ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates are important and effective drugs in oncology and osteoporosis therapy. They accumulate in the bone matrix becoming released and active by bone resorption. This leads to effective inhibition of tumor cells and bone degradation. A side effect of bisphosphonates similar to other drugs like denosumab is osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). This problem mostly occurs after tooth extraction. We studied the cytoprotectant dexrazoxane known from anthracycline chemotherapy for cytoprotection in nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate treated cells and in the rabbit tibia model to evaluate a possible value in ONJ management. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human osteoblasts (HOB) P2 cells and Human ginigiva fibroblasts (HGF) P2 cells were treated with zoledronic acid (50μmol/L) and the cytoprotectant dexrazoxane (600μmol/L). Analysis included cell viability testing with MTT assay and morphology analysis using CellTracker™ Green CMFDA. A biomaterial carrier (Bio-Oss Collagen) was implanted in the rabbit tibia of 6 female chinchilla bastard rabbits on both sides with drill hole defects (d: 3.2mm). Implants were loaded with 25nmol zoledronic acid, with and without 300nmol dexrazoxane and unloaded in a control group. Analysis included histological examination of undecalcified samples with toloudine blue staining after 10days. RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed a significantly higher MTT activity in cells treated with zoledronic acid together with dexrazoxane compared to the same cells treated with the bisphosphonate alone in t-test (HOB: p=0.0003; HGF: p below 0.0001) and one-way ANOVA. Cell morphology changes were consistent with these results. In vivo results showed newly formed bone trabeculae directly growing towards the implanted hydroxylapatite particles and cortical bone interface resorption activities in the control and the experimental group only. CONCLUSION: The study suggests a possible value of this patented technology for ONJ therapy and prevention with local or systemic application.
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 03/2012; · 1.25 Impact Factor