[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High fish consumption and extended breastfeeding are hallmarks of traditional lifestyle in Western Amazonia. We studied sources of mercury exposure, fish-methylmercury (meHg) and dental-amalgam filling, in 75 urban and 82 rural lactating mothers. Total mercury was determined in all samples while meHg concentrations were determined in subsamples of milk (45) and hair (27) of urban mothers living in Porto Velho (PV) and in hair (46) and milk (37) of mothers living in traditional communities (TC) of the Rio Madeira. The TC mothers showed significantly higher median hair-Hg concentrations (8.2μgg(-1)) than PV mothers (1.3μgg(-1)). Median total Hg in milk of PV mothers (0.36ngg(-1)) was significantly lower (p=0.0000) than that found in milk of TC mothers (2.30ngg(-1)). The median meHg concentrations in milk of TC mothers were also significantly higher (1.0ngg(-1)) than in milk of PV mothers (0.07ngg(-1)). For urban mothers with low fish consumption rates (and relatively higher dental amalgam fillings) the proportion of inorganic Hg in milk was higher (85%) than in TC (62%). In TC mothers 51% of breast milk Hg concentrations were above 2ngg(-1) (world median concentrations), contrasting with 8% in PV mothers. Despite this, there was no significant correlation between total Hg concentrations in milk and either amalgam filling or daily fish consumption. Socioeconomic changes occurring in Western Amazonia are causing changes in fish-eating habits of urban mothers. However, traditional lifestyle and attendant high fish consumption in riverine populations can still impact total Hg and methylmercury concentrations in mothers' milk and hair.
International journal of hygiene and environmental health 01/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the intravitreal pharmacokinetic profile of a triamcinolone acetonide formulation containing the preservative benzyl alcohol (TA-BA) versus a preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide formulation (TA-PF), and evaluate potential signs of toxicity to the retina.
A total of 60 New Zealand male white rabbits, divided into two groups, were studied. In the TA-BA group, 30 rabbits received an intravitreal injection of TA-BA (4 mg/0.1 ml) into the right eye. In the TA-PF group, 30 rabbits received an intravitreal injection of TA-PF (4 mg/0.1 ml) into the right eye. The intravitreal drug levels were determined in 25 animals from each group by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The potential for toxicity associated with the intravitreal triamcinolone injections was evaluated in five randomly selected animals from each group by electroretinography (ERG) and by light microscopy.
Median intravitreal concentrations of TA-BA (µg/ml) were 1903.1, 1213.0, 857.8, 442.0, 248.6 at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after injection. Intravitreal concentrations of TA-PF (µg/ml) were 1032.9, 570.1, 516.6, 347.9, 102.8 at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after injection. The median intravitreal triamcinolone concentration was significantly higher in the TA-BA compared to the TA-PF group at 7 days post-injection (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in median triamcinolone concentration at the other time points evaluated. There was no evidence of toxic effects on the retina in either group based on ERG or histological analyses.
Following a single intravitreal injection, the median concentration of triamcinolone acetonide is significantly higher in the TA-BA compared to the TA-PF group at 7 days post-injection. No toxic reactions in the retina were observed in either group.
Current eye research 01/2012; 37(1):55-61. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though generics became quite popular in mainstream object-oriented (OO) languages, approaches for checking at runtime
the conformance of such programs against formal specifications still lack appropriate support. In order to overcome this limitation
within ConGu, a tool-based approach we have been developing to support runtime conformance checking of Java programs against algebraic
specifications, we recently proposed a notion of refinement mapping that allows to define correspondences between parametric
specifications and generic classes. Based on such mappings, we also put forward a notion of conformance between the two concepts.
In this paper we present how the new notion of conformance is supported by version 2 of the ConGu tool.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumo Dado que os genéricos se tornaram muito populares nas linguagens de programação OO, o facto de um método formal não suportar genéricos limita ex-traordinariamente a sua utilidade e eficácia. De forma a ultrapassar este problema no CONGU, uma abordagem à monitorização da correcção de programas Java face a especificações algébricas, propusemos recentemente uma noção de mapa de refinamento que permite definir uma correspondência entre especificações pa-ramétricas e classes genéricas. Baseados nestes mapas, definimos uma noção de correcção de programas face a especificações. Neste artigo, propomos uma forma de monitorizar, em tempo de execução, esta noção de correcção e apresentamos a solução de desenho que suporta este processo na versão 2 da ferramenta CONGU.