[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Malnutrition has been described in patients with chronic kidney disease as well as its association with cardiovascular risk and mortality in haemodialysis patients. Recently, the new term ‘protein energy wasting’ has been proposed with new diagnostic criteria (biochemical and anthropometric markers) for early identification of patients at risk for protein energy wasting and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, evolution over time and prognostic significance of PEW in a Spanish dialysis centre for the first time in Spain. Patients and methods: an observational study that included 122 prevalent haemodialysis patients at our centre. Between January 2010 and October 2012, three visits were carried out in which clinical, biochemical, anthropometric and body composition parameters were collected using BIS (bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) along with their respective dialytic characteristics, in accordance with the criteria of the new definition. We analysed the prevalence of PEW in each visit, progression of the malnutrition parameters and factors potentially associated with PEW. After a mean follow-up period of 461 days, we analysed survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the R software. Results: The prevalence of PEW remained constant over time: 37% at baseline visit, 40.5% at 12 months and 41.1% at 24 months. With the introduction of the dynamic variable muscle mass loss, included in the definition of PEW, prevalence increased to 50% at 24 months. The PEW situation is dynamic, as demonstrated by the fact that 26%-36% of patients without PEW develop it de novo each year and 12%-30% annually recover from this situation. The presence of PEW was associated with higher rates of resistance to erythropoietin (irEPO) and higher pulse pressure at the end of dialysis. In the multivariable regression model, PEW predictive clinical variables were over-hydration, irEPO, intracellular water and the extracellular water/intracellular water ratio. Twenty-six (21%) patients died. The Kaplan-Meier curve did not show any differences in mortality risk between patients with and those without PEW, but the loss of muscle mass was associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: The present observational study highlights the high prevalence of PEW, which has a dynamic nature in haemodialysis patients. Only the criterion of muscle mass loss (increased protein catabolism) was associated with increased mortality, while the other PEW criteria according to the ISRNM classification were not associated with increased mortality. We also observed a state of over-hydration in patients with PEW. This state of over-hydration (increased extracellular water due to occupation of muscle loss without an increase in total body water) cannot be evaluated by dry weight or the body mass index. Intervention studies are necessary in order to assess whether or not the prevention of sarcopaenia improves survival.
Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 07/2013; 33(4):495-505. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Although clinical reports have described medial meniscal subluxation (MMS) in knee OA, few controlled studies have used dynamic US to examine the potential impact of MMS on OA. The aim of this study was to assess MMS in patients with knee OA and in asymptomatic controls by US in different weight-bearing positions.Methods. In a cross-sectional controlled study, MMS was evaluated by US in 33 symptomatic OA knees and in 13 control knees in supine neutral and unipodal weight-bearing positions. The reproducibility of US in this setting was assessed and the US measurements were compared between patients and controls.Results. MMS was observed more frequently in OA knees than in controls in the unipodal weight-bearing position both before (P = 0.014) and after (P = 0.035) walking 50 m. In both OA and control knees, an increase in MMS was observed in the unipodal weight-bearing positions compared with the supine neutral position, but this increase was greater in OA knees than in controls (P < 0.001).Conclusion. Our findings confirm clinical observations that the medial meniscus undergoes significant subluxation in knee OA. The degree of subluxation is greater in weight-bearing than in non-weight-bearing positions. Dynamic US is a reproducible method for the assessment of MMS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure of biofilms formed by seven non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria including saprophytes and opportunistic species was analyzed. Analysis included covered surface, thickness, cell viability, and presence of intrinsic autofluorescence at different times using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. Autofluorescence was detected inside and outside cells of all mycobacteria..
Applied and environmental microbiology 11/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopedic surgery. This work presents a thorough study of several plasma-based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond-like carbon (DLC), fluorine-doped DLC (F-DLC), and a high-fluorine-content-carbon-fluor polymer (CF(X)). The coatings were obtained by a radio-frequency plasma-assisted deposition on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples and physicochemical properties of the coated surfaces were correlated with their antibacterial performance against collection and clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. The fluorine content and the relative amount of C-C and C-F bonds were controlled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrophobicity and surface tension by contact angle measurements. Surface roughness was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. Additional nanoidentation studies were performed for DLC and F-DLC coatings. Unpaired t test and regression linear models evaluated the adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis on raw and coated UHMWPE samples. Comparing with UHMWPE, DLC/UHMWPE was the least adherent surface with independence of the bacterial species, finding significant reductions (p ≤ 0.001) for nine staphylococci strains. Bacterial adherence was also significantly reduced in F-DLC/ UHMWPE and CFx/UHMWPE for six strains.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 05/2012; 100(10):2813-20. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of disease-eliciting allergens is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). The aim of this study was to determine whether molecular diagnosis (MD) may change indication and allergen prescription of SIT.
A total of 141 patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma sensitized to pollen with or without concomitant food allergy were included. Skin prick testing with a panel of aeroallergens and a microarray-based panel of allergens (ISAC(®); Phadia, Sweden) was performed in all patients. Prior to learning the results of molecular diagnosis, three of the authors reached a consensus on the indication of SIT and use of allergens following EAACI recommendations, basing their judgment on clinical history and skin prick test results before and after obtaining the ISAC results. The agreement coefficient (kappa index) was used to analyze the results.
Fifty-nine percent of the patients were women with a mean age of 31 ± 13.63. Agreement in SIT indication before and after ISAC(®) results was found in only 62 (46%) patients (kappa = 0.1057 ± 0.0413). Concerning allergens used in the most common prescriptions before and after MD results, we obtained the following results: κ = 0.117 ± 0.0825 for grass; κ = 0.1624 ± 0.0639 for olive; κ = 0.0505 ± 0.0548 for olive and grass; κ = 0.1711 ± 0.0471 for grass and cypress; κ = 0.1897 ± 0.0493 for grass and London plane; κ = 1 ± 0.0842 for olive and cypress, and κ = 0.3586 ± 0.0798 for other combinations.
There was very low agreement concerning indication and use of allergens for SIT before and after performing MD. This discrepancy emphasizes the usefulness of MD, at least in areas of complex sensitization to pollen, in determining correct indication of SIT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) advocates a multifactorial and multifaceted conceptualization of disability. The objective of this study was to ascertain major medical, environmental and personal determinants of severe/extreme disability among the elderly population in Spain. The assessment scheme was consistent with the ICF model of disability.
Nine populations contributed probabilistic or geographically-defined samples following a two-phase screening design. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the 12-item version of the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule, 2(nd) ed. (WHO-DAS II), were used as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Positively screened individuals underwent clinical work-up for dementia and were administered the 36-item version of the WHO-DAS II to estimate ICF disability levels. We used logistic regression for the purposes of data combination, adjusted for age and sex in all analyses.
The sample was composed of 503 participants aged ≥ 75 years. Alzheimeŕs disease and depression were highly predictive of severe/extreme disability (OR: 17.40, 3.71). Good access to social services was strongly associated with a low level or absence of disability (OR: 0.05 to 0.18). Very difficult access to services and having dementia or another psychiatric disorder were associated with an increase in disability (OR: 66.06). There was also a significant interaction effect between access to services and neurological disorders (OR: 12.74).
Disability is highly prevalent among the Spanish elderly and is influenced by medical, social and personal factors. Disability could potentially be reduced by ensuring access to social services, preventing dementia and stroke, and treating depression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF.
Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items) as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100) assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items) was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100).
The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32).
Disability is highly prevalent among the Spanish elderly. Sex- and age-specific variations of disability are associated with particular disability domains.
BMC Public Health 03/2011; 11:176. · 2.08 Impact Factor