Bingcan Chen

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst Center, MA, United States

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Publications (14)31.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the effect of diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) on the oxidative stability of stripped soybean oil (SSO) and on the antioxidative effectiveness of α-tocopherol in SSO. We also examined the influence of DAG and MAG on the physical properties of SSO. DAG (0-2.5wt%) had little effect on the chemical stability of SSO and on the antioxidative activity of 40μM α-tocopherol in SSO (55°C). MAG (0-2.5wt%) had no remarkable impact on the chemical stability of SSO. The addition of MAG (0.5wt%) suppressed the effectiveness of α-tocopherol (40μM) in SSO. The addition of DAG did not cause an appreciable change in the interfacial tension (IFT) of SSO, indicating that it was not strongly surface active. MAG significantly decreased the interfacial tension of SSO, due to its strong surface active properties. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) analysis showed that DAG did not alter the structured organisation of SSO, which remained in an amorphous form, whereas MAG led to strong scattering, indicating the formation of crystals. The physical properties of DAG and MAG in the SSO may be related to the chemical stability of SSO and the effectiveness of antioxidants incorporated. These results can be used to better understand the physicochemical mechanisms by which minor components impact oxidation of bulk oils.
    Food Chemistry 01/2014; 142:365-72. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    Food Research International. 05/2013; 51(2):992.
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have found an association between the consumption of certain bioactive lipids and improved human health, e.g., the prevention, delay, or treatment of chronic and acute diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, and immune disorders. In this review, we discuss food-based sources and potential beneficial attributes of major dietary bioactive lipids: polyunsaturated fatty acids; carotenoids; phytosterols and phytostanols; and fat-soluble vitamins. We summarize the various challenges associated with incorporating these bioactive lipids into foods and beverages, such as poor water solubility, high melting point, and low chemical stability. Finally, we propose several techniques that have been used to solve the challenges and integrate dietary bioactive lipids into foods for improved health. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 4 is February 28, 2013. Please see for revised estimates.
    Review of Food Science and Technology 12/2012; · 4.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and might be utilised by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, an aqueous extraction method was developed to increase the yield of oil bodies extracted from soybean. This method involved a two-step procedure: (i) blending, dispersion, and filtration of soybeans; (ii) homogenisation, suspension, and centrifugation of the filter cake. Using this extraction method about 65% of the oil bodies could be obtained. The mean particle diameter (d43) and sedimentation of the resulting oil bodies increased during storage, suggesting they were prone to aggregation. Heat treatment (90 °C, 30 min) of the oil body suspensions immediately after extraction improved their storage stability, which was attributed to deactivation of endogenous enzymes such as lipase and lipoxygenase. Heat treatment did not adversely affect the oxidative stability of the oil body suspensions at pH 3 or 7 during storage at 37 °C. These results suggest that this aqueous extraction method can be used to prepare oil body suspensions with improved long-term stability.
    Food Chemistry. 06/2012; 132(3):1514–1520.
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of physical structures, known as association colloids, in bulk oils can promote lipid oxidation. However, the cause of this accelerated lipid oxidation is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether transition metals were important prooxidants in bulk oils containing reverse micelles produced from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and water. The Fe(III) chelator deferoxamine (DFO) increased the oxidative stability of stripped soybean oil (SSO) containing reverse micelles from 2 to 7 days. Because phosphatidylcholine (1,2-dibutyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) that does not form reverse micelles is not prooxidative, these results suggest that the prooxidant activity of DOPC reverse micelles could be due to their ability to concentrate both endogenous iron and lipid hydroperoxides at the water-lipid interface, thereby increasing the ability of iron to decompose lipid hydroperoxides. DFO was also able to improve the activity of α-tocopherol and Trolox in SSO containing DOPC reverse micelles increasing the lag phase from 2 to 11 and 13 days, respectively. DOPC reverse micelles decreased iron-promoted α-tocopherol and Trolox decomposition and decreased the ability of α-tocopherol and Trolox to decrease Fe(III) concentrations. Overall, these results suggest that iron is an important prooxidant in bulk oils containing reverse micelles; therefore, finding ways to control iron reactivity in association colloids could provide new technologies to increase the oxidative stability of oils.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2012; 60(13):3524-32. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Food oils are primarily composed of triacylglycerols (TAG), but they may also contain a variety of other minor constituents that influence their physical and chemical properties, including diacylglycerols (DAG), monoacylglycerols (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PLs), water, and minerals. This article reviews recent research on the impact of these minor components on lipid oxidation in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions. In particular, it highlights the origin of these minor components, the influence of oil refining on the type and concentration of minor components present, and potential physicochemical mechanisms by which these minor components impact lipid oxidation in bulk oils and emulsions. This knowledge is crucial for designing food, pharmaceutical, personal care, and other products with improved stability to lipid oxidation.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 12/2011; 51(10):901-16. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by reacting casein peptides with different concentrations of glucose at 80 °C for up to 12 h. The chemical properties of MRPs and their effects on lipid oxidation in fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Increasing browning development and absorbance in 294 nm in the MRPs caused an increase in DPPH radical scavenging, but a decrease in iron chelation, which could be related to the loss of free amino groups in the peptides. The MRPs produced with longer reaction time or higher glucose concentrations were less effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation in emulsions at pH 7.0 compared to casein peptides alone. However, the antioxidant activity of MRPs in emulsions at pH 3.0 was not decreased by prolonged heating. The bitterness of MRPs was less than that of the original casein peptides, and bitterness decreased with increasing heating time and glucose concentrations. Therefore, the Maillard reaction was a potential method to reduce the bitterness of casein peptides while not strongly decreasing their antioxidant activity.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2011; 59(24):13311-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In bulk oil, it is generally thought that hydrophilic antioxidants are more active than lipophilic antioxidants. To test this hypothesis, the antioxidant activity of phenolics with increasing hydrophobicity was evaluated in stripped corn oil using both conjugated diene and hexanal measurements. Chlorogenic acid and its butyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl esters were used as model phenolic antioxidants with various hydrophobicities. Results showed that hydrophobicity did not correlate well with antioxidant capacity. The combination of chlorogenic acid derivatives with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and/or water was also studied to determine if the physical structure in the oil affected antioxidant activity. DOPC alone made hexadecyl chlorogenate a less effective antioxidant, but it did not change the antioxidant capacity of chlorogenic acid. In contrast, the combination of DOPC and water (∼400 ppm) renders chlorogenic acid a less active antioxidant, whereas it does not change the activity of hexadecyl chlorogenate. These results show, in bulk oil, that intrinsic parameters such as the hydrophobicity of lipophilized phenolics do not exert a strong influence on antioxidant capacity, but they can be highly influential if potentialized by extrinsic factors such as physical structures in the oil.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2011; 59(18):10361-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipids self-assemble in bulk oils to form structures such as reverse micelles that can alter the microenvironment where chemical degradation reactions occur, such as lipid oxidation. In this study, we examined the influence of phospholipid reverse micelles on the activity of non-polar (α-tocopherol) and polar (Trolox) antioxidants in stripped soybean oil (SSO). Reverse micelles were formed by adding 1000 μM 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) to SSO. The addition of DOPC reverse micelles had a prooxidant effect, shortening the lag phase of SSO at 55 °C. DOPC improved the activity of low α-tocopherol or Trolox concentrations (10 μM) but decreased the activity of high concentrations (100 μM). Hydrophilic Trolox had better antioxidant activity than hydrophobic α-tocopherol. Fluorescence steady state and lifetime decay studies suggests that differences in the antioxidant activity of Trolox and α-tocopherol could be due to differences in their physical location in DOPC reverse micelles. These results will improve our understanding and control of lipid oxidation in bulk oils.
    Food & function. 06/2011; 2(6):302-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The oxidation of edible oil yields both primary and secondary oxidation products (e.g., hydroperoxides, carbonyls, hydrocarbons, and epoxides), which produce undesirable sensory and biological effects. Consequently, the suppression of lipid oxidation in food matrices is of great importance. The rate and extent of lipid oxidation in many heterogeneous foods are strongly affected by the physicochemical characteristics of water-oil interfaces. This study examined the ability of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and water to form association colloids within bulk oil, as well as their impact on lipid oxidation kinetics. Attenuation was used to show the DOPC and water concentrations at which association colloids existed without altering the optical properties of the oil. Interfacial tension and fluorescence spectrometry showed the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of DOPC in stripped soybean oil was around 650 μM at room temperature. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence probes showed that water had a very strong impact on the properties of the association colloids formed by DOPC. Measurement of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products revealed that the association colloids formed by DOPC had a pro-oxidant effect. The characterization of association colloids could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of lipid oxidation in bulk oils and provide insights into new antioxidant technologies.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2010; 58(22):11993-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean oil bodies are naturally coated by a layer of phospholipids and oleosin proteins, which protect them from in vivo environmental stresses. When oil bodies are incorporated into food products, they encounter new environmental stresses such as changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Consequently, additional protection mechanisms are often needed to stabilize them. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soybean oil bodies could be stabilized by coating them with a layer of cross-linked anionic polysaccharide (beet pectin). The beet pectin layer was cross-linked via its ferulic acid groups using laccase (an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic groups). Oil body suspensions were prepared that contained 1 wt % oil and 0.06 wt % beet pectin at pH 7 and were then adjusted to pH 4.5 to promote electrostatic deposition of the beet pectin molecules onto the surfaces of the oil bodies. Laccase was then added to promote cross-linking of the adsorbed beet pectin layer. Cross-linked pectin-coated oil bodies had similar or better stability than uncoated oil bodies to pH changes (3 to 7), NaCl addition (0 to 500 mM), and freeze-thaw cycling (-20 °C for 22 h; +40 °C for 2 h). These pectin-coated oil bodies may provide a convenient means of incorporating soybean oil into food and other products.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2010; 58(16):9259-65. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By means of two alternative methods lipid and protein hydroperoxides (HP) were determined by fluorometry using the diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) probe. It has been shown that the formation of the fluorescence was influenced by the type of solvent and HP whereas the presence in the media of antioxidants such tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene had no effect. The combination of the chloroform:methanol (2:1, v/v) solvent mixture that is widely used for lipid extraction was combined with suitable solvents to develop a method with the maximum performance in determining HP in lipid extracts. Using a variety of lipids and lipid extracts, the final method proposed agreed well with the thiocyanate method for HP determination. In addition, the DPPP method was very sensitive, precise, accurate, free of interferences and specific for the determination of lipid soluble HP. DPPP can be also used to measure HP soluble in hydroalcoholic media. This alternative procedure showed a similar performance to its lipid soluble equivalent and was able to measure hydrogen peroxide promoted peroxidation of bovine serum albumin and water soluble HP in protein extracts. With the addition of triphenylphosphine the hydroalcoholic method is specific for the determination of protein HP.
    Food Chemistry. 04/2010; 123(3):892.
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    ABSTRACT: The antioxidant role of selected polysaccharides was studied in the continuous phase of a Menhaden oil-in-water emulsion coated by polyoxyethylene(23) lauryl ether (Brij 35) at neutral pH. The addition of low-methoxyl (LM) and high-methoxyl (HM) pectin (0.02-0.1 wt %) reduced the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances with an inhibition that increased with increasing polysaccharide concentration in the continuous phase. alpha-Carrageenan and sodium alginate were less effective antioxidants than pectin and were prooxidative under certain conditions. None of the polysaccharides impacted the physical properties of the emulsions as determined by droplet particle size (d(43) approximately 0.32 microm) and creaming index. LM and HM pectins had higher iron-binding capacities as compared to alpha-carrageenan and sodium alginate, which may relate to their higher antioxidant activities. These results suggest that the addition of anionic polysaccharides to the continuous phase of oil-in-water emulsions could be used to increase the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions and thus prolong shelf life.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(6):3779-84. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid oxidation products can arise when oils are subjected to high temperature and exposed to oxygen. Many of these oxidation products have higher polarity than the original triacylglycerols due to the incorporation of oxygen. These polar oxidation products could have a negative impact on oxidative stability by acting as prooxidants. In this study, the influence of polar lipid oxidation products on the oxidative stability of bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions was investigated. Polar compounds were isolated from used frying oil by silica gel column chromatography. They were added to bulk stripped corn oil (with/without reverse micelles formed by dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, DOPC) and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion to evaluate their prooxidative activity. Polar compounds increased lipid oxidation in bulk oil with and without DOPC. The presence of DOPC reverse micelles decreased the prooxidant activity of the polar oxidation products. On the other hand, there was no significant effect of the polar compounds on oxidation of O/W emulsions. To gain a better understanding of the polar compounds responsible for the prooxidant effect, linoleic acid and linoleic hydroperoxide were added into bulk oil at the same concentration as those in the polar fraction of the frying oil. However, they did not show the same prooxidative activity compared to oil with the polar fraction.
    Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 89(12). · 1.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

63 Citations
31.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Food Science
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
    • University of Barcelona
      • Facultad de Farmacia
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2011
    • Ocean University of China
      • College of Food Science and Engineering
      Qingdao, Shandong Sheng, China