Jessica M Hester

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States

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Publications (8)44.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies have identified common genetic variants influencing diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy, diseases which disproportionately affect African Americans. Recently, exome sequencing techniques have facilitated identification of coding variants on a genome-wide basis in large samples. Exonic variants in known or suspected end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or nephropathy genes can be tested for their ability to identify association either singly or in combination with known associated common variants. Coding variants in genes with prior evidence for association with ESKD or nephropathy were identified in the NHLBI-ESP GO database and genotyped in 5,045 African Americans (3,324 cases with type 2 diabetes associated nephropathy [T2D-ESKD] or non-T2D ESKD, and 1,721 controls) and 1,465 European Americans (568 T2D-ESKD cases and 897 controls). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess association, with admixture and APOL1 risk status incorporated as covariates. Ten of 31 SNPs were associated in African Americans; four replicated in European Americans. In African Americans, SNPs in OR2L8, OR2AK2, C6orf167 (MMS22L), LIMK2, APOL3, APOL2, and APOL1 were nominally associated (P = 1.8 × 10(-4)-0.044). Haplotype analysis of common and coding variants increased evidence of association at the OR2L13 and APOL1 loci (P = 6.2 × 10(-5) and 4.6 × 10(-5), respectively). SNPs replicating in European Americans were in OR2AK2, LIMK2, and APOL2 (P = 0.0010-0.037). Meta-analyses highlighted four SNPs associated in T2D-ESKD and all-cause ESKD. Results from this study suggest a role for coding variants in the development of diabetic, non-diabetic, and/or all-cause ESKD in African Americans and/or European Americans.
    Human Genetics 01/2014; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility have been identified in predominantly European-derived populations. These SNPs have not been extensively investigated for individual and cumulative effects on T2D risk in African Americans. Seventeen index T2D risk variants were genotyped in 2,652 African American case subjects with T2D and 1,393 nondiabetic control subjects. Individual SNPs and cumulative risk allele loads were assessed for association with risk for T2D. Cumulative risk was assessed by counting risk alleles and evaluating the difference in cumulative risk scores between case subjects and control subjects. A second analysis weighted risk scores (ln [OR]) based on previously reported European-derived effect sizes. Frequencies of risk alleles ranged from 8.6 to 99.9%. Eleven SNPs had ORs >1, and 5 from ADAMTS9, WFS1, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and TCF7L2 trended or had nominally significant evidence of T2D association (P < 0.05). Individuals carried between 13 and 29 risk alleles. Association was observed between T2D and increase in risk allele load (unweighted OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.08], P = 0.010; weighted 1.06 [1.03-1.10], P = 8.10 × 10(-5)). When TCF7L2 SNP rs7903146 was included as a covariate, the risk score was no longer associated with T2D in either model (unweighted 1.02 [0.98-1.05], P = 0.33; weighted 1.02 [0.98-1.06], P = 0.40). The trend of increase in risk for T2D with increasing risk allele load is similar to observations in European-derived populations; however, these analyses indicate that T2D genetic risk is primarily mediated through the effect of TCF7L2 in African Americans.
    Diabetes care 02/2012; 35(2):287-92. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29202. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with adiposity in European-derived study populations. Limited study of these loci has been reported in African Americans. Here we examined the effects of these previously identified adiposity loci in African Americans. A total of 46 representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 loci that were previously reported in GWAS in Europeans (including FTO and MC4R) were genotyped in 4992 subjects from six African-American cohorts. These SNPs were tested for association with body mass index (BMI) after adjustment for age, gender, disease status and population structure in each cohort. Meta-analysis was conducted to combine the results. Meta-analysis of 4992 subjects revealed seven SNPs near four loci, including NEGR1, TMEM18, SH2B1 /ATP2A1 and MC4R, showing significant association at 0.005<P<0.05, and had effect sizes between 0.04 and 0.06 s.d. units (or 0.30 to 0.44  g m(-2)) of BMI for each copy of the BMI-increasing allele. The most significantly associated SNPs (rs9424977, rs3101336 and rs2568958) are located in the NEGR1 gene (P=0.005, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). We replicated the association of variants at four loci in six African-American cohorts that demonstrated a consistent direction of association with previous studies of adiposity in Europeans. These loci are all highly expressed in the brain, consistent with an important role for central nervous system processes in weight regulation. However, further comprehensive examination of these regions may be necessary to fine map and elucidate for possible genetic differences between these two populations.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2011; 36(3):465-73. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple novel loci associated with obesity in Europeans but results in other ethnicities are less convincing. Here, we report a two-stage GWAS of BMI in African Americans. The GWAS was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform in 816 nondiabetic and 899 diabetic nephropathy subjects. 746,626 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with BMI after adjustment for age, gender, disease status, and population structure. Sixty high scoring SNPs that showed nominal association in both GWAS cohorts were further replicated in 3,274 additional subjects in four replication cohorts and a meta-analysis was computed. Meta-analysis of 4,989 subjects revealed five SNPs (rs6794092, rs268972, rs2033195, rs815611, and rs6088887) at four loci showing consistent associations in both GWAS (P < 0.0001) and replication cohorts (P < 0.05) with combined P values range from 2.4 × 10(-6) to 5 × 10(-5). These loci are located near PP13439-TMEM212, CDH12, MFAP3-GALNT10, and FER1L4 and had effect sizes between 0.091 and 0.167 s.d. unit (or 0.67-1.24 kg/m(2)) of BMI for each copy of the effect allele. Our findings suggest the presence of novel loci potentially associated with adiposity in African Americans. Further replication and meta-analysis in African Americans and other populations will shed light on the role of these loci in different ethnic populations.
    Obesity 06/2011; 20(3):622-7. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 chip to identify genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Association analysis was performed adjusting for admixture in 965 type 2 diabetic African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and in 1029 African Americans without type 2 diabetes or kidney disease as controls. The top 724 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of association to diabetic nephropathy were then genotyped in a replication sample of an additional 709 type 2 diabetes-ESRD patients and 690 controls. SNPs with evidence of association in both the original and replication studies were tested in additional African American cohorts consisting of 1246 patients with type 2 diabetes without kidney disease and 1216 with non-diabetic ESRD to differentiate candidate loci for type 2 diabetes-ESRD, type 2 diabetes, and/or all-cause ESRD. Twenty-five SNPs were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes-ESRD in the genome-wide association and initial replication. Although genome-wide significance with type 2 diabetes was not found for any of these 25 SNPs, several genes, including RPS12, LIMK2, and SFI1 are strong candidates for diabetic nephropathy. A combined analysis of all 2890 patients with ESRD showed significant association SNPs in LIMK2 and SFI1 suggesting that they also contribute to all-cause ESRD. Thus, our results suggest that multiple loci underlie susceptibility to kidney disease in African Americans with type 2 diabetes and some may also contribute to all-cause ESRD.
    Kidney International 03/2011; 79(5):563-72. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) locus is associated with type 2 diabetes across multiple ethnicities. The aim of this study was to elucidate which variant in TCF7L2 confers diabetes susceptibility in African Americans. Through the evaluation of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), type 2 diabetes susceptibility was limited to a 4.3-kb interval, which contains the YRI (African) linkage disequilibrium (LD) block containing rs7903146. To better define the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk and genetic variation we resequenced this 4.3-kb region in 96 African American DNAs. Thirty-three novel and 13 known SNPs were identified: 20 with minor allele frequencies (MAF) >0.05 and 12 with MAF >0.10. These polymorphisms and the previously identified DG10S478 microsatellite were evaluated in African American type 2 diabetic cases (n = 1,033) and controls (n = 1,106). Variants identified from direct sequencing and databases were genotyped or imputed. Fifteen SNPs showed association with type 2 diabetes (P < 0.05) with rs7903146 being the most significant (P = 6.32 × 10(-6)). Results of imputation, haplotype, and conditional analysis of SNPs were consistent with rs7903146 being the trait-defining SNP. Analysis of the DG10S478 microsatellite, which is outside the 4.3-kb LD block, revealed consistent association of risk allele 8 with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33; P = 0.022) as reported in European populations; however, allele 16 (MAF = 0.016 cases and 0.032 controls) was strongly associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.39; P = 5.02 × 10(-5)) in contrast with previous studies. In African Americans, these observations suggest that rs7903146 is the trait-defining polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Collectively, these results support ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes associations.
    Diabetes 10/2010; 60(2):662-8. · 7.90 Impact Factor