Amy M Kilbourne

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Publications (177)534.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about the demographic and clinical differences between early- and late-onset depressions (EOD and LOD, respectively) in Chinese patients. This study examined the demographic and clinical profile of EOD (<=25 years) compared to LOD (>25 years) in China. Methods A consecutively recruited sample of 1178 patients with MDD was assessed in 13 psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric units of general hospitals in China nationwide. The cross-sectional data of patients׳ demographic and clinical characteristics and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results Two hundred and seventy five (23.3%) of the 1178 patients fulfilled criteria for EOD. In multiple logistic regression analyses, compared to LOD patients their EOD counterparts were more likely to be unmarried and unemployed, had more atypical and psychotic depressive episodes, had bipolar features, while they had more lifetime depressive episodes. Conclusions The demographic and more severe clinical features of EOD in Chinese patients were basically consistent with those found in Western populations. The association between socio-cultural factors and development of EOD warrants further studies.
    Journal of Affective Disorders. 01/2015; 170:266–269.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lithium has been reported in some, but not all, studies to be associated with reduced risk of suicide death or suicidal behavior. The objective of this nonrandomized cohort study was to examine whether lithium was associated with reduced risk of suicide death in comparison to the commonly-used alternative treatment, valproate.MethodsA propensity score-matched cohort study was conducted of Veterans Health Administration patients (n¿=¿21,194/treatment) initiating lithium or valproate from 1999¿2008.ResultsMatching produced lithium and valproate treatment groups that were highly similar in all 934 propensity score covariates, including indicators of recent suicidal behavior, but recent suicidal ideation was not able to be included. In the few individuals with recently diagnosed suicidal ideation, a significant imbalance existed with suicidal ideation more prevalent at baseline among individuals initiating lithium than valproate (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.09, 1.54; p¿=¿0.003). No significant differences in suicide death were observed over 0¿365 days in A) the primary intent-to-treat analysis (lithium/valproate conditional odds ratio (cOR) 1.22, 95% CI 0.82, 1.81; p¿=¿0.32); B) during receipt of initial lithium or valproate treatment (cOR 0.86, 0.46, 1.61; p¿=¿0.63); or C) after such treatment had been discontinued/modified (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.91, 2.50; p¿=¿0.11). Significantly increased risks of suicide death were observed after the discontinuation/modification of lithium, compared to valproate, treatment over the first 180 days (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.21, 6.11; p¿=¿0.015).Conclusions In this somewhat distinct sample (a predominantly male Veteran sample with a broad range of psychiatric diagnoses), no significant differences in associations with suicide death were observed between lithium and valproate treatment over 365 days. The only significant difference was observed over 0¿180 days: an increased risk of suicide death, among individuals discontinuing or modifying lithium, compared to valproate, treatment. This difference could reflect risks either related to lithium discontinuation or higher baseline risks among lithium recipients (i.e., confounding) that became more evident when treatment stopped. Our findings therefore support educating patients and providers about possible suicide-related risks of discontinuing lithium even shortly after treatment initiation, and the close monitoring of patients after lithium discontinuation, if feasible. If our findings include residual confounding biasing against lithium, however, as suggested by the differences observed in diagnosed suicidal ideation, then the degree of beneficial reduction in suicide death risk associated with lithium treatment would be underestimated. Further research is urgently needed, given the lack of interventions against suicide and the uncertainties concerning the degree to which lithium may reduce suicide risk during active treatment, increase risk upon discontinuation, or both.
    BMC Psychiatry 12/2014; 14(1):357. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Amy M Kilbourne, David Atkins
    Journal of general internal medicine. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This randomized controlled implementation study compared the effectiveness of a standard versus enhanced version of the replicating effective programs (REP) implementation strategy to improve the uptake of the life goals-collaborative care model (LG-CC) for bipolar disorder. Seven community-based practices (384 patient participants) were randomized to standard (manual/training) or enhanced REP (customized manual/training/facilitation) to promote LG-CC implementation. Participants from enhanced REP sites had no significant changes in primary outcomes (improved quality of life, reduced functioning or mood symptoms) by 24 months. Further research is needed to determine whether implementation strategies can lead to sustained, improved participant outcomes in addition to program uptake.
    Administration and policy in mental health. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite the availability of psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs), treatment and outcomes for persons with mental disorders remain suboptimal. Replicating Effective Programs (REP), an effective implementation strategy, still resulted in less than half of sites using an EBP. The primary aim of this cluster randomized trial is to determine, among sites not initially responding to REP, the effect of adaptive implementation strategies that begin with an External Facilitator (EF) or with an External Facilitator plus an Internal Facilitator (IF) on improved EBP use and patient outcomes in 12 months.Methods/DesignThis study employs a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) design to build an adaptive implementation strategy. The EBP to be implemented is life goals (LG) for patients with mood disorders across 80 community-based outpatient clinics (N¿=¿1,600 patients) from different U.S. regions. Sites not initially responding to REP (defined as <50% patients receiving ¿3 EBP sessions) will be randomized to receive additional support from an EF or both EF/IF. Additionally, sites randomized to EF and still not responsive will be randomized to continue with EF alone or to receive EF/IF. The EF provides technical expertise in adapting LG in routine practice, whereas the on-site IF has direct reporting relationships to site leadership to support LG use in routine practice. The primary outcome is mental health-related quality of life; secondary outcomes include receipt of LG sessions, mood symptoms, implementation costs, and organizational change.DiscussionThis study design will determine whether an off-site EF alone versus the addition of an on-site IF improves EBP uptake and patient outcomes among sites that do not respond initially to REP. It will also examine the value of delaying the provision of EF/IF for sites that continue to not respond despite EF.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02151331.
    Implementation Science 09/2014; 9(1):132. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Persons with serious mental illnesses (SMI) are more likely to die earlier than the general population, primarily due to increased medical burden, particularly from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Life Goals Collaborative Care (LG-CC) is designed to improve health outcomes in SMI through self-management, care management, and provider support. This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study will determine whether patients with SMI receiving LG-CC compared to usual care (UC) experience improved physical health in 12 months. Methods Patients diagnosed with SMI and at least one CVD risk factor receiving care at a VA mental health clinic were randomized to LG-CC or UC. LG-CC included five self-management sessions covering mental health symptom management reinforced through health behavior change; care coordination and health monitoring via a registry, and provider feedback. The primary outcome is change in physical health-related quality of life score (VR-12) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in mental health-related quality of life, CVD risk factors (blood pressure, BMI), and physical activity from baseline to 12 months later. Results Out of 304 enrolled, 139 were randomized to LG-CC and 145 to UC. Among patients completing baseline assessments (N = 284); the mean age was 55.2 (SD = 10.9; range 28–75 years), 15.6% were women, the majority (62%) were diagnosed with depression, and the majority (63%) were diagnosed with hypertension or were overweight (BMI mean ± SD = 33.3 ± 6.3). Baseline VR-12 physical health component score was below population norms (50.0 ± SD = 10) at 33.4 ± 11.0. Conclusions Findings from this trial may inform initiatives to improve physical health for SMI patient populations.
    Contemporary Clinical Trials 09/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • Carol A Janney, Mark S Bauer, Amy M Kilbourne
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    ABSTRACT: This review provides clinicians and individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) with an overview of evidence-based skills shown to be effective in BD and amenable to self-management including psychoeducation; monitoring moods, medications, and social function; sleep hygiene; setting goals and relapse plans; and healthy lifestyles (physical activity, healthy eating, weight loss and management, medical comorbidities). Currently available self-management resources for BD are summarized by mode of delivery (workbooks, mobile technologies, internet, and peer-led interventions). Regardless of the self-management intervention/topic, the research suggests that personally tailored interventions of longer duration and greater frequency may be necessary to achieve the maximal benefit among individuals with BD. Means to support these self-management interventions as self-sustaining identities are critically needed. Hopefully, the recent investment in patient-centered research and care will result in best practices for the self-management of BD by mode of delivery. Since self-management of BD should complement rather than replace medical care, clinicians need to partner with their patients to incorporate and support advances in self-management for individuals with BD.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 09/2014; 16(9):485. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This evaluation compared the effectiveness of MOVE!, a U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) weight management program, among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other mental conditions, or no mental health diagnoses.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 08/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population does, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses.
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module is widely used in epidemiological studies of PTSD, yet relatively few data attest to the instrument's diagnostic utility. The current study evaluated the diagnostic utility of the CIDI 3.0 PTSD module with U. S. women Vietnam-era veterans. The CIDI and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) were independently administered to a stratified sample of 160 women, oversampled for current PTSD. Both lifetime PTSD and recent (past year) PTSD were assessed within a 3-week interval. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of lifetime PTSD, and 21.9% of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of past-year PTSD. Using CAPS as the diagnostic criterion, the CIDI correctly classified 78.8% of cases for lifetime PTSD (κ = .56) and 82.0% of past year PTSD cases (κ = .51). Estimates of diagnostic performance for the CIDI were sensitivity of .61 and specificity of .91 for lifetime PTSD and sensitivity of .71 and specificity of .85 for past-year PTSD. Results suggest that the CIDI has good utility for identifying PTSD, though it is a somewhat conservative indicator of lifetime PTSD as compared to the CAPS.Traditional and Simplified Chinese Abstracts by AsianSTSS標題:女越南戰事退役軍中綜合國際診斷會見(CIDI 3.0) 的診斷準確性撮要:世界衛生組織(WHO)綜合國際診斷會見(CIDI)創傷後壓力症(PTSD)單元被廣泛應用於PTSD流行學研究,但只有少數研究其相關診斷效用。本研究在女性越南戰事退役軍中評定CIDI 3.0 PTSD單元的診斷效能。這是160名女士的分層和過度採樣現有PTSD的樣本,然後獨立地施行CIDI 和醫生施行PTSD量表(CAPS)。在三週內使用評估其終生PTSD和現有(過去一年)PTSD。總數45.0%符合CAPS終生PTSD診斷準則,和21.9%為CAPS過去一年PTSD診斷準則。以CAPS為診斷標準,CIDI 正確判別78.8% 終生PTSD個案(K= .56)和82.0% 過去一年PTSD 個案(K= .51) 。利用CAPS為標準估計CIDI的診斷表現,終生PTSD的靈敏度為.61和特異性為.091,而過往一年PTSD的靈敏度是.71 和特異性是.85。結果確認CIDI對辨識PTSD有高效用,但對比CAPS在終生PTSD方面卻是較保守的指標。标题:女越南战事退役军中综合国际诊断会见(CIDI 3.0) 的诊断准确性撮要:世界卫生组织(WHO)综合国际诊断会见(CIDI)创伤后压力症(PTSD)单元被广泛应用于PTSD流行学研究,但只有少数研究其相关诊断效用。本研究在女性越南战事退役军中评定CIDI 3.0 PTSD单元的诊断效能。这是160名女士的分层和过度采样现有PTSD的样本,然后独立地施行CIDI 和医生施行PTSD量表(CAPS)。在三周内使用评估其终生PTSD和现有(过去一年)PTSD。总数45.0%符合CAPS终生PTSD诊断准则,和21.9%为CAPS过去一年PTSD诊断准则。以CAPS为诊断标准,CIDI 正确判别78.8% 终生PTSD个案(K= .56)和82.0% 过去一年PTSD 个案(K= .51) 。利用CAPS为标准估计CIDI的诊断表现,终生PTSD的灵敏度为.61和特异性为.091,而过往一年PTSD的灵敏度是.71 和特异性是.85。结果确认CIDI对辨识PTSD有高效用,但比对CAPS在终生PTSD方面却是较保守的指标。
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 04/2014; 27(2). · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a retrospective study among 4,734 women who served in the US military in Vietnam (Vietnam cohort), 2,062 women who served in countries near Vietnam (near-Vietnam cohort), and 5,313 nondeployed US military women (US cohort) to evaluate the associations of mortality outcomes with Vietnam War service. Veterans were identified from military records and followed for 40 years through December 31, 2010. Information on underlying causes of death was obtained from death certificates and the National Death Index. Based on 2,743 deaths, all 3 veteran cohorts had lower mortality risk from all causes combined and from several major causes, such as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and nervous system disease relative to comparable US women. However, excess deaths from motor vehicle accidents were observed in the Vietnam cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.30, 5.56) and in the US cohort (standardized mortality ratio = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.27). More than two-thirds of women in the study were military nurses. Nurses in the Vietnam cohort had a 2-fold higher risk of pancreatic cancer death (adjusted relative risk = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 4.25) and an almost 5-fold higher risk of brain cancer death compared with nurses in the US cohort (adjusted relative risk = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.27, 16.83). Findings of all-cause and motor vehicle accident deaths among female Vietnam veterans were consistent with patterns of postwar mortality risk among other war veterans.
    American journal of epidemiology 01/2014; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is a frequent yet overlooked occurrence in primary health care clinics worldwide. Depression and related health screening instruments are available but are rarely used consistently. The availability of technologically based instruments in the assessments offers novel approaches for gathering, storing, and assessing data that includes self-reported symptom severity from the patients themselves as well as clinician recorded information. In a suburban primary health care clinic in Quito, Ecuador, we tested the feasibility and utility of computer tablet-based assessments to evaluate clinic attendees for depression symptoms with the goal of developing effective screening and monitoring tools in the primary care clinics. We assessed individuals using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, and a DSM-IV checklist of symptoms. We found that 20% of individuals had a PHQ9 of 8 or greater. There was good correlation between the symptom severity assessments. We conclude that the tablet-based PHQ9 is an excellent and efficient method of screening for depression in attendees at primary health care clinics and that one in five people should be assessed further for depressive illness and possible intervention.
    International journal of family medicine. 01/2014; 2014:845397.
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    ABSTRACT: Mood disorders represent the most expensive mental disorders for employer-based commercial health plans. Collaborative care models are effective in treating chronic physical and mental illnesses at little to no net healthcare cost, but to date have primarily been implemented by larger healthcare organizations in facility-based models. The majority of practices providing commercially insured care are far too small to implement such models. Health plan-level collaborative care treatment can address this unmet need. The goal of this study is to implement at the national commercial health plan level a collaborative care model to improve outcomes for persons with mood disorders. A randomized controlled trial of a collaborative care model versus usual care will be conducted among beneficiaries of a large national health plan from across the country seen by primary care or behavioral health practices. At discharge 344 patients identified by health plan claims as hospitalized for unipolar depression or bipolar disorder will be randomized to receive collaborative care (patient phone-based self-management support, care management, and guideline dissemination to practices delivered by a plan-level care manager) or usual care from their provider. Primary outcomes are changes in mood symptoms and mental health-related quality of life at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include rehospitalization, receipt of guideline-concordant care, and work productivity. This study will determine whether a collaborative care model for mood disorders delivered at the national health plan level improves outcomes compared to usual care, and will inform a business case for collaborative care models for these settings that can reach patients wherever they receive treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02041962; registered January 3, 2014.
    BMC psychology. 01/2014; 2(1):48.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES. Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. Such misdiagnosis partly depends on the type of treatment setting. This study compared general hospital psychiatric units with psychiatric hospitals in China with respect to basic demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with unrecognised bipolar disorder who are treated for major depressive disorder. METHODS. Patients treated for major depressive disorder were consecutively examined in 13 health centres (6 general hospital psychiatric units and 7 psychiatric hospitals) in China. Their socio-demographic and clinical features were recorded using a standardised protocol and data collection procedure. The DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. RESULTS. Of the 1487 patients included in the study, 309 (20.8%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There was no significant difference between general hospital psychiatric units and psychiatric hospitals in the ratio of all types of unrecognised bipolar disorders (χ2 = 0.008, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.9) and bipolar II disorders (χ2 = 3.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.08). The proportions of unrecognised bipolar I disorders (χ2 = 4.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.04) differed significantly between the 2 types of study site. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with bipolar I disorders with more seasonal depressive episodes were more likely to receive treatment in general hospital psychiatric units (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-9.8). CONCLUSION. Patients with bipolar I disorders receiving treatment in general hospital psychiatric units had different clinical characteristics compared to their counterparts treated in psychiatric hospitals in China.
    East Asian archives of psychiatry : official journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists = Dong Ya jing shen ke xue zhi : Xianggang jing shen ke yi xue yuan qi kan. 12/2013; 23(4):139-43.
  • General hospital psychiatry 11/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persons with serious mental illness are disproportionately burdened by premature mortality. This disparity is exacerbated by poor continuity of care with the health system. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) developed Re-Engage, an effective population-based outreach program to identify veterans with SMI lost to care and to reconnect them with VA services. However, such programs often encounter barriers getting implemented into routine care. Adaptive designs are needed when the implementation intervention requires augmentation within sites that do not initially respond to an initial implementation intervention. This protocol describes the methods used in an adaptive implementation design study that aims to compare the effectiveness of a standard implementation strategy (Replicating Effective Programs, or REP) with REP enhanced with External Facilitation (enhanced REP) to promote the uptake of Re-Engage.Methods/design: This study employs a four-phase, two-arm, longitudinal, clustered randomized trial design. VA sites (n = 158) across the United States with a designated Re-Engage provider, at least one Veteran with SMI lost to care, and who received standard REP during a six-month run-in phase. Subsequently, 88 sites with inadequate uptake were stratified at the cluster level by geographic region (n = 4) and VA regional service network (n = 20) and randomized to REP (n = 49) vs. enhanced REP (n = 39) in phase two. The primary outcome was the percentage of veterans on each facility outreach list documented on an electronic web registry. The intervention was at the site and network level and consisted of standard REP versus REP enhanced by external phone facilitation consults. At 12 months, enhanced REP sites returned to standard REP and 36 sites with inadequate participation received enhanced REP for six months in phase three. Secondary implementation outcomes included the percentage of veterans contacted directly by site providers and the percentage re-engaged in VA health services. Adaptive implementation designs consisting of a sequence of decision rules that are tailored based on a site's uptake of an effective program may produce more relevant, rapid, and generalizable results by more quickly validating or rejecting new implementation strategies, thus enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of implementation research and potentially leading to the rollout of more cost-efficient implementation strategies.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21059161.
    Implementation Science 11/2013; 8(1):136. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The authors compared fidelity to bipolar disorder treatment at community practices that received a standard or enhanced version of a novel implementation intervention called Replicating Effective Programs (REP). METHODS Five community practices in Michigan and Colorado were assigned at random to receive enhanced (N=3) or standard (N=2) REP to help implement Life Goals Collaborative Care (LGCC), a psychosocial intervention consisting of four self-management support group sessions, ongoing care management contacts by phone, and dissemination of guidelines to providers. Standard REP includes an intervention package consisting of an outline, a treatment manual and implementation guide, a standard training program, and as-needed technical assistance. Enhanced REP added customization of the treatment manual and ongoing, proactive technical assistance from internal and external facilitators. Multiple and logistic regression analyses determined the impact of enhanced versus standard REP on patient-level fidelity. RESULTS The participants (N=384) had a mean age of 42 years; 67% were women, and 30% were nonwhite. Participants attended an average of three group sessions and had an average of four care management contacts. After adjustment for patient factors, enhanced REP was associated with 2.6 (p<.001) times more total sessions and contacts than standard REP, which was driven by 2.5 (p<.01) times more care management contacts. Women and participants with a history of homelessness had fewer total sessions and contacts. CONCLUSIONS Enhanced REP was associated with improved LGCC fidelity, primarily for care management contacts. Additional customization of interventions such as LGCC may be needed to ensure adequate treatment fidelity for vulnerable populations.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 10/2013; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No study has examined the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on moderate-severe major depressive disorders (MDD) in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBT, antidepressants alone (MED), combined CBT and antidepressants (COMB) and standard treatment (ST; i.e., receiving psycho-educational intervention and/or medication treatment determined by treating psychiatrists) on depressive symptoms and social functioning in Chinese patients with moderate-severe MDD. A total of 180 patients diagnosed with MDD according to ICD-10 were randomly allocated to one of the four treatment regimens for a period of 6 months. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (C-QIDS-SR). Remission threshold was defined as a C-QIDS-SR total score of <5. Social functioning was evaluated with the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). All outcome measures were evaluated at entry, and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At the 6-months assessment, the remission rates in the whole sample (n=96), the MED, the CBT, the COMB and the ST groups were 54.2%, 48%, 75%, 53.5% and 50%, respectively. Following the treatment periods, there was no significant difference in any of the study outcomes between the four groups. However, the CBT showed the greatest effect in the HAMD total score with the effect size=0.94, whereas the ST has only a moderate effect size in the WSAS total score (effect size=0.47). The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of CBT as a psychosocial intervention for Chinese patients with moderate-severe MDD. We also found that single treatment using MED or CBT performed equally well as the combined CBT-antidepressant treatment in controlling the remission. The study provided important knowledge to inform the mental health care planning in China.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
534.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Family & Community Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Division of Adult Psychiatry
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
      • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Psychiatry (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, OH, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      • General Internal Medicine
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Epidemiology and Community Health
      Richmond, VA, United States
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2001–2006
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • VA Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2005
    • VA Long Beach Healthcare System
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Ithaca, New York, United States