Josef Eberhardsteiner

Vienna University of Technology, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (132)125.44 Total impact

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    Markus Lukacevic, Josef Füssl, Josef Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: The naturally grown material wood exhibits, in addition to its orthotropic material structure, several types of inhomogeneities, where most of them can be allocated to knots and the resulting local fiber deviations. Since they generally lead to a reduction in strength properties, wooden boards must be subjected to a grading process before they can be used as load-bearing elements. Within this process so-called indicating properties are recorded and used to assess the wooden board strength. Common indicating properties are almost exclusively based on surface information of wooden boards while the 3D position and orientation of knots within a board is hardly considered. Thus, algorithms for the 3D reconstruction of wooden boards based on already available surface scans, laser scanning, X-ray or computer tomography data are assessed first within this work. This new knot information allows then the development of novel indicating properties, which consider the knots, the resulting fiber deviation regions and, for bending conditions, the knot location information using height-dependent weighting functions. The statistical evaluation of combinations of the new indicating properties, separately for tensile and bending load conditions, shows that the correlations to experimentally obtained strength properties could be improved significantly with such an approach.
    Wood Science and Technology 05/2015; 49(3):1-26. DOI:10.1007/s00226-015-0712-1 · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Thomas K. Bader, Josef Eberhardsteiner, Karin de Borst
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, shear stiffness properties of 10 different hardwood species and their relation to the corresponding species-specific microstructure are investigated. For this purpose, shear stiffness of 10 different hardwood species is experimentally measured by means of ultrasonic testing. In addition, a micromechanical model for hardwood is applied in order to illustrate the influence of certain microstructural characteristics such as mass density and volume fractions of vessels and ray cells on the shear stiffness. Comprehensive microstructural and mechanical data from previous investigations of the same hardwood material support the interpretation of the microstructure-shear stiffness relationships. Mass density was confirmed to be the dominant microstructural characteristic for shear stiffness. Also, ultrasound shear wave propagation velocity increases with density, particularly in the radial-tangential (RT) plane. In addition to density, comparably higher shear stiffness GLR can be explained by comparably higher ray content and lower vessel content. As for GLT, a ring porous structure seems to lead to higher shear stiffness as compared to a diffuse porous structure. For this shear stiffness, vessel and ray content were found to have a less impact. Also, the rolling shear stiffness GRT was found to be higher for a diffuse porous structure than for a ring porous one. Moreover, the data supports that ray cells act as reinforcements in the RT plane and lead to higher GRT.
    Wood Material Science and Engineering 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/17480272.2015.1030773
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    ABSTRACT: The stiffness evolution of binder ‘cement paste’ is triggering the stiffness of concrete. In the engineering practice, concrete formworks are typically removed 24 h after production. This underlines that knowledge on mechanical properties of cementitious materials during the second, third and fourth day after production is of high relevance for the ongoing construction process. This provides the motivation to perform early-age stiffness characterisation on hydrating cement pastes, by means of the following three test methods. Unloading modulus is determined using a novel setup for non-destructive uniaxial compression testing including overdetermined deformation measurements. Dynamic Young's moduli are obtained from ultrasonics experiments. Isothermal differential calorimetry allows for linking the observed temporal evolution of early-age stiffness to the hydration degree of cement. Pastes with three different compositions are investigated, defined in terms of the initial water-to-cement mass ratio w/c and the initial water-to-solid (binder) mass ratio w/s. Pure cement pastes exhibit w/c = w/s = 0.50 and w/c = w/s = 0.42, respectively. A fly ash-blended cement paste refers to a cement mass replacement level of 16%, and this is related to w/c = 0.50 and w/s = 0.42. Both unloading moduli and dynamic Young's moduli of all three materials increase practically linearly with increasing hydration degree, in the investigated regime of hydration degrees ranging from 40 to 60%. Fly ash does not contribute significantly to the early-age hydration of the material, i.e. it represents a quasi-inert part of the material's microstructure, exhibiting a significant stiffening effect.
    Strain 04/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1111/str.12129 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We here report an improved experimental technique for the determination of Young׳s modulus and uniaxial strength of extracellular bone matrix at the single micrometer scale, giving direct access to the (homogeneous) deformation (or strain) states of the tested samples and to the corresponding mechanically recoverable energy, called potential or elastic energy. Therefore, a new protocol for Focused Ion Beam milling of prismatic non-tapered micropillars, and attaching them to a rigid substrate, was developed. Uniaxial strength turns out as at least twice that measured macroscopically, and respective ultimate stresses are preceded by hardening elastoplastic states, already at very low load levels. The unloading portion of quasi-static load-displacement curves revealed Young׳s modulus of 29GPa in bovine extracellular bone matrix. This value is impressively confirmed by the corresponding prediction of a multiscale mechanics model for bone, which has been comprehensively validated at various other observation scales, across tissues from the entire vertebrate animal kingdom. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 03/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.03.001 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new type of semi-rigid timber beam-to-beam connection and its behavior under bending is presented. This connection consists of four identical steel parts, which are inserted into the timber beams in the tension and compression zone of the connection. These steel parts are easily connected by mounting bolts on the construction site. In order to avoid initial slip, gaps between the timber and the steel parts are filled using two different types of filler materials, namely cement based (CEM) or polyurethane based (PUR) filler. In this study, the connection is modeled by means of the Finite Element (FE) Method and the modeling results are compared to the results of an experimental assessment of the proposed connection under bending. The material model for timber encompasses a Hill criterion in combination with cohesive surface contact in order to depict both, yielding in compression and brittle failure in shear and tension perpendicular to the grain. The experimentally observed decisive failure mode, i.e. shear block failure, could be reproduced by the model. Subsequently, the FE model was used to investigate the effect of using different filler materials, or not considering the filler in the analysis at all. In addition, a particular influence of clamping bolts in the timber on the strength of the connection was revealed. The FE analysis excluding these bolts showed good agreement with the experiments in terms of the strength of the connection, while considering these bolts led to an overestimation of the strength. This is a consequence of the considerable influence of the clamping bolts on stresses perpendicular to the grain in the timber in the block-shear area, and therefore, on shear failure initiation. Using the CEM filler hardly changed the overall behavior of the connection as compared to the analyses without filler material, while the PUR filler leads to a less ductile overall behavior. This is well in line with experimental observations. The application of modeling approaches for timber has proven suitable for the analysis of such a type of timber beam-to-beam connection and, consequently, might be used for further optimization of this connection.
    Engineering Structures 03/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.12.037 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    L. Wagner, T.K. Bader, J. Eberhardsteiner, K. de Borst
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal degradation is among the greatest hazards for standing trees as well as timber constructions. Herein we aim at gaining more detailed insight into the degradation strategies of wood destroying fungi and the consequences on the mechanical performance of wood. At the macroscale, the occurring losses of mass and of mass density mask effects of altered chemical composition and microstructure. Thus, it is necessary to step down the hierarchical organization of wood to the cell wall scale in order to resolve these changes and their mechanical impact. We present a multiscale micromechanical model which is used to estimate the stiffnesses of the S2 cell wall layer and the compound middle lamella of fungal degraded wood. Data from a detailed chemical, microstructural and micromechanical characterization of white rot and brown rot degraded Scots pine sapwood is analyzed. Comparing predicted cell wall stiffnesses with measured ones confirms the suitability of the approach. The model enables to establish structure–stiffness relationships for fungal degraded wood cell walls and to test hypotheses on yet unknown effects of fungal decay. The latter include the evolution of porosity, modifications of the cell wall polymers resulting in changes of their stiffnesses, as well as increasing cell wall crystallinity. The model predictions in general showed good agreement with the predictions not considering pores in the cell wall. However, this finding does not rule out the formation of porosity. Other degradation related effects like modifications of the cell wall polymers as well as increased crystallinity have the potential to account for stiffness decreases upon the formation of pores.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 09/2014; 93:223–234. DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.05.010 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    M. Lukacevic, J. Füssl, M. Griessner, J. Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: In wooden boards, knots and the resulting fibre deviations in their vicinities are mainly responsible for qualitative downgrading of timber elements. Thus, the development of reliable numerical simulation tools for the determination of effective strength and stiffness properties of timber elements and, in a next step, for the development and evaluation of grading criteria is highly desirable. Due to the complexity of such tools, a comprehensive validation is required. Within this work, the suitability of full-field deformation measurements for four-point bending tests on wooden boards with knots is evaluated first. Next, the test series is used to validate a previously developed three-dimensional numerical simulation tool, which combines a geometrical model for the grain course and a micromechanical model for a density and moisture dependent characterisation of the clear-wood material. The digital image correlation technique proved to be capable to reproduce the strain fields in the vicinity of knots under bending load. Moreover, a very good correlation between numerical and experimental results was obtained.
    Strain 05/2014; 50(4). DOI:10.1111/str.12093 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    G. Hochreiner, J. Füssl, E. Serrano, J. Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: Although cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates are increasingly used in high-performance building structures, a tailored composition of them or, at least, a performance-based classification scheme is not available. Especially, the influence of the quality of the ‘raw’ material (wooden boards) on the load carrying capacity of CLT elements is hardly investigated yet. For this reason, within this work, bending tests on 24 CLT plates consisting of wooden boards from three different strength classes have been carried out. The global mechanical response as well as the formation of failure mechanisms were investigated, including a full-field deformation measurement system, which allowed for a qualitatively as well as quantitatively identification of board failure modes. Interestingly, no influence of the board strength class on the elastic limit load of the CLT plates was observed, but the situation was different for the load displacement history beyond the elastic regime, where basically, two different global failure mechanisms could be distinguished. The obtained knowledge about the ‘post-elastic’ behaviour of CLT plates may serve as a basis for the optimisation of CLT products and the development or improvement of design concepts, respectively. Moreover, the obtained large ‘post-elastic’ capacity reserve of CLT consisting of high quality boards could lead to a better utilisation of the raw material.
    Strain 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/str.12077 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Thomas K. Bader, Karin de Borst, Josef Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: In this contribution, a micromechanical modeling approach in the framework of poromechanics is adopted to study structure-stiffness relations of two quite different species, namely spruce and yew, in detail. In particular, microstructural specialties of yew and spruce are assessed. A dominant influence of the cellulose content and its orientation on the stiffness of the cell wall is revealed, while on the macroscopic scale, density is found to be the governing microstructural characteristic for elastic properties. (© 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    PAMM 12/2013; 13(1). DOI:10.1002/pamm.201310088
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    J. Füssl, R. Lackner, J. Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: The main failure mechanisms of flexible pavements, such as low-temperature cracking, fatigue failure, and rutting are strongly influenced by the viscoelastic properties of asphalt. These viscoelastic properties originate from the thermorheological behavior of bitumen, the binder material of asphalt. In this paper, the bitumen behavior is studied by means of a comprehensive experimental program, allowing the identification of viscoelastic parameters of a power-law type creep model, indicating two time scales (short-term and long-term) within the creep deformation history of bitumen. Moreover, these characteristics of the creep deformation transfer towards bitumen-inclusion mixtures, as illustrated for mastic, consisting of bitumen and filler. For this purpose, the aforementioned power-law creep model is implemented into a micromechanical framework. Finally, the activation of the different creep mechanisms as a function of the loading rate is discussed, using viscoelastic properties obtained from both static and cyclic creep tests.
    Meccanica 11/2013; 49(11). DOI:10.1007/s11012-013-9775-y · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    G. Hochreiner, J. Füssl, J. Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: Since wood products for structural elements, especially cross-laminated timber (CLT), have gained importance in the building sector, the need for appropriate and reliable design codes for such wood products has become essential. For the improvement and development of design concepts, a profound knowledge about the mechanical behaviour of these products is necessary. For this reason, this work focuses on global failure mechanisms and the corresponding evolution of different crack modes in CLT plates, depending on geometric and/or material related properties. Therefore, plate-bending experiments on three- and five-layered CLT plates were carried out. In addition to standard evaluation methods, each specimen was cut into small cubes to identify the failure modes inside the plates. Regions with dominant shear failure, tensile failure, delamination and mixed failure modes could be captured and connected to geometry and loading situation. Based on this evaluation, well-known but not yet in detail described effects, such as the ductile structural behaviour of CLT plates, can be explained. Moreover, the evolution of rolling shear failure modes as well as from which point the progressive failure highly affects the plate stiffness is investigated and analysed in detail.
    Strain 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/str.12068 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wood is enjoying increasing popularity in the building sector. In order to fully exploit the potential of this material, particularly in two and three-dimensional structures, improved knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the material and more complex constitutive models are required. We herein present a holistic approach to mechanical material modeling of wood, including a multitude of length scales as well as computational and experimental efforts. This allows to resolve the microstructural origin of the macroscopic material behavior and to finally apply the gained knowledge to structural applications in a timber engineering framework. Focusing on elastoplasticity and viscoelasticity, exemplary results of the performed investigations are presented and their interrelations discussed. Regarding computational approaches, presented developments include multiscale models for prediction of elastic limit states and creep compliances of wood, macroscopic phenomenological models for wood plasticity and the time and moisture-dependent behavior, and their applications to investigations of dowel-joints and glued-laminated timber beams. Accompanying experiments provided additional input data for the computational analyses, therewith completing the set of material properties predicted by the multiscale models. Moreover, they served as the reference basis for model validation at both the material and the structural scale.
    Computers & Structures 10/2013; 127:53-67. DOI:10.1016/j.compstruc.2012.11.019 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Ninth International Conference on Creep, Shrinkage, and Durability Mechanics (CONCREEP-9); 09/2013
  • Fifth Biot Conference on Poromechanics; 06/2013
  • T. Ring, M. Zeiml, R. Lackner, J. Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: The material degradation of concrete subjected to fire events has a severe influence on the load-carrying capacity of support structures. Spalling of concrete layers, exposing the reinforcement bars and degradation of the material properties (Young's modulus, compressive strength) may lead to significant damage of the reduced cross-section and, therefore, cause failure of the structure. In order to understand the stress build-up at the heated surface caused by thermal expansion due to fire loading, finally leading to damage and spalling of concrete, the strain behaviour of cement paste and concrete exposed to combined thermo-mechanical loading is the focus of this work. Hereby, the evolution of thermal strains, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio with increasing temperature are investigated experimentally. For this purpose, the specimens are loaded uniaxially while the temperature is increased up to 800 °C. The obtained results provide the proper basis for the development of realistic material models, allowing more sophisticated simulations of structures exposed to fire.
    Strain 06/2013; 49(3). DOI:10.1111/str.12032 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many problems in engineering sciences can be described by linear, inhomogeneous, m-th order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients. For this wide class of problems, we here present a new, simple, flexible, and robust solution method, based on piecewise exact integration of local approximation polynomials as well as on averaging local integrals. The method is designed for modern mathematical software providing efficient environments for numerical matrix-vector operation-based calculus. Based on cubic approximation polynomials, the presented method can be expected to perform (i) similar to the Runge-Kutta method, when applied to stiff initial value problems, and (ii) significantly better than the finite difference method, when applied to boundary value problems. Therefore, we use the presented method for the analysis of engineering problems including the oscillation of a modulated torsional spring pendulum, steady-state heat transfer through a cooling web, and the structural analysis of a slender tower based on second-order beam theory. Related convergence studies provide insight into the satisfying characteristics of the proposed solution scheme.
    Advances in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 06/2013; 5(3):269-308. DOI:10.4208/aamm.12-m1211 · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strengths of cement pastes with different mixture properties and maturities depend in a very similar overlinear fashion on the gel–space ratio, which is the ratio of the volume of hydration products over the volume of both hydration products and capillary pores. We here investigate the underlying microstructural effects by the experimentally validated micromechanics model of Pichler and Hellmich [CemConRes 41(5), 2011]. This model shows that the macrostrength of cement pastes are not only triggered by the capillary porosity, but also by a strengthening effect of unhydrated clinker “reinforcements” which are embedded as inclusions in the hydrate foam. The analysis is continued with quantifying the strength of the hydrates, in terms of an extended model validation activity. Satisfactory model performance is the motivation to present model predictions for the biaxial compressive failure envelopes of cement pastes, again as a function of gel–space ratio.
    Cement and Concrete Research 03/2013; 45:55–68. DOI:10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.10.019 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    Michael Dorn, Karin De Borst, Josef Eberhardsteiner
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    ABSTRACT: Dowel-type connections are commonly used in timber engineering for a large range of structural applications. The current generation of design rules is largely based on empiricism and testing and lacks in many parts a stringent mechanical foundation. This often blocks an optimized use of the connections, which is essential for the design of economically efficient structures. Moreover, it severely limits the applicability of the design rule, such as restrictions regarding splitting behavior or maximum ductility (e.g. maximum allowable deformations) are missing. Therefore, the demands due to a large and quickly evolving variety of structural designs in timber engineering are not reflected.
    Engineering Structures 02/2013; 47:67-80. DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.09.010 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hygroexpansion of wood is a known and undesired characteristic in civil engineering. When wood is exposed to changing environmental humidity, it adsorbs or desorbs moisture and warps. The resulting distortions or - at restrained conditions - cracks are a major concern in timber engineering. We herein present a multiscale model for prediction of the macroscopic hygroexpansion behavior of individual pieces of softwood from their microstructure, demonstrated for spruce. By applying poromicromechanics, we establish a link between the swelling pressure, driving the hygroexpansion of wood at the nanoscale, and the resulting macroscopic dimensional changes. The model comprises six homogenization steps, which are performed by means of continuum micromechanics, the unit cell method and laminate theory, all formulated in a poromechanical framework. Model predictions for elastic properties of wood as functions of the moisture content closely approach corresponding experimental data. As for the hygroexpansion behavior, the swelling pressure has to be back-calculated from macroscopic hygroexpansion data. The good reproduction of the anisotropy of wood hygroexpansion, based on only a single scalar calibration parameter, underlines the suitability of the model. The multiscale model constitutes a valuable tool for studying the effect of microstructural features on the macroscopic behavior and for assessing the hygroexpansion behavior at smaller length scales, which are inaccessible to experiments. The model predictions deliver input parameters for the analysis of timber at the structural scale, therewith enabling to optimize the use of timber and to prevent moisture-induced damage or failure.
    09/2012; 5(3). DOI:10.12989/imm.2012.5.3.229
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    ABSTRACT: Structures may fail due to a myriad of different causes. Often, distinction is made between structural and material failure, that means a structure can fail, while the material is still intact (this is the case in so-called stability loss), or the material fails, which, as consequence, may lead to structural failure. The material behavior may turn out difficult to be mathematically guessed at the macro-level. On the other hand, a lot may be known about the chemistry or the microstructure of the material of interest. Herein, we aim at categorizing different scenarios which in the end provoke structural failure, discussing various cases investigated during the last five years, at the Institute for Mechanics of Materials and Structures of Vienna University of Technology: A well-chosen eigenvalue problem shows considerable potential for categorizing stability loss. We then turn to complex composite materials with a hierarchical organization, where a single constituent dominates the overall quasi-brittle failure of the material, such as lignin in wood and wood products, or the cement–water reaction products (shortly called hydrates) in cement-based materials. The picture changes if the first inelastically behaving constituent is related to ductile load carrying, then the loads within the microstructure are re-distributed before the overall material fails: this turns out to be the case in bone. Finally, due to highly confined multiaxial stress states, the elastic portion of the overall energy invested into the material may become negligible—and then yield design analysis employed on material volumes gives an idea of the highly ductile behavior of complex confined materials, such as asphalt. What integrates all the reported cases is the high capacity of mature mathematical and mechanical formulations to reveal the intricate, yet decipherable nature of the (continuum) mechanics of materials and structures.
    Acta Mechanica 09/2012; 223(9). DOI:10.1007/s00707-012-0685-1 · 1.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

738 Citations
125.44 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2015
    • Vienna University of Technology
      • Institute of Mechanics of Materials and Structures
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2005
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2001
    • IST Austria
      Klosterneuberg, Lower Austria, Austria