[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is an important public health issue, because TDR-associated mutation may affect the outcome of antiretroviral treatment potentially or directly. Men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a major risk group for HIV transmission. However, current reports are scarce on HIV TDR-associated mutations and their co-variation among MSM.Methods
Blood samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve MSM, were collected from January 2011 and December 2013 in Beijing. The polymerase viral genes were sequenced to explore TDR-associated mutations and mutation co-variation.ResultsA total of 223 samples were sequenced and analyzed. Among them, HIV-1 CRF01_AE are accounted for 60.5%, followed by CRF07_BC (27.8%), subtype B (9.9%), and others. Fifty-seven samples had at least one TDR-associated mutation, mainly including L10I/V (6.3%), A71L/T/V (6.3%), V179D/E (5.4%), and V106I (2.7%), with different distributions of TDR-associated mutations by different HIV-1 subtypes and by each year. Moreover, eight significant co-variation pairs were found between TDR-associated mutations (V179D/E) and seven overlapping polymorphisms in subtype CRF01_AE.Conclusions
To date, this work consists the most comprehensive genetic characterization of HIV-1 TDR-associated mutations prevalent among MSM. It provides important information for understanding TDR and viral evolution among Chinese MSM, a population currently at particularly high risk of HIV transmission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into four age groups: 3-10 years, 11-17 years, 18-54 years, and more than 55 years. Each age group was then randomized (2:1) to receive either influenza vaccine or control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B) for one dose. Also each influenza vaccine group was randomized (1:1:1) to receive three different batches of influenza vaccine. Systematic and local adverse reactions for 28 days after vaccination were recorded, and influenza antibody titer was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at 28 days after vaccination. There were significant differences in seroconversion and seroprotection rates achieved post-immunization of three strains of influenza antibody (H1N1, H3N2, B) between experimental group and control group in all age groups (P<0.05). In addition, there were no statistically significant differences in local and systematic reaction rates after vaccination between the experimental and control group in all age groups (P>0.05), except for the systematic reaction rates in the 18-54 years and ≥ 55 years age groups (P<0.05). Thus, Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 12/2013; 10(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the safety of Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccines inoculated in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. 680 infants aged 2-5 months and 6-12 months were selected to be the research subjects in whom the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated by injection in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The safety analysis indicated that there were no statistic differences in the incidence rates of adverse reactions when the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated at different sites. So we concluded that the safety of inoculation injection of Hib conjugate vaccines in vastus lateralis muscle was the same as that inoculated in the upper arm deltoid.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 08/2013; 26(8):693-6. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine administered via the vastus lateralis and deltoid muscles, 320 healthy Chinese infants < 12 mo of age were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into 2 age groups: 2-5 mo and 6-12 mo. Each age group was then randomized (1:1) to either the vastus lateralis (experimental) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle 2 or 3 times at monthly intervals, or the deltoid (control) group who received Hib vaccination into this muscle either 3 times (2-5 mo group) or twice (6-12 mo group) at monthly intervals. Local and systemic adverse reactions after each vaccine dose were recorded, and Hib-PRP antibody concentrations were determined by ELISA at 28 d after completion of the immunization schedule. There were no significant differences in the proportions of subjects with post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations ≥ 1.0 μg/mL or ≥ 0.15 μg/mL with the two injection sites for either age group, or in the post-immunization Hib-PRP antibody concentrations achieved (p > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the rates of local and systemic reactions after the first and second vaccinations between the 2 injection sites for either age group (p > 0.05), but the rate of systemic reactions in the 2-5 mo group after the third vaccination via the vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower than after deltoid vaccination (0% vs 8.57%; p < 0.05). Thus, administration via the vastus lateralis muscle is worth considering for Hib vaccination.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 07/2013; 9(11).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 06/2013; 9(8).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel 6-substituted-4-cycloalkyloxy-pyridin-2(1H)-ones were synthesized as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and their biological activity was evaluated. Most of the compounds, especially 26 and 22, bearing a 3-isopropyl and 3-iodine group, respectively, exhibited highly potent activity against wild-type HIV-1 strains and those resistant to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). The diastereoisomers of 26-trans and 26-cis were synthesized separately, and confirmed with HPLC and NOESY spectra. The 26-trans isomers had an activity about 400-fold more potent than that of 26-cis. The pair of 26-trans enantiomers, one of the most potent inhibitors with EC50 of 4 nM and selectivity index (SI) of 75,000, was highly effective against a panel of RTIs-resistant strains with single (Y181C and K103N) or double (A17) mutations in reverse transcriptase. The results suggest that these novel pyridinone derivatives have the potential to be further developed as new antiretroviral drugs with improved antiviral efficacy and drug resistance profile.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2013; · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the emergence of drug-resistant mutants has limited the efficacy of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), it is essential to develop new antivirals with better drug resistance and pharmacokinetic profiles. Here we designed and synthesized a series of 1-[(2-benzyloxyl/alkoxyl)methyl]-5-halo-6-aryluracils, the HEPT analogues, and evaluated their biological activity using nevirapine and 18 (TNK-651) as reference compounds. Most of these compounds, especially 6b, 7b, 9b, 11b, and 7c, exhibited highly potent anti-HIV-1 activity against both wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. Compound 7b, which had the highest selectivity index (SI = 38 215), is more potent than nevirapine and 18. These results suggest that the introduction of a halogen at the C-5 position may contribute to the effectiveness of these compounds against RTI-resistant variants. In addition, meta substituents on the C-6 aromatic moiety could significantly enhance activity against NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. These compounds can be further developed as next-generation NNRTIs with an improved antiviral efficacy and drug-resistance profile.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 55(5):2242-50. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pandemic influenza represents a major threat to global health. Vaccination is the most economic and effective strategy to control influenza pandemic. Conventional vaccine approach, despite being effective, has a number of major deficiencies including limited range of protection, total dependence on embryonated eggs for production, and time consuming for vaccine production. There is an urgent need to develop novel vaccine strategies to overcome these deficiencies.
The major objective of this work was to develop a novel vaccine strategy combining recombinant haemagglutinin (HA) protein and a master cell (MC) activator C48/80 for intranasal immunization. We demonstrated in BALB/c mice that MC activator C48/80 had strong adjuvant activity when co-administered with recombinant HA protein intranasally. Vaccination with C48/80 significantly increased the serum IgG and mucosal surface IgA antibody responses against HA protein. Such increases correlated with stronger and durable neutralizing antibody activities, offering protection to vaccinated animals from disease progression after challenge with lethal dose of A/California/04/2009 live virus. Furthermore, protected animals demonstrated significant reduction in lung virus titers, minimal structural alteration in lung tissues as well as higher and balanced production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the stimulated splenocytes when compared to those without C48/80.
The present study demonstrates that the novel vaccine approach of combining recombinant HA and mucosal adjuvant C48/80 is safe and effective in eliciting protective immunity in mice. Future studies on the mechanism of action of C48/80 and potential combination with other vaccine strategies such as prime and boost approach may help to induce even more potent and broad immune responses against viruses from various clades.
PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e19863. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sifuvirtide, a novel fusion inhibitor against human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), which is more potent than enfuvirtide (T20) in cell culture, is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. We now report that in vitro selection of HIV-1 variants resistant to sifuvirtide in the presence of increasing concentrations of sifuvirtide has led to several specific mutations in the gp41 region that had not been previously reported. Many of these substitutions were confined to the N-terminal heptad repeat region at positions 37, 38, 41, and 43, either singly or in combination. A downstream substitution at position 126 (N126K) in the C-terminal heptad repeat region was also found. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have further identified the critical amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof in conferring the resistant genotypes. Furthermore, the mutant viruses demonstrated variable degrees of cross-resistance to enfuvirtide, some of which are preferentially more resistant to sifuvirtide. Impaired infectivity was also found for many of the mutant viruses. Biophysical and structural analyses of the key substitutions have revealed several potential novel mechanisms against sifuvirtide. Our results may help to predict potential resistant patterns in vivo and facilitate the further clinical development and therapeutic utility of sifuvirtide.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(5):3277-87. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sifuvirtide, a novel fusion inhibitor against human immunodeficiency type I (HIV-1) which is more potent than enfuvirtide
(T20) in cell culture is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. We now report that
in vitro selection of HIV-1 variants resistant to sifuvirtide in the presence of increasing concentrations of sifuvirtide
has led to several specific mutations in the gp41 region which had not been previously reported. Many of these substitutions
were confined to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) region at positions 37, 38, 41, and 43, either singly or in combination.
A downstream substitution at position 126 (N126K) in the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region was also found. Site-directed
mutagenesis studies have further identified the critical amino acid substitutions and combinations thereof in conferring the
resistant genotypes. Furthermore, the mutant viruses demonstrated variable degrees of cross-resistance to enfuvirtide, some
of which are preferentially more resistant to sifuvirtide. Impaired infectivity was also found for many of the mutant viruses.
Biophysical and structural analyses of the key substitutions have revealed several potential novel mechanisms against sifuvirtide.
Our results may help to predict potential resistant patterns in vivo and facilitate the further clinical development and therapeutic
utility of sifuvirtide.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work investigates the nitration of 4-methoxy indoline derivative with different reagents and optimized conditions. We now report a simple methodology for nitration employing claycop in the presence of amine, which offers significant improvement with regard to the yield and regioselectivity, and a much more favorable isomeric ratio of products was obtained under mild conditions. Therefore, a useful method for preparation of a photolabile L-glutamate derivative was concurrently established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: China is facing a rapid upsurge in cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection due to large numbers of paid blood donors (PBD), injection drug users (IDU), and sexual partners of infected individuals. In this report, a total of 236 HIV-1-positive blood samples were collected from PBD, IDU, and their sexual partners in the most severely affected provinces, such as Henan, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Xinjiang. PCR was used to amplify the p17 region of gag and the C2-V3 region of env of HIV-1 and the 5' noncoding region and a region of E1/E2 of HCV. Genetic characterization of viral sequences indicated that there are two major epidemics of HIV-1 and multiple HCV epidemics in China. The PBD and transfusion recipients in Henan harbored HIV-1 subtype B', which is similar to the virus found in Thailand, and HCV genotypes 1b and 2a, whereas the IDU in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Xinjiang carried HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms 07 and 08, which resemble those in India, and HCV genotypes 1b, 3a, and 3b. Our findings show that the epidemics of HIV-1 and HCV infection in China are the consequences of multiple introductions. The distinct distribution patterns of both the HIV-1 and HCV genotypes in the different high-risk groups are tightly linked to the mode of transmission rather than geographic proximity. These findings provide information relevant to antiviral therapy and vaccine development in China and should assist public health workers in implementing measures to reduce the further dissemination of these viruses in the world's most populous nation.
Journal of Virology 01/2005; 78(24):13591-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of HIV-1-related infection diseases and the mortality of AIDS have dramatically decreased since highly active antiretroviral therapy began to be used clinically in China in 1999. And we initiated a second clinical trial using a combination of Efavirenz and Indinavir to observe the effects of the immunoreaction.
Twenty patients with laboratory-confirmed chronic HIV-1 infection were recruited. Blood samples were collected initially and during the weeks after initiation of treatment. Within 48 hours of blood sampling, peripheral blood plasma and mononuclear cells were separated using routine methods. HIV-1 viral load was measured in thawed plasma samples. Within 48 hours of peripheral blood sampling, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets were enumerated.
The drug regimen was efficient in reducing HIV-1 plasma viral load and increasing total CD4(+) T cell counts. The percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets expressing CD38 and HLA-DR activation markers was positively correlated with plasma viral load and tended to normalize.
The combination of Efavirenz and Indinavir was generally well tolerated and efficient at reducing HIV-1 RNA. Furthermore, the treatment improved the immunological function.
Chinese medical journal 04/2004; 117(3):347-52. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the epidemiologic features and distribution of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among intravenous drug users and illegal blood donors in China.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing were used to evaluate the HIV-1 gag p17 and env C2-V3 regions, as well as the HCV 5'NCR and E1/E2 regions.
Among 239 subjects with reported HIV-1 infection, 56.9% (136/239) were seropositive for anti-HCV. Of those, 96.3% (131/136) were co-infected with HCV through intravenous drug use and illegal blood donation. Intravenous drug users in Yunnan, Guangxi and Xinjiang provinces were infected with HIV-1 subtype C and HCV genotypes 1b, 3a, 3b and 4, whereas illegal blood donors in Henan province harbored HIV-1 subtype B' and HCV genotypes 1b and 2a. Five different HIV-1 subtypes were identified among 17 HIV-1-infected individuals from Beijing.
Multiple HIV-1 subtypes and HCV genotypes were identified in China which were associated with several different modes of transmission. Homogeneity within the sequences of the two viruses suggested the recent, but separate, outbreaks of HIV-1 and HCV infection. The distinct distribution patterns of HIV-1 and HCV genotypes in two high-risk groups seemed to be more closely linked to the mode of transmission than to geographic proximity.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 12/2003; 24(11):962-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluation of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy in China.
We initiated the first efficacy trial of zidovudine (AZT) 600 mg/d and lamivudine (3TC) 300 mg/d (brand name: Combivir) plus indinavir (2 400 mg/d) in 15 Chinese chronically infected with HIV in May 1999 at Beijing.
There was a rapid reduction of 2.7 log in the plasma viremia levels in 15 cases 3 months, after treatment, from a mean baseline of 90 743 copies/ml. The mean CD(4) cell counts increased by 67 cells/microliter from a baseline mean value of 471 cells/microliter and the mean CD(8) cell counts reduced by 192/microliter after 12 months of therapy. The ratio of CD(4)/CD(8) increased from 0.35 to 0.56. The average naive CD(4) cell (CD(45)RA + CD(62)L +) count and naive CD(8) cell (CD(45)RA + CD(62)L +) count increased 42 and 19/microliter respectively after one-year treatment. This drug regimen was well tolerated, with mild nausea in all, transient elevated serum bilirubin in three and kidney stone in two patients.
It is effective for the virus with different genotype. The results will form a scientific foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies for HIV infection in China.
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] 03/2002; 41(2):109-13.