B Otto

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (104)443.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), particularly leucine, act as nutrient signals regulating protein synthesis and degradation as well as glucose metabolism. In addition, leucine has been demonstrated in animal experiments to modulate eating and energy homeostasis. We aimed to characterize the effects of physiologic and supraphysiologic loads of intraduodenal leucine on eating, gut hormone and motor functions, and blood glucose in humans. Twelve lean men were studied on 3 occasions in a randomized, double-blind order. Antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, insulin, glucagon, blood glucose, appetite perceptions, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during 90-min intraduodenal infusions of leucine at 0.15 kcal/min (total 3.3 g, 13.5 kcal), 0.45 kcal/min (total 9.9 g, 40.5 kcal), or saline (control). Ad libitum eating from a buffet lunch was quantified immediately after the infusions. Leucine at 0.45 kcal/min inhibited eating (energy intake by ∼13%, P < 0.05), increased plasma cholecystokinin, slightly reduced blood glucose and increased plasma insulin, and decreased antral pressures (all P < 0.05). Leucine at 0.15 kcal/min had no effect on food intake, blood glucose, or antral pressures but also slightly increased plasma cholecystokinin (P < 0.05). Neither dose affected plasma ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY, or pyloric and duodenal pressures. Plasma leucine concentrations were related to the dose of intraduodenal leucine, with substantial increases during both 0.15 and 0.45 kcal/min. The effects of intraduodenal infusions of free leucine on eating are probably not primarily mediated by changes in gut motor and hormone functions, with perhaps the exception of cholecystokinin. Instead, increased plasma leucine concentrations may be a potential signal mediating the eating-inhibitory effect of leucine. The study was registered as a clinical trial with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12613000899741. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2015; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.114488 · 6.77 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555510 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraduodenal infusion of lipid or protein potently reduces subsequent energy intake. There is evidence that the underlying mechanisms differ significantly between the two nutrients. While intraduodenal lipid stimulates GLP-1 and CCK much more than protein, the release of insulin and glucagon is substantially greater in response to protein. Ghrelin and PYY are both involved in short-term regulation, while leptin is a long-term regulator, of energy balance; the acute effects of nutrients on leptin release are unclear. We investigated the comparative effects of intraduodenal lipid and protein on plasma ghrelin, PYY and leptin concentrations. Thirteen lean, young men received 90-min intraduodenal infusions of protein (whey hydrolysate) or lipid (long-chain triglyceride emulsion) at a rate of 3 kcal/min, or saline control, on three separate days. Blood samples were collected at baseline and regularly during infusions. Both lipid and protein potently suppressed plasma ghrelin compared with control (both P < 0.001), with no difference between them. While both lipid and protein stimulated plasma PYY (P < 0.001), the effect of lipid was substantially greater than that of protein (P < 0.001). Neither intraduodenal lipid nor protein affected plasma leptin. In conclusion, intraduodenal lipid and protein have discrepant effects on the release of PYY, but not ghrelin. When considered with our previous findings, it appears that, with the exception of ghrelin, the energy intake-suppressant effects of lipid and protein are mediated by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2015; 308(4):ajpregu.00504.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00504.2014 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22–29 years, BMI 19–25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil), or placebo + olive oil in double-blinded randomized order. Two hours after FA/5-HTP or placebo intake, a 13C octanoid acid test was conducted. Cortisol, serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin were measured, as were mood and GE. Results. GE was delayed with butter and was normal with olive (P < 0.05) but not affected by 5-HTP. 5-HTP supplementation did not affect serotonin levels. Food intake increased plasma CCK (F = 6.136; P < 0.05) irrespective of the FA. Ghrelin levels significantly decreased with oil/5-HTP (F = 9.166; P < 0.001). The diurnal cortisol profile was unaffected by FA or 5-HTP, as were ratings of mood, hunger, and stool urgency. Conclusion. Diverse FAs have different effects on GE and secretion of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Supplementation of 5-HTP had no effect on plasma serotonin and central functions. Further studies are needed to explain the complex interplay.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 08/2014; 2014:424503. DOI:10.1155/2014/424503 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Changes in gut motor and hormonal function contribute to the eating-inhibitory and glucose-lowering effects of protein. The effect of amino acids (AAs), the digestive products of protein, on GI function, eating and glycemia have not been investigated comprehensively. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that L-tryptophan (L-Trp) stimulates GI motor and hormonal functions, inhibits eating and modulates glycemia. Design, Settings, Participants and Intervention: Ten healthy, normal-weight men were studied in randomized, double-blind fashion, each receiving a 90-min intraduodenal infusion of L-Trp at 0.075 (total 6.75 kcal) or 0.15 (total 13.5 kcal) kcal/min, or saline (control). Main outcome measures: Antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, insulin, glucagon, blood glucose, and appetite perceptions were measured. Food intake was quantified from a buffet meal following the infusion. Results: Intraduodenal L-Trp suppressed antral (P<0.05) and stimulated pyloric (P<0.01) pressures, and markedly increased CCK and glucagon (both P<0.001). GLP-1 and PYY increased modestly (both P<0.001), but there was no effect on total ghrelin. Insulin increased slightly (P<0.05) without affecting blood glucose. Plasma L-Trp increased substantially (P<0.001). All effects were dose-related and associated with increased fullness and substantially decreased energy intake (P<0.001). There was a strong inverse correlation between energy intake and plasma L-Trp (r=-0.70, P<0.001). Conclusions: Low caloric intraduodenal loads of L-Trp affect gut motor and hormonal function and markedly reduce energy intake. A strong inverse correlation between energy intake and plasma L-Trp suggests that, beyond gut mechanisms, direct effects of circulating L-Trp mediate its eating-inhibitory effect.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/2014; 99(9):jc20141943. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-1943 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dyspeptic symptoms are frequently induced, or exacerbated, by fatty food ingestion. Excessive release of, and/or hypersensitivity to, cholecystokinin (CCK) may explain the exaggerated response to lipid in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Thus far, plasma CCK response has been evaluated. However, stimulation of CCK1 receptors on duodenal vagal afferents occurs in a paracrine manner, suggesting that mucosal CCK concentrations are relevant to quantify. Apolipoprotein A-IV stimulates mucosal CCK release. To investigate the hypothesis that fat-induced release of CCK and apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is enhanced in the duodenum of FD patients. Sixteen symptomatic FD patients and 10 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent duodenal perfusion with intralipid 20%, 2 kcal/min, for 60 min. Symptoms were scored and blood samples were collected every 15 min during lipid perfusion and 15 min after discontinuation when duodenal biopsies were taken. Plasma and mucosal concentrations of CCK and apoA-IV were quantified. Abdominal discomfort (P=0.001), nausea (P=0.05), and fullness (P=0.005) in response to duodenal lipid increased significantly only in FD patients. Following lipid infusion, the mean mucosal CCK concentration was lower in FD patients compared with HV (P<0.0001). Fasting concentrations and plasma response of CCK were comparable in FD patients and HV. Plasma apoA-IV response appeared to differ between patients and HV, whereas mucosal apoA-IV concentrations were similar. Our results suggest excessive local release of CCK in response to duodenal lipid in FD. This likely causes exaggerated stimulation of duodenal vagal afferents, explaining dyspeptic symptom generation. The mechanisms underlying elevated mucosal CCK release warrant further investigation.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 11/2013; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000001 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis: The mechanisms underlying glucagon-induced satiety are incompletely understood. The glucagon-induced reduction in total ghrelin exerted at the hypothalamo-pituitary level might be responsible for this effect. Here we investigated glucagon-suppressive effects on circulating total and acyl-ghrelin, both in obesity and in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with respect to the role of glucagon in appetite control. We further aimed to identify a possible mechanistic impact of changes in endogenous insulin. Methods: In our prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the endocrine and metabolic responses to intramuscular glucagon administration in 13 patients with T1DM (6 males, 7 females; body mass index [BMI] 24.8 ± 0.95 kg/m(2)), 11 obese participants (OP; 5 males, 6 females; BMI 34.4 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)), and 13 healthy lean participants (LP; 6 males, 7 females; BMI 21.7 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)). Results: As compared with placebo, glucagon significantly increased satiety index in T1DM and in LP (P < .001) but failed to induce satiety in OP (P = .152). Total ghrelin significantly decreased after glucagon administration in all study groups (P < .01). Similarly, acyl-ghrelin significantly decreased in LP (P < .01). However, acyl-ghrelin concentrations showed no change in OP (P = .248) and even increased substantially in T1DM (P < .01). Changes in acyl-ghrelin correlated positively with changes in nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in all groups (r = 0.31-0.43; P < .01). Conclusions/interpretation: Glucagon-induced satiety was preserved in T1DM but not in obesity. This effect was unrelated to changes in total or acylated ghrelin and was independent of endogenous insulin release. In contrast to the insulin-independent glucagon-induced suppression of total ghrelin, glucagon- and/or insulin-induced modification of lipolysis may determine changes in acylated ghrelin.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2013; 98(10). DOI:10.1210/jc.2013-1635 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a number of studies in the past decades, the role of Cholecystokinin (CCK) in anorexia nervosa (AN) has remained uncertain. In this study a highly specific assay for the biologically active part of CCK was used in patients with bulimic as well as with the restricting type of AN who were followed over the course of weight gain. Ten patients with restricting and 13 with bulimic AN were investigated upon admission (T0), after a weight gain of at least 2 kg on two consecutive weighting dates (T1), and during the last week before discharge (T2) from inpatient treatment in a specialized clinic. Blood samples were drawn under fasting conditions and 20 and 60 minutes following a standard meal (250 kcal). Data were compared to those of eight controls matched for sex and age. Gastrointestinal complaints of patients were measured by a questionnaire at each of the follow-up time points. At admission, AN patients exhibited CCK-levels similar to controls both prior to and after a test meal. Pre and post-meal CCK levels increased significantly after an initial weight gain but decreased again with further weight improvement. CCK release was somewhat lower in bulimic than in restricting type AN but both subgroups showed a similar profile. There was no significant association of CCK release to either initial weight or BMI, or their changes, but CCK levels at admission predicted gastrointestinal symptom improvement during therapy. Normal CCK profiles in AN at admission indicates hormonal responses adapted to low food intake while change of eating habits and weight gain results in initially increased CCK release (counteracting the attempts to alter eating behavior) that returns towards normal levels with continuous therapy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54457. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054457 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany) and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland), over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5), the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m.) and stimulated (evening 8 p.m.) plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively). Mean O(2)-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated ( = area under curve) plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e44445. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044445 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While protein is regarded as the most satiating macronutrient, many studies have employed test meals that had very high and unsustainable protein contents. Furthermore, the comparative responses between lean and obese subjects and the relationships between energy intake suppression and gut hormone release remain unclear. We evaluated the acute effects of meals with modest variations in 1) fat, protein, and carbohydrate content and 2) protein load on gastrointestinal hormones, appetite, and subsequent energy intake in lean and obese subjects. Sixteen lean and sixteen obese men were studied on four occasions. Following a standardized breakfast, they received for lunch: 1) high-fat (HF), 2) high-protein (HP), 3) high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HC/LP), or 4) adequate-protein (AP) isocaloric test meals. Hunger, fullness, and gut hormones were measured throughout, and at t = 180 min energy intake at a buffet meal was quantified. In lean subjects, hunger was less and fullness greater following HF, HP, and AP compared with HC/LP meals, and energy intake was less following HF and HP compared with HC meals (P < 0.05). In the obese subjects, hunger was less following HP compared with HF, HC/LP, and AP meals, and energy intake was less following HP and AP compared with HF and HC meals (P < 0.05). There were no major differences in hormone responses to the meals among subject groups, but the CCK and ghrelin responses to HP and AP were sustained in both groups. In conclusion, HP meals suppress energy intake in lean and obese subjects, an effect potentially mediated by CCK and ghrelin, while obese individuals appear to be less sensitive to the satiating effects of fat.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 05/2012; 303(1):G129-40. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00478.2011 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of atypical antipsychotics often induces significant weight gain and metabolic changes. Little is known about subjective weight-related parameters in adolescent patients. Therefore, this cross-sectional, explorative study aimed to assess these parameters and their relationship with biological weight-related parameters. 74 patients (mean age: 19.9 [SD ± 2.3] years; 66.2% male) with schizophrenia under clozapine or olanzapine treatment were examined. Subjective well-being, eating behavior, body perception and social functioning were assessed, using the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire, FKB-20 Body Perception Questionnaire, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics, Short Form and Global Assessment of Functioning. Patients' biological weight-related parameters were measured as well. Gender differences as well as associations between subjective and biological weight-related parameters were evaluated. Female patients reported significantly worse negative body appraisal and physical functioning than males. An elevated BMI was associated with impaired physical functioning in females and with negative body appraisal and hunger in males. In our sample of young patients with schizophrenia unter treatment with atypical antipsychotics, an elevated BMI was associated with impaired physical functioning and negative body appraisal, respectively. Bearing in mind the high risk of obesity in this population, the mentioned impairments should be accounted for, especially in terms of compliance and quality of life.
    Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 05/2012; 40(3):151-8; quiz 158-9. DOI:10.1024/1422-4917/a000165 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   Duodenal lipid intensifies the perception of esophageal acid perfusion. Recently, we showed that genes implicated in lipid absorption were upregulated in the duodenum of fasting gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. This suggests that chylomicron production and secretion may be enhanced and, consequently, the release of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV), a chylomicron-derived signaling protein. ApoA-IV may stimulate release of cholecystokinin (CCK), an activator of vagal afferents. This study evaluated putative involvement of abnormal apoA-IV and CCK responses to lipid in GERD.   Ten GERD patients and 10 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent duodenal perfusion with Intralipid 20%, 2 kcal min(-1) , for 60 min. Symptoms were scored, blood samples collected every 15 min during lipid perfusion and 15 min after discontinuation when duodenal biopsies were taken. Plasma and mucosal concentrations of apoA-IV and CCK and transcript levels of 21 genes implicated in lipid absorption, differentially expressed under fasting conditions, were quantified.   Heartburn (P = 0.003), abdominal discomfort (P = 0.037) and nausea (P = 0.008) only increased significantly during lipid infusion in GERD patients. Following lipid infusion mean mucosal apoA-IV concentration was lower in GERD patients compared with HV (P = 0.023), whereas plasma concentration tended to be elevated (P = 0.068). Mean mucosal CCK concentration was also lower in GERD patients (P = 0.009). Two genes, HIBADH and JTB, were upregulated in GERD patients (P = 0.008 and P = 0.038, respectively).   Our results suggest excessive duodenal lipid-induced release of apoA-IV and CCK in GERD. We postulate that the resulting heightened activation of duodenal vagal afferents may underlie central sensitization, thereby increasing the perception of reflux events.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 02/2012; 24(4):350-e168. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2012.01880.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although stress has been considered an important pathophysiological factor in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is incomplete understanding of its physiological mechanisms. The current study was designed to compare diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in IBS patients and controls and their psychobiological response to a psychosocial stressor. Basal and stimulated HPA axis activity was assessed in 57 women with IBS and 20 matched controls. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using a standardized clinical interview. Salivary morning cortisol and diurnal profile were obtained, and the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and within 1 hour after the stressor. Overall stress experience and stress related to the TSST were assessed using standardized questionnaires. All subjects showed intact circadian variation of cortisol. However, IBS patients with predominant diarrhea exhibited substantially heightened cortisol levels at awakening (p < .03) and a blunted cortisol awakening response. In response to the TSST, patients exhibited significantly blunted cortisol (p < .05) and slightly attenuated ACTH secretion compared with controls. During the recovery period, ACTH levels were significantly lower (p < .04) in patients than those in healthy subjects. Women with IBS perceived higher stress susceptibility than control subjects did (p < .01). The enhanced morning cortisol levels in one subgroup of IBS patients may indicate an association between basal HPA axis activity and predominant bowel habit. The downregulated HPA axis reactivity in IBS after the TSST suggests a downregulated sensitivity of the endocrine system. On the contrary, all subjective stress ratings were increased in the IBS group, which may indicate increased stress susceptibility.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 02/2012; 74(2):221-31. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318244fb82 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2011; 49(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1285144 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GH substitution in GH deficiency (GHD) must be subcutaneously administered daily. A new sustained-release formulation of GH (LB03002) has been developed, which has to be injected once a week. As a substudy to the phase III study, we performed this prospective study to evaluate the influence of LB03002 on metabolic variables and hormones. Eleven patients with GHD [four women/seven men, 58 years (29-69 years)] without GH therapy were included in the study. Eight patients were treated with LB03002 for 12 months and three patients received placebo for 6 months followed by LB03002 for 6 months. A 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at study entry and at study end. Additionally, IGF-I, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, leptin, ghrelin, HbA1c and C-peptide were measured. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist/height (WHtR) ratio were measured by tape and scale. Multiple of upper limit of normal (xULN) of IGF-I (0·23 (0·09-0·4) vs 0·71 (0·4-1·04), P < 0·01), WHR (0·98 (0·86-1·04) vs 1·01 (0·86-1·05), P < 0·05) and ghrelin levels [119·8 ng/l (67·7-266·6) vs 137 ng/l (67-289·5), P < 0·05] were significantly higher, whereas fat mass (FM) [34·7% (20·4-49·2) vs 32·4% (16·7-48·5), P < 0·05] and leptin [11·2 μg/l (3·3-55·7) vs 7·05 μg/l (2·4-54·3), P < 0·05] were significantly lower at study end. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, ISI, HOMA-β, C-peptide and HbA1c during OGTT were not significantly different before and after GH substitution, neither were BMI, WHtR, bone mineral density and lipid variables. Substitution with LB03002 showed statistically significant reduction in FM, which reduces leptin levels and increases ghrelin levels but does not seem to influence glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Clinical Endocrinology 06/2011; 76(1):88-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04146.x · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gastric peptide ghrelin promotes energy storage, appetite, and food intake. Nutrient intake strongly suppresses circulating ghrelin via molecular mechanisms possibly involving insulin and gastrointestinal hormones. On the basis of the growing evidence that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is involved in the control of fuel metabolism, we hypothesized that GIP and/or insulin, directly or via changes in plasma metabolites, might affect circulating ghrelin. Fourteen obese subjects were infused with GIP (2.0 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or placebo in the fasting state during either euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (EC) or hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (HC). Apart from analysis of plasma ghrelin and insulin levels, GC-TOF/MS analysis was applied to create a hormone-metabolite network for each experiment. The GIP and insulin effects on circulating ghrelin were analyzed within the framework of those networks. In the HC, ghrelin levels decreased in the absence (19.2% vs. baseline, P = 0.028) as well as in the presence of GIP (33.8%, P = 0.018). Ghrelin levels were significantly lower during HC with GIP than with placebo, despite insulin levels not differing significantly. In the GIP network combining data on GIP-infusion, EC+GIP and HC+GIP experiments, ghrelin was integrated into hormone-metabolite networks through a connection to a group of long-chain fatty acids. In contrast, ghrelin was excluded from the network of experiments without GIP. GIP decreased circulating ghrelin and might have affected the ghrelin system via modification of long-chain fatty acid pools. These observations were independent of insulin and offer potential mechanistic underpinnings for the involvement of GIP in systemic control of energy metabolism.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 05/2011; 301(4):E608-17. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00154.2011 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the effect of dietary fat emulsion microstructure on plasma TG concentrations, satiety hormones, and food intake. The aim of this study was to structure dietary fat to slow digestion and flatten postprandial plasma TG concentrations but not increase food intake. Emulsions were stabilized by egg lecithin (control), sodium sterol lactylate, or sodium caseinate/monoglyceride (CasMag) with either liquid oil or a liquid oil/solid fat mixture. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 4 emulsions containing 30 g of fat in a 350-mL preload were consumed by 10 men and 10 women (BMI = 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); age = 58.8 ± 4.8 y). Pre- and postprandial plasma TG, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations and food intake were measured. In a second experiment in a subset of the participants (n = 8, 4 men and 4 women), (13)C-labeled mixed TG was incorporated into 2 different emulsions and breath (13)C was measured over 6 h. In the first experiment, the postprandial rise in plasma TG concentrations following the CasMag-stabilized emulsion containing 30% solid fat was lower than all other emulsions at 90 and 120 min (P < 0.05). Plasma CCK (P < 0.0001), GLP-1 (P < 0.01), and PYY (P < 0.001) concentrations were also reduced following this emulsion compared with control. Food intake at a test meal, eaten 3 h after the preload, did not differ among the emulsions. In the second experiment, when measured by the (13)C breath test, 25% of the TG in the CasMag emulsion was absorbed and metabolized compared with control. In conclusion, fat can be structured to decrease its effect on plasma TG concentrations without increasing food intake.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2011; 141(5):809-15. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.131110 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts on specific neural receptors [A, B and C(Aρ)] to modulate gastrointestinal function. The precise role of GABA receptor activation in the regulation of presynaptic nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in nerve terminals is unknown. Rat ileal nerve terminals were isolated by differential centrifugation. Nitric oxide synthesis was analysed using a L-[(3) H]arginine assay. In vitro studies were performed under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions on isolated ileal segments. γ-Aminobutyric acid inhibited NO synthesis significantly (n = 6, P < 0.05) [(fmol mg(-1) min(-1)) control: 27.7 ± 1.5, 10(-6) mol L(-1): 19.7 ± 1.3; 10(-5) mol L(-1): 17.5 ± 3.0]. This effect was antagonized by the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABA C receptor antagonist (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), but not by the GABA B receptor antagonist SCH 50911. The GABA A receptor agonist muscimol [(fmol mg(-1) min(-1)) control: 27.6 ± 1.0, 10(-6) mol L(-1): 19.1 ± 1.7, n = 5, P < 0.05] and the GABA C receptor agonist cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) [(fmol mg(-1) min(-1)) control: 29.5 ± 3.2, 10(-3) mol L(-1): 20.3 ± 2.5, n = 6, P < 0.05], mimicked the GABA-effect, whereas the GABA B agonist baclofen was ineffective. Bicuculline reversed the inhibitory effect of muscimol, TPMPA antagonized the effect of CACA. In functional experiments the GABA A and C receptor agonists reduced the NANC relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation in rat ileum by about 40%. After NOS-inhibition by Nε-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) the GABA A receptor agonist had no effect, whereas the GABA C receptor agonist still showed a residual response. γ-Aminobutyric acid inhibits neural NO synthesis in rat ileum by GABA A and GABA C(Aρ) receptor-mediated mechanisms.
    Neurogastroenterology and Motility 03/2011; 23(5):e181-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01688.x · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous patterns of energy intake influence gastrointestinal function and appetite, probably reflecting changes in small-intestinal nutrient-mediated feedback. Obese individuals consume more fat and may be less sensitive to its gastrointestinal and appetite-suppressant effects than lean individuals. To evaluate the hypothesis that, in obese individuals, the effects of duodenal fat on gastrointestinal motor and hormone function, and appetite would be enhanced by a short period on a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Eight obese men (body mass index 34±0.6  kg  m(-2)) were studied on two occasions, before (V1), and immediately after (V2), a 4-day VLCD. On both occasions, antropyloroduodenal motility, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide-YY (PYY) and ghrelin concentrations, and appetite perceptions were measured during a 120-min intraduodenal fat infusion (2.86  kcal  min(-1)). Immediately afterwards, energy intake was quantified. During V2, basal pyloric pressure and the number and amplitude of isolated pyloric pressure waves (PWs) were greater, whereas the number of antral and duodenal PWs was less, compared with V1 (all P<0.05). Moreover, during V2, baseline ghrelin concentration was higher; the stimulation of PYY and suppression of ghrelin by lipid were greater, with no difference in CCK concentration; and hunger and energy intake (kJ; V1: 4378±691, V2: 3634±700) were less (all P<0.05), compared with V1. In obese males, the effects of small-intestinal lipid on gastrointestinal motility and some hormone responses and appetite are enhanced after a 4-day VLCD.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 03/2011; 35(3):448-56. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2010.153 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both orosensory stimulation and feedback from the gastrointestinal tract contribute to energy intake regulation. We evaluated the hypothesis that overweight or obese subjects would be less sensitive to both oral and intraduodenal oleic acid exposure than would lean subjects. Eleven overweight or obese and 8 lean men were studied on 2 occasions, during which antropyloroduodenal pressures, plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY, and appetite were measured during 90-min intraduodenal infusions of saline or oleic acid (18:1 load: 0.78 kcal/min); energy intake (buffet lunch) was determined immediately afterward. Oral detection thresholds for 18:1 and recent dietary intake (2-d recall) were also quantified. In lean subjects, the number of isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) was greater during 18:1 infusion than during saline infusion (P < 0.05); no significant differences were observed between the 18:1 and saline infusions in the overweight or obese subjects. In both groups, 18:1 stimulated plasma cholecystokinin and peptide YY and suppressed energy intake compared with saline (P < 0.05), with trends for reduced cholecystokinin and energy intake responses in the overweight or obese subjects. Detection thresholds for 18:1 were greater in overweight or obese (7.9 ± 0.1 mmol/L) than in lean (4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/L) subjects (P < 0.05). Overweight or obese subjects had greater recent energy (P < 0.05) and fat (P = 0.07) intakes than did lean subjects. There was a direct relation (r = 0.669) of body mass index with 18:1 detection thresholds and inverse relations (r < -0.51) of IPPWs with body mass index and 18:1 detection thresholds (P < 0.05). The ability to detect oleic acid both orally and within the gastrointestinal tract is compromised in obese men, and oral and gastrointestinal responses to oleic acid are related. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry) as 12609000557235.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2011; 93(4):703-11. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.110.007583 · 6.77 Impact Factor

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2k Citations
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  • 2011–2015
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2014
    • University of Adelaide
      • Discipline of Medicine
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2000–2011
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      • Department of Internal Medicine II
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008–2010
    • German Institute of Human Nutrition
      • Department of Clinical Nutrition
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2006
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany
  • 2002
    • Schön Klinik Roseneck
      Prien, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2000–2001
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institute of Medical Sociology
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany