[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) are transcriptional regulators of the APETELA2/Ethylene Responsive element-binding Factor (AP2/ERF) family that are control expression of abiotic stress-related genes. We show here that under conditions of mild heat stress, constitutive overexpression seeds of transgenic DREB2C overexpression Arabidopsis exhibit delayed germination and increased abscisic acid (ABA) content compared to untransformed wild-type (WT). Treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of the ABA biosynthesis abrogated these effects. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis-related gene, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 9 (NCED9) was up-regulated in the DREB2C overexpression lines compared to WT. DREB2C was able to trans-activate expression of NCED9 in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts in vitro. Direct and specific binding of DREB2C to a complete DRE on the NCED9 promoter was observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Exogenous ABA treatment induced DREB2C expression in germinating seeds of WT. Vegetative growth of transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines was more strongly inhibited by exogenous ABA compared to WT. These results suggest that DREB2C is a stress- and ABA-inducible gene that acts as a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis in germinating seeds through activating NCED9 expression.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2014; 452(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.08.052 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key message:
DREB2C acts as a transcriptional activator of the salt tolerance-related COLD - REGULATED 15A gene. DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR 2C (DREB2C) regulates plant responses to heat stress. We report here that DREB2C is induced by NaCl stress in Arabidopsis, based on quantitative RT-PCR analyses of transcript levels and DREB2C promoter-controlled GUS activity assays. Constitutive overexpression of DREB2C from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter led to enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and canola plants that was characterized by higher chlorophyll content, lower tissue Na(+) content, reduced rate of water loss, and tighter membrane integrity in plants grown in NaCl-containing medium. Basal expression of the stress-responsive genes COLD-REGULATED 15A (COR15A), RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION (RD) 29A and RD29B, was higher in transgenic DREB2C-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants than in the wild-type. Promoter transactivation assays and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed that DREB2C interacts directly with the three DREs in the COR15A promoter, both in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Arabidopsis constitutively overexpressing COR15A from the CaMV35S promoter exhibited greater NaCl tolerance than the untransformed wild-type. Taken together, the data suggest that DREB2C functions as transcriptional activator that promotes NaCl tolerance, in part through upregulation of the stress-responsive gene COR15A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytocystatins are proteinaceous inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They have been implicated in the regulation of plant protein turnover and in defense against pathogens and insects. Here, we have characterized an Arabidopsis phytocystatin family gene, Arabidopsis thaliana phytocystatin 4 (AtCYS4). AtCYS4 was induced by heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of AtCYS4-overexpressing transgenic plants was greater than that of wild-type and cys4 knock-down plants, as measured by fresh weight and root length. Although no heat shock elements were identified in the 5'-flanking region of the AtCYS4 gene, canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) and dehydration-responsive elements (DREs) were found. Transient promoter activity measurements showed that AtCYS4 expression was up-regulated in unstressed protoplasts by co-expression of DRE-binding factor 2s (DREB2s), especially by DREB2C, but not by bZIP transcription factors that bind to ABREs (ABFs, ABI5 and AREBs). DREB2C bound to and activated transcription from the two DREs on the AtCYS4 promoter although some preference was observed for the GCCGAC DRE element over the ACCGAC element. AtCYS4 transcript and protein levels were elevated in transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines with corresponding decline of endogenous cysteine peptidase activity. We propose that AtCYS4 functions in thermotolerance under the control of the DREB2C cascade.
Transgenic Research 07/2013; 23(1). DOI:10.1007/s11248-013-9735-2 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dehydration-responsive element-binding factor 2C (DREB2C) is a member of the CBF/DREB subfamily of proteins, which contains a single APETALA2/Ethylene responsive element-binding factor (AP2/ERF) domain. To identify the expression pattern of the DREB2C gene, which contains multiple transcription cis-regulatory elements in its promoter, an approximately 1.4 kb upstream DREB2C sequence was fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS) and the recombinant p1244 construct was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The promoter of the gene directed prominent GUS activity in the vasculature in diverse young dividing tissues. Upon applying heat stress (HS), GUS staining was also enhanced in the vasculature of the growing tissues. Analysis of a series of 5'-deletions of the DREB2C promoter revealed that a proximal upstream sequence sufficient for the tissue-specific spatial and temporal induction of GUS expression by HS is localized in the promoter region between -204 and -34 bps relative to the transcriptional start site. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that nuclear protein binding activities specific to a -120 to -32 bp promoter fragment increased after HS. These results indicate that the TATA-proximal region and some latent trans-acting factors may cooperate in HS-induced activation of the Arabidopsis DREB2C promoter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehydration-responsive element-binding proteins (DREBs)regulate plant responses to environmental stresses. In the current study, transcription of DREB2C, a class 2 Arabidopsis DREB, was induced by a superoxide anion propagator, methyl viologen (MV). The oxidative stress tolerance of DREB2C-overexpressing transgenic plants was significantly greater than that of wild-type plants, as measured by ion leakage and chlorophyll fluorescence under light conditions. The transcriptional activity of several ascorbate peroxidase (APX) genes as well as APX protein activity was induced in DREB2C overexpressors. Additionally, the level of H2O2 in the overexpressors was lower than in wt plants under similar oxidative stress conditions. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transient activator reporter assay showed that APX2 expression was regulated by heat shock factor A3 (HsfA3) and that HsfA3 is regulated at the transcriptional level by DREB2C. These results suggest that DREB2C plays an important role in promoting oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytocystatins are inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases that are implicated in defense mechanisms and the regulation of protein turnover. BCPI-1, a Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) phytocystatin isolated from flower buds, contains an extended C-terminal region that contains a single Cys residue at position 102. In an effort to investigate the role of the C-terminus and this Cys residue in BCPI-1 activity, purified recombinant proteins of BCPI-1, including wild-type BCPI-1 (wtBCPI-1), N-terminus BCPI-1 (BCPI-1ΔC), C-terminus BCPI-1 (BCPI-1ΔN), and BCPI-1 with a single Cys residue exchange to Ser (BCPI-1C102S), were generated and their inhibitory activities against papain were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that the monomeric forms of wtBCPI-1 (K
i = 6.84 ± 0.3 × 10−8 M) inhibited papain more efficiently than the dimeric forms of wtBCPI-1 (K
i = 1.01 ± 0.5 × 10−7 M). Experiments with recombinant BCPI-1C102S demonstrated that the dimerization of wtBCPI-1 caused by the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at the cysteine residue. The inhibitory activity of the recombinant proteins, except BCPI-1ΔN, was reduced in the pH range of 7.0–11.5 and was highly stable over a wide range of temperatures. Thus, dimerization mediated by the cysteine residue in the extended C-terminal region and alkaline conditions reduced the inhibitory activity of BCPI-1.