaccine group was randomized (1:1:1) to receive three different batches of influenza vaccine. Systematic and local adverse reactions for 28 days after vaccination were recorded, and influenza antibody titer was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at 28 days after vaccination. There were significant differences in seroconversion and seroprotection rates achieved post-immunization of three strains of influenza antibody (H1N1, H3N2, B) between experimental group and control group in all age groups (P<0.05). In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in local and systematic reaction rates after vaccination between the experimental and control group in all age groups (P>0.05), except for the systematic reaction rates in the 18-54 years and ≥ 55 years age groups (P<0.05). Thus, Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 12/2013; 10(3). DOI:10.4161/hv.27329 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The concentration of tyrosine,the ratio of branch-amino acid to the aromatic amino acid in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients are much lower than that of normal people, which reveal that PKU patients have amino acid metabolism disorder. To investigate the arginine level in blood, the expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), the rate-limiting enzyme in arginine synthesis pathway, and the methylation of ASS. Twenty-five children with PKU and 65 healthy controls were investigated in this study. Blood concentration of arginine was analyzed by automatic Amino acid analyzer. The methylation of ASS gene promoter was evaluated by using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) methods, and the mRNA level of ASS was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Blood concentration of arginine in PKU patients without dietary control was 0.017±0.009mmol/L while in normal persons was 0.129±0.007mmol/L, which is statistically significant(p<0.001). The promoter of ASS was methylated in PKU (15/15,100%) but not in normal persons (0/15). The mRNA level of ASS in PKU patients was lower than that of normal people, which was well correlated with its methylation status. The silencing of ASS due to aberrant promoter CpG methylation may be an important mechanism for arginine biosynthesis disorders in PKU. High levels of phenylalanine and low levels of arginine are common characteristics in PKU patients. These findings would extend the current understanding of arginine, ASS in the development of PKU disease.
    Clinical biochemistry 11/2013; 46(18). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.10.028 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, a multifunctional enzyme critical in the viral replication process, is an important target for suppression of virus spread. To date, there has been considerable effort to develop drugs against this enzyme with high activity and specificity, notably TNK-651 and its derivatives. In order to further improve the efficacy and to explore the structure-activity relationship, we have introduced the diazaspiro[4.5]decane-6,8-dione scaffold, with both a pyrimidine and an alicyclic ring, and have synthesized several new compounds in this class. Appreciable overall yield was achieved with minimized purification of the intermediates. Several compounds were tested against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in vitro using nevirapine as a reference. One compound showed potent inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value (ca. 1.65 M) comparable to that of nevirapine. Our synthetic method provides a rapid access to compounds in this class. Thus, many other similar compounds can be further studied in a timely and cost-effective manner.
    Synthesis 08/2013; 45(16):2273-2279. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1339179 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the safety of Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccines inoculated in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. 680 infants aged 2-5 months and 6-12 months were selected to be the research subjects in whom the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated by injection in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The safety analysis indicated that there were no statistic differences in the incidence rates of adverse reactions when the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated at different sites. So we concluded that the safety of inoculation injection of Hib conjugate vaccines in vastus lateralis muscle was the same as that inoculated in the upper arm deltoid.
    Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 08/2013; 26(8):693-6. DOI:10.3967/0895-3988.2013.08.011 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine administered via the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles, 320 healthy Chinese infants < 12 mo of age were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into 2 age groups: 2-5 mo and 6-12 mo. Each age group was then randomized (1:1) to either the vastus lateralis (experimental) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle 2 or 3 times at monthly intervals, or the deltoid (control) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle either 3 times (2-5 mo group) or twice (6-12 mo group) at monthly intervals. Local and systemic adverse reactions after each vaccine dose were recorded, and Hib-PRP antibody concentrations were determined by ELISA at 28 d after completion of the immunization schedule. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL or ≥ 0.15 μg/mL with the two injection sites for either age group, or in the post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations achieved (p > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of local and systemic reactions after the first and second vaccinations between the 2 injection sites for either age group (p > 0.05), but the rate of systemic reactions in the 2-5 mo group after the third vaccination via the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower than after deltoid vaccination (0% vs 8.57%; p < 0.05). Thus, administration via the vastus lateralis muscle is worth considering for Hib vaccination.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 07/2013; 9(11). DOI:10.4161/hv.25526 · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • ChemInform 06/2013; 44(26). DOI:10.1002/chin.201326154
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    ABSTRACT: The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 06/2013; 9(8). DOI:10.4161/hv.24832 · 3.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

454 Citations
211.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • Loma Linda University
      Loma Linda, California, United States
    • Jiangnan University
      • School of Environmental and Civil Engineering
      Wu-hsi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2011–2015
    • Peking University Health Science Center
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Guizhou Normal University
      Kuei-yang, Guizhou Sheng, China
  • 2008–2015
    • Peking University
      • • School of Basic Medical Science
      • • State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs
      • • College of Urban and Environmental Sciences
      • • Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes
      • • School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2012
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Beijing Proteome Research Center
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011–2012
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2012
    • Shandong University
      • • Institute of Immunology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2006–2011
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
      • • Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
      • • Institute of Zoology
      • • Institute of Chemistry
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007–2010
    • Central South University
      • School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China