[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphotoxin-α (LT-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) are proinflammatory cytokines playing important roles in immunity against Leishmania infection and the outcome of the disease. As cytokine productions are under the genetic control, this study tried to find any probable relationship between these cytokine gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in Iranian pediatric patients. Ninety-five pediatric patients involved with visceral leishmaniasis and 128 non-relative healthy people, from the same area as the patients, were genotyped for LT-α (+252A/G) and IL-1β (+3953T/C and -511T/C) gene polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). There was not found any significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of LT-α (+252A/G) and IL-1β (+3953) among the study groups. However, the frequency of IL-1β -511TT genotype was higher in the controls (P = 0.0004) while the frequency of IL-1β -511CC genotype and C allele were higher in the patients (P = 0.008 and P = 0.00006, respectively). Furthermore, IL-1β CC (-511/+3953) haplotype was more frequent in VL patients compared with the controls (P = 0.0002) and the distribution of TT haplotype was higher in the controls compared with the patients (P = 0.003). In conclusion, based on the results, IL-1β -511C allele, CC genotype and CC (-511/+3953) haplotype could be considered as the susceptibility factors for visceral leishmaniasis while IL-1β -511TT genotype, T allele and TT haplotype (-511/+3953) might be counted as the influential factors for resistance to the disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three medicinal plants namely Trigonellafoenum-graecum, Glycinemax and Sesamumindicum were evaluated for invitro acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity. These plants have been selected based on their use as memory enhancing as well as their nutrient value. These plants have been consumed as nutritious food and are believed to play an important role in health-promoting. The results were expressed as IC50 and the percent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity. Diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) assay and beta-carotene bleaching method were used for antioxidant studies and brine shrimp lethality test (BSL) was used for cytotoxicity assay. The obtained results showed that the G.max extract has inhibited AChE activity strongly in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 4.69 mg/mL). The most inhibition of AChE activity was due to G.max extract (68.4%). This extract was also able to scavenge DPPH radical with IC50 = 454.3 μg/mL. The G.max extract has shown the least cytotoxicity (IC50 value of 1112.6 μg/mL) in BSL assay. T.foenum-graecum and S.indicum also exhibited noticeable AchE inhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia
euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian
traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn,
and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A.
euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity
in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine
groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base
(control), Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control),
Groups-III and –VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing
of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple
ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the
standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine). The efficacy of treatments was evaluated
based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics.
Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the
different groups (p<0.001). At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis
and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days
the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug,
when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded
that almond leaves (sweet and bitter) formulated in the simple ointment base is
effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 01/2012; 22(2):397-403. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural remedies include the chloroform extract of Malva sylvestris Linn flowers (4%), the ethanol extract of Punica granatum Linn flowers (2%), aqueous extract of Achillea kellalensis Boiss flowers (2%), and honey (2%) were used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on male Wistar rats (150-200 g) using excision and incision wound models. A 1.0×1.5-cm full thickness excision wound was made in the dorsal area of the rats. The animals were divided randomly into three groups of nine each. Group 1 was treated with nitrofurazone ointment and served as a reference standard (200 mg/kg/day); Group 2 was treated topically with the simple ointment prepared from natural remedies (200 mg/kg/day); Group 3 (control) was treated topically with the simple ointment (200 mg/kg/day). The treated animals by natural remedies showed reduction in the wound area when compared with nitrofurazone and control. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 6, 9, and 16 from natural remedies showed increased well-organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts, and a few inflammatory cells when compared with the nitrofurazone and control which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibers, and fibroblasts. Enhanced wound contraction and histological findings suggest the use of natural remedies in the management of wound-healing.