[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are known effector cells in allergic and inflammatory diseases, but their precise roles in intestinal inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of mast cells in intestinal inflammation is mediated by ATP-reactive P2X7 purinoceptors. We find an increase in the numbers of mast cells expressing P2X7 purinoceptors in the colons of mice with colitis and of patients with Crohn's disease. Treatment of mice with a P2X7 purinoceptor-specific antibody inhibits mast cell activation and subsequent intestinal inflammation. Similarly, intestinal inflammation is ameliorated in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice, and reconstitution with wild-type, but not P2x7(-/-) mast cells results in susceptibility to inflammation. ATP-P2X7 purinoceptor-mediated activation of mast cells not only induces inflammatory cytokines, but also chemokines and leukotrienes, to recruit neutrophils and subsequently exacerbate intestinal inflammation. These findings reveal the role of P2X7 purinoceptor-mediated mast cell activation in both the initiation and exacerbation of intestinal inflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable biomarkers for monitoring disease activity have not been clinically established in ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to investigate whether levels of serum leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein (LRG), identified recently as a potential disease activity marker in Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, correlate with disease activity in UC.
Serum LRG concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with UC and healthy controls (HC) and were evaluated for correlation with disease activity. Expression of LRG in inflamed colonic tissues from patients with UC was analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Interleukin (IL)-6-independent induction of LRG was investigated using IL-6-deficient mice by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute inflammation and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis.
Serum LRG concentrations were significantly elevated in active UC patients compared with patients in remission (P < 0.0001) and HC (P < 0.0001) and were correlated with disease activity in UC better than C-reactive protein (CRP). Expression of LRG was increased in inflamed colonic tissues in UC. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-22, serum levels of which were elevated in patients with active UC, could induce LRG expression in COLO205 cells. Serum LRG levels were increased in IL-6-deficient mice with LPS-mediated acute inflammation and DSS-induced colitis.
Serum LRG concentrations correlate well with disease activity in UC. LRG induction is robust in inflamed colons and is likely to involve an IL-6-independent pathway. Serum LRG is thus a novel serum biomarker for monitoring disease activity in UC and is a promising surrogate for CRP. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligosaccharide modifications induce various functional changes in immune cells. The galactose-deficient fraction of fucosylated IgG oligosaccharides is increased, whereas that of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase I (B4GalTI) is reduced, in patients with Crohn's disease. We investigated the role of oligosaccharide modification in the pathophysiology of colitis using B4galt1-deficient mice.
Colitis severity was compared between B4galt1(+/-) and B4galt1(+/+) mice. B cells isolated from B4galt1(+/-) and B4galt1(+/+) mice were adoptively transferred to recombination activating gene 2(-/-) mice, in which colitis was induced by administration of CD4(+)CD62L(+) T cells. Cell-surface glycan profiles were determined by lectin microarray analysis. Cytokine production was determined in a coculture of various types of cells isolated from either B4galt1(+/-) or B4galt1(+/+) mice.
Colitis induction by dextran sodium sulfate or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was significantly reduced in B4galt1(+/-) mice, which had galactose deficiency in IgG oligosaccharides (similar to patients with Crohn's disease) compared with B4galt1(+/+) mice. Amelioration of colitis was associated with increased production of interleukin-10 by macrophages in B4galt1(+/-) mice. Colitis induction in recombination activating gene 2(-/-) mice by administration of CD4(+)CD62L(+) T cells was reduced by cotransfer of B cells isolated from B4galt1(+/-), but not from B4galt1(+/+) mice. Lectin microarray analysis revealed increased expression of polylactosamines on B4galt1(+/-) B cells and macrophages, compared with B4galt1(+/+) cells. The production of interleukin-10 from macrophages was induced via their direct interaction with B4galt1(+/-) B cells.
Altered oligosaccharide structures on immune cells modulate mucosal inflammation. Oligosaccharides in immune cells might be a therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ideal biomarkers are required to be developed for the diagnosis and prediction of the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have reported that alteration of N-linked oligosaccharides of immunoglobulin (Ig) G is a novel diagnostic marker of IBD. Oligosaccharide alterations of IgA, however, have not been investigated in IBD patients.
N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of serum IgA purified from 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 30 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 30 healthy volunteers (HV) were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Enzymes related to oligosaccharide attachment were investigated.
N-linked oligosaccharides of IgA were not different between IBD and HV. In contrast, the number of N-acetylgalactosamines per hinge glycopeptide (GalNAc/HP) in the O-linked oligosaccharides of IgA was significantly decreased in patients with CD compared with UC and HV. GalNAc/HP had high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between CD and HV based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. Lower GalNAc/HP was associated with more severe disease activity of CD. Changes in GalNAc/HP levels in 6 weeks after treatment with infliximab were associated with the clinical activity of CD at 30 weeks. GalNAc transferase expression of naïve B cells and extent of GalNAc attachment in IgA were significantly decreased by interleukin-21 in vitro.
The number of GalNAc attached in the IgA O-linked glycans of CD patients was significantly decreased, and strongly correlated with the clinical activity. Alterations of GalNAc attachment in IgA could be useful as a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker of CD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory process in the digestive tract and patients with IBD develop osteopenia. Although vitamins K and D are important for maintaining bone health and inhibiting inflammation, their roles in patients with IBD are not clear. We investigated the roles of vitamins K and D in the bone health and inflammation in patients with IBD.
Bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with IBD (Crohn's disease [CD], n = 47, and ulcerative colitis [UC], n = 40) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vitamin K and D levels of patients with IBD and healthy volunteers (n = 41) were evaluated by measuring serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, respectively. Clinical activity index was evaluated in patients with CD and UC.
BMD was low in patients with CD and UC. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels were significantly higher in patients with CD, but not with UC, compared with healthy subjects, indicating that bone vitamin K is insufficient in patients with CD. The levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly correlated with the clinical activity index of CD, although they were not correlated with BMD. The levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D were significantly lower in patients with CD and UC than in healthy subjects. The levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D were inversely correlated with BMD in patients with UC and were not correlated with the clinical activity index of CD.
Vitamins K and D are insufficient in patients with IBD. Insufficiency of vitamin K is suggested to be associated with inflammatory processes of CD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agalactosyl immunoglobulin (Ig) G is increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) similarly to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The lectin complement pathway is shown to be activated through association of agalactosyl IgG with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in RA. Functional changes of IgG agalactosylation in IBD, however, have not yet been clarified.
The ratio of the agalactosyl/non-agalactosyl fraction in fucosylated IgG oligosaccharides (G0F/G2F) and serum MBL levels were analyzed in 59 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 64 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 39 healthy volunteers (HV). The MBL levels associated with serum IgG were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MBL expression in the intestinal mucosa was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) reacted with either an agalactosyl or non-agalactosyl SRBC-specific IgG antibody was determined by flow cytometry.
The serum MBL levels were not significantly different among CD, UC, or HV. In patients with CD, the serum MBL levels were negatively correlated with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The levels of MBL associated with agalactosyl IgG were not different from those associated with non-agalactosyl IgG. Immunoreactivity to MBL was less in the inflamed mucosa compared with the noninflamed mucosa. Phagocytic activity of SRBC was significantly higher in the presence of agalactosyl IgG compared to non-agalactosyl IgG.
Agalactosyl IgG oligosaccharides enhanced antibody-dependent phagocytosis in vitro but did not activate the lectin complement pathway. Oligosaccharide alterations of IgG are not only a marker of IBD but also functionally modulate the immune function of IBD.