Sara Guillén

Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (17)35.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AIM:: To determine whether the treatment with oseltamivir improves the outcome of children with confirmed influenza infection and no other underlying disease. METHODS:: Multi-centric, retrospective study, performed in 10 hospitals of Madrid between September 2010 and June 2012. All children admitted to the hospitals with confirmed influenza infections were eligible. Children with risk factors for serious disease and nosocomial influenza infections were excluded. Asthma was not considered an exclusion factor. The study compared patients treated and non-treated with oseltamivir. Fever duration, oxygen support, antibiotics administration, length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and bacterial complications were analyzed. To compare variables Chi-square test, Fisher´s exact test, ANOVA or Mann Whitney U were used. RESULTS:: 287 children were included and 93 of them were treated with oseltamivir (32%). There were no significant differences between treated and untreated patients in days of fever after admission (1.7 ± 2; 2.1 ± 2.9, p>0.05), length of stay (5.2 ± 3.6; 5.5 ± 3.4, p>0.05), days of hypoxia (1.6 ± 2.3; 2.1 ± 2.9, p>0.05), diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia (10%;17%, p>0.05), intensive care admission (6.5%;1.5%, p>0.05) or antibiotic prescription (44%; 51%, p>0.05). There were no differences when the population was stratified by age (below or over one year) or by the presence or absence of asthma CONCLUSIONS:: There were no proven benefits of treatment with oseltamivir in hospitalized pediatric patients without underlying diseases or risk factors for developing a serious illness, including those with asthma.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionSince 1996, when HAART became available, there has been a change in the course of HIV-infection, leading it to become a chronic disease. Our aim was to describe the characteristics of the children followed up in our hospital.Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 HIV-infected children followed up until December-2010, at the University-Hospital de Getafe.Clinical and laboratory information from the last visit was collected for the evaluation of patients.ResultsThirty-two children with HIV-1 were evaluated, 29 infected through vertical-transmission. The median age was 14 years. According to the CDC classification, 56% (18/32) of children were in category A, 28% (9/32) B and 16% (5/32) C. Immunological class was 3 in 75% of children, class 2 in 9% and class 1 in 16%. The median nadir of CD4 was 337 cells/ml (12%). The median current CD4 was 749 (31%). Only one adolescent had a CD4% below 200 cells/ml due to lack of adherence. Twenty-eight patients (87%) were receiving HAART, and 4 patients were off antiretroviral treatment. Among the patients treated, 26 (93%) had viral loads <200copies/ml. The median viral-load was < 20 copies/ml. Median time on antiretroviral treatment was 10 years. The combination more frequently used was two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one protease inhibitor (PI), that was given to 15 patients (47%), followed by 2 NRTI, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in 8 patients (29%). Two children received rescue therapy including raltegravir, one with tipranavir and the other with darunavir. A total of 12 patients (43%) received medication once a day, 7 of them with fixed-dose combinations in a single tablet (25%). There were metabolic complications, including hyperlipidaemia or lipodystrophy were observed in 17 children (53%).Conclusions Most of our patients are receiving HAART, with good virological and immunological control. The prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was high. Strategies to improve adherence and decrease toxicities are needed in perinatally-acquired HIV-infected children.
    Anales de Pediatría. 06/2012; 76(6):317–323.
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1996, when HAART became available, there has been a change in the course of HIV-infection, leading it to become a chronic disease. Our aim was to describe the characteristics of the children followed up in our hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 HIV-infected children followed up until December-2010, at the University-Hospital de Getafe. Clinical and laboratory information from the last visit was collected for the evaluation of patients. Thirty-two children with HIV-1 were evaluated, 29 infected through vertical-transmission. The median age was 14 years. According to the CDC classification, 56% (18/32) of children were in category A, 28% (9/32) B and 16% (5/32) C. Immunological class was 3 in 75% of children, class 2 in 9% and class 1 in 16%. The median nadir of CD4 was 337 cells/ml (12%). The median current CD4 was 749 (31%). Only one adolescent had a CD4% below 200 cells/ml due to lack of adherence. Twenty-eight patients (87%) were receiving HAART, and 4 patients were off antiretroviral treatment. Among the patients treated, 26 (93%) had viral loads <200 copies/ml. The median viral-load was<20 copies/ml. Median time on antiretroviral treatment was 10 years. The combination more frequently used was two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one protease inhibitor (PI), that was given to 15 patients (47%), followed by 2 NRTI, and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in 8 patients (29%). Two children received rescue therapy including raltegravir, one with tipranavir and the other with darunavir. A total of 12 patients (43%) received medication once a day, 7 of them with fixed-dose combinations in a single tablet (25%). There were metabolic complications, including hyperlipidaemia or lipodystrophy were observed in 17 children (53%). Most of our patients are receiving HAART, with good virological and immunological control. The prevalence of metabolic abnormalities was high. Strategies to improve adherence and decrease toxicities are needed in perinatally-acquired HIV-infected children.
    Anales de Pediatría 02/2012; 76(6):317-23. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of children of immigrant origin in the last few years has increased the cohort of HIV-infected children in the Community of Madrid. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the new diagnosed children and describe the different subtypes of HIV-1. The new diagnosed children were analysed from the year 1997, divided into 3 periods: P1 (1997-2000), P2 (2001-2004), P3 (2005-2009). The regions and countries of origin, the clinical, immune and viral characteristics, as well as the response to treatment were analysed. The subtypes of HIV-1 were evaluated by phylogenetic analysis of protease genes and reverse transcriptase. We identified 141 new diagnoses of HIV infection, the percentage of immigrant origin in P1 was (22.5%), P2 (50%) and P3 (68%). The origin had changed from Latin America in P1 to sub-Saharan Africa in P3. There were no differences between Spanish and immigrant children in the age at diagnosis, the CDC clinical stage A/B/C, viral load, percentage of CD4 at diagnosis and actual. Better viral response was more likely in immigrants after the first regimen of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral treatment) independently of the treatment received. A total of 66 subtypes were obtained, 24% were subtypes non-B (56% recombinants forms). All subtypes of Spanish children (43) and Latin American (5) were subtypes B, and all the children from sub-Saharan Africa (14) were subtypes non-B. There were no differences between immigrants and Spanish children infected by HIV, except the different subtypes of HIV-1.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 11/2011; 30(3):131-6. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In Tube test (QTF) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) in children. A prospective study was carried out in nine hospitals in Madrid, Spain. TST and QTF were performed in immigrants, tuberculosis (TB) contacts and patients with TB disease (TBD). 459 children were included. Disagreement between the tests was more frequently observed among latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) cases (54%; 38/70) than in non-infected or TBD cases (0.8%; 3/369) (p<0.01). There were more BCG-vaccinated children among LTBI cases with negative QTF (76%) than among LTBI cases with positive QTF (40%) (p<0.001). Agreement between tests in BCG-vaccinated children was lower than in non-vaccinated cases (p<0.05). Tests in TB exposed patients showed better agreement than in non-exposed children (p<0.05). Agreement of both tests was excellent in TBD cases, non-vaccinated children and non-infected patients. A significant number of QTF negative results were observed among LTBI cases, especially in BCG-vaccinated children. Agreement was better in exposed children.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 05/2011; 97(6):514-6. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective therapies have increased life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric patients. We investigated the underlying causes of death, mortality, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) rates in HIV-infected pediatric patients in Madrid, Spain. We studied a multicenter cohort of 478 HIV-infected pediatric patients in Madrid. Mortality and AIDS incidence rates, causes of death, CD4 T-cell, and HIV RNA were analyzed during calendar periods (CPs): pre-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) (CP1: 1982-1996) and post-HAART era (CP2: 1997-2009). During 5690 person-years of follow-up 157 (32.8%) deaths occurred. Median age at death increased (CP1: 3.2 years [1.0-6.3] vs. CP2: 7.7 years [3.1-11.4]; P < 0.01). Mortality and AIDS rates decreased 10.6-fold (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 6.9-16.7) and 6.9-fold (95% CI: 5.0-9.6), respectively, between CPs. Nevertheless, mortality was 10.4-fold (95% CI: 5.8-18.8; P < 0.001) higher than in age-similar general population in late-CP2. In all, 169 causes of death were reported. Multiple causes were reported in 16 of 151 (10.6%) patients. In 81.1% (137/169), the causes were AIDS-defining, 11.8% (20/169) HIV-related, and 7.1% (12/169) non-HIV-related. Infections were the leading causes (60.8%, 101/166); from 1999 to 2007 the risk of death from infections was 115.9 times (95% CI: 42.0-265.8; P < 0.001) higher than in the age-similar general population. Comorbidity was reported in 66.9% (101/151) of patients. Median HIV-1 RNA at death decreased (CP1: 5.9 [5.0-6.3]; CP2: 5.3 [4.2-5.8]; P < 0.01). Despite decline in mortality and AIDS rates, it is important to monitor all causes of death as prolonged survival might allow underlying comorbidity to become more clinically relevant.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 02/2011; 30(6):495-500. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically changed the natural history of HIV infection in children, but there are few studies in the literature about the incidence of clinical manifestations after HAART in this population, compared with adults. The aim of this study was to describe the influence of the widespread use of HAART on the development of opportunistic infections and organ-specific diseases in HIV-infected children.Methods An observational study of a cohort of 366 vertically HIV-infected children followed from 1990 to 2006 was carried out. According to the main antiretroviral protocol used, three calendar periods (CPs) were defined and compared: CP1 (1990–1996: no patients on HAART), CP2 (1997–1999: <60% on HAART) and CP3 (2000–2006: >60% on HAART).ResultsChildren experienced a progressive increase in CD4 T cell count (P<0.05) and a decrease in HIV viral load from 1996 onwards (P<0.05). Similarly, rates of death, AIDS, opportunistic infections (bacteraemia, candidosis, cryptosporidiosis and bacterial pneumonia) and organ-specific diseases (wasting syndrome, thrombocytopenia, cardiomyopathy, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and HIV-associated encephalopathy) were lower in CP2 and CP3 than in CP1.Conclusions This study provides evidence of improved clinical outcomes in HIV-infected children over time and shows that mortality, AIDS, opportunistic infections and organ-specific diseases declined as HAART was progressively instituted in this population.
    HIV Medicine 12/2009; 11(4):245 - 252. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a higher risk of developing chronic HBV infection and a higher risk of hepatotoxicity. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in HIV-infected patients may require antiretroviral treatment interruption, producing prolonged viremia. In this study, we assess the prevalence of protective antibodies in these patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against HAV and antibody against HBs (anti-HBs) in a cohort of 121 HIV-infected children and adolescents (1-19 years), followed-up in 4 public hospitals in Madrid (Spain). Among the total, 12.4% (95% CI: 7.1-19.6%) of children and adolescents had positive serology for HAV. Children of immigrant origin presented a higher percentage than children born in Spain: 50% vs. 6.2%, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, 16.5% (95% CI: 10.4-24.3) of the study population had protective anti-HBs. A higher percentage of children with anti-HBs antibodies was seen in CDC clinical category A: 20% vs. 16% of those in clinical category B vs. 9.4% of those in clinical category C (P=0.19). The percentage of positive-positive children progressively decreased according to the years elapsed since HBV vaccination. Most HIV-infected children and adolescents have no protective antibodies against natural infection by HBV and HAV. More studies are needed to define the best vaccination strategy to achieve a higher percentage of patients protected against these infections.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 04/2009; 27(8):449-52. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook a prospective study to estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated risk factors in a cohort of 669 HIV-1 infected women. The O'Sullivan and glucose tolerance tests were performed during regular visits of 609 mothers. The median age of the cohort was 30.7 years (range 16-44), with most women having had heterosexual contact (67%). The majority were in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) category A (71%) and 53% exhibited hepatitis C co-infection. Median viral load and CD4 count at third trimester were 545 cells/microL (range 139-1690 cells/microL) and 1.9 log (range 1.7-5.4), respectively. Seventy-four per cent of the patients were treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), of whom 41% received a protease inhibitor (PI). An above-average prevalence of 7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-9.5] for positive GDM diagnosis was found. Risk factors associated with GDM in univariate analysis included older age, hepatitis C co-infection, stavudine and PI exposure. However, only older age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.09, 95% CI 1-1.1] and PI exposure (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1-5.3) remained as independent risk factors for GDM development in multivariate analysis. In our cohort, the prevalence of GDM appears to be increased, with older age and PI exposure contributing as significant independent risk factors.
    HIV Medicine 12/2008; 9(10):868-74. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about immunologic reconstitution in children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) during very long-term periods. A retrospective study was carried out to assess the effectiveness and development of metabolic disorders after very long-term periods on HAART in HIV-infected children with severe immunodeficiency. We included 55 children who were stratified into three groups according to %CD4(+) pre-HAART and rate of immunologic recovery: (1) S1-Rec: CD4(+) < or =5% at baseline and slow immunologic recovery; (2) S2-Rec: CD4(+) 5-15% at baseline and slow immunologic recovery; (3) R-Rec: CD4(+) < or =15% at baseline and rapid immunologic recovery (reference group). An adequate immune recovery after 8 years on HAART was achieved by only 25% of children. S1-Rec never achieved a mean of CD4(+) > or =25% after 8 years on HAART. All children had a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels during the first 2 years. Afterward, cholesterol levels reached a plateau and remained stable until year 8 of follow-up. Higher rates of lipodystrophy were found in the R-Rec group [14 (100%)] than in the S1-Rec group [9/19 (47.4%)] or the S2-Rec group [13/20 (65%)] at the end of the study (p = 0.006). Overall, having a low nadir of CD4(+) hindered immune reconstitution; however, children with rapid immunologic recovery showed a higher prevalence of the lipodystrophy syndrome.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 11/2008; 24(12):1477-84. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate any possible association between indicators of social inequalities and the geographical distribution of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) cases in Madrid. We carried out an observational survey of 224 HIV-1 vertically infected children born in 1980-2006 living in Madrid. We elaborated maps representing the prevalence of HIV-1 MTCT cases. We assessed the association between indicators of social inequalities and the spatial distribution of MTCT cases. Poisson univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for MTCT were performed. We identified core areas of transmission mainly in southern Madrid until 2006. The prevalence of MTCT cases was significantly correlated to the percentage of immigrants, illiterates, unemployed women and the income in 1996 and 2000/2001. The risk of MTCT increased in the periods up to 1996 compared with the calendar period 1980-1989, whereas the risk decreased in 1999-2006 [relative risk, 0.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.03-0.18; P < 0.001]. The risk was especially high in the districts of Usera (absolute relative risk, 11.4; 95% CI, 2.6-49.5; P = 0.001), Puente de Vallecas (absolute relative risk, 14.0; 95% CI, 3.4-57.9; P < 0.001) and San Blas (absolute relative risk, 12.5; 95% CI, 2.9-53.6; P = 0.001). The percentage of illiterates was the indicator that explained the risk of MTCT (absolute relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.05-1.10; P = 0.001). We observed a geographic heterogeneity of the HIV-1 vertical transmission with the highest prevalence in disadvantaged districts. What is described in the present review is the HIV-1 vertical transmission within a social context; this approach could be relevant in analysing the pattern of HIV-1 transmission in other Western cities or highlighting the distribution of other infectious diseases.
    AIDS (London, England) 10/2008; 22(16):2199-205. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus remains the most common etiologic agent of acute osteomyelitis in children. Recently, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major pathogen. Records of all children admitted with acute osteomyelitis from January 1999 to December 2003 were reviewed. For the comparative analysis, the study population was evenly distributed in 2 periods: period A, January 1999 to June 2001; n = 113; and period B, July 2001 to December 2003; n = 177. In addition, clinical findings of MRSA osteomyelitis were compared with non-MRSA osteomyelitis, including methicillin-sensitive S. aureus infections. Two hundred ninety children (60% male subjects) with acute osteomyelitis were identified. Median (25th-75th percentile) age at diagnosis was 6 years (range, 2-11 years). Significant clinical findings included the following: localized pain (84%), fever (67%), and swelling (62%). Affected bones included the following: foot (23%), femur (20%), tibia (16%), and pelvis (7%). Thirty-seven percent of blood cultures were positive, and a bacterial isolate was obtained in 55% of cases. Bacteria most frequently isolated included the following: methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (45%) (57% in period Avs 40% in period B), MRSA (23%) (6% in A vs 31% in B; P < 0.001), Streptococcus pyogenes (6%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Children with MRSA compared with those with non-MRSA osteomyelitis had significantly greater erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein values on admission and increased length of hospital stay, antibiotic therapy, and overall rate of complications. We observed significant changes in antibiotic therapy related to increased use of agents with activity against MRSA. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was isolated more frequently in the second study period and was associated with worse clinical outcomes.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 01/2008; 28(5):569-75. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few data on long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on weight and height in HIV-infected children. Our objective was to assess the effect of HAART on the weight and height of HIV-infected children over time in the Madrid cohort, and analyze possible factors associated with the effect. This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected children starting HAART in 1997 or later. Serial measurements of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were performed and converted to z-scores using the Spanish revised reference data. Changes from baseline in weight, height and BMI at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months were determined. Associations of z-scores at the last visit with immunologic (CD4% above 25%) and virologic responses (more than 50% of samples below 400 copies/mL), CDC (Centers for Disease Control) clinical category, and the presence and type of lipodystrophy (lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy) were evaluated. Twelve hundred and twelve children, 97% of them vertically-infected, received HAART starting in 1997 for a median of 71 months (4-102 months). Median age at initiation of HAART was 6 years (1 month-18 years). Thirty-nine percentage were antiretroviral naive and 61% had received NRTI therapy previously. Thirty-two percentage and 53% had CDC class C and immunologic class 3, respectively. At the final evaluation, 24% of children remained on their first combination therapy, 39% on the second and 37% had received at least 3 different HAART regimens. Fifty-one percentage were classified as virologic responders. Thirty-nine percentage of children in this study were diagnosed with lipodystrophy. At baseline, median z-score for weight, height and BMI were -0.45, -0.60 and -0.33, respectively. HAART was associated with significant increases in z-scores of weight and height but not BMI at the different time-points analyzed. Virologic nonresponders had significantly lower z-scores for weight and height but not for BMI. CDC class C was associated with lower z-scores for height. No differences in final measurements were observed for baseline CD4, immunologic response or lipoatrophy. Children with lipohypertophy had a significantly higher BMI at the last visit. HIV-infected children experienced a continued catch-up in weight and height 5 years after starting HAART. Virologic control is related to sustained growth.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2007; 26(4):334-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To update antiretroviral recommendations in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Theses guidelines have been formulated by a panel of members of the Plan Nacional sobre el SIDA (PNS) and the Asociacion Espanola de Pediatria (AEP) by reviewing the current available evidence of efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in pediatric studies. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the source of data: Level A: randomized and controlled studies; Level B: Cohort and case-control studies; Level C: Descriptive studies and experts' opinion. When to start ART should be made on an individual basis, discussed with the family, considering the risk of progression according to age, CD4 and viral load, the ART-related complications and adherence. The ART goal is to reach a maximum and durable viral suppression. This is not always possible, even with clinical and immunologic improvement. The difficulties of permanent adherence and side-effects are resulting in a more conservative trend to initiate ART, and to less toxic and simpler strategies. Currently, combinations of at least three drugs are of first choice both in acute and chronic infection. They must include 2 NA 1 1 NN or 2 NA 1 1 PI. ART is recommended in all symptomatic patients and, with few exceptions, in all infants in the first year of life. Older asymptomatic children should start ART according to CD4 count, especially CD4 percentage, that vary with age. Despite potent salvage therapies, it is common not to reach viral undetectability. Therapeutical options when ART fails are scarce due to cross-resistance. The cause of failure must be identified. Occasionally, there exists clinical and/or immunological progression, and a change of therapy with at least two new drugs still active for the patient, is warranted with the aim of increasing the CD4 count to a lower level of risk. Toxicity and adherence must be regularly monitored. Some aspects about post exposure prophylaxis and coinfection with HCV or HBV are discussed. A higher level of evidence with regard to ART effectiveness and toxicity in pediatrics is currently available, leading to a more conservative and individualized approach. Clinical symptoms and CD4 count are the main determinants to start and change ART.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 06/2005; 23(5):279-312. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 05/2005; 23(5):279–312. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few cross-sectional studies describing the current situation of HIV-1-infected children. Such studies would be useful to determine patients' clinical and immunologic and virologic status, currently prescribed therapies and their associated toxicity. To perform a descriptive analysis of the clinical, immunological and virological status of HIV-1-infected children followed-up in the pediatric unit of a tertiary hospital and describe the current antiretroviral therapies used to treat them. A cross-sectional study was performed. Data were collected from all HIV-1-infected children followed-up until January 2002 in a large pediatric referral hospital (Hospital 12 de Octubre in Madrid). Clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations were scheduled to be performed every 3 months. The most recent CD4 and plasma viral loads were evaluated. Viral loads were considered undetectable when there were less than 300 copies/ml at the last evaluation. Sixty-six HIV-1-infected children who were followed-up to January 2002 were analyzed. All the children acquired the infection through vertical transmission except one, in whom the mode of transmission was unknown. The median age was 111 months (18-216). Twenty children were category C. The median CD4 cell count was 953 cells/mm3 (276-3137), 28 % +/- 8 (12.42). One child was receiving no therapy, four were on combination therapy with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and 61 were receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-seven children (44 %) were receiving the first HAART regimen, 23 the second, and 11 had already been switched more than twice. Overall, 37 of the 61 patients receiving HAART had an undetectable plasma viral load. Most children in our study had gone through several antiretroviral regimens, although not all children were being treated with HAART. Fifty-six percent of the patients with HAART had an undetectable plasma viral load. However, new complications associated with this therapy have begun to appear.
    Anales de Pediatría 02/2005; 62(1):32-7. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction There are few cross-sectional studies describing the current situation of HIV-1-infected children. Such studies would be useful to determine patients’ clinical and immunologic and virologic status, currently prescribed therapies and their associated toxicity. Objectives To perform a descriptive analysis of the clinical, immunological and virological status of HIV-1-infected children followed-up in the pediatric unit of a tertiary hospital and describe the current antiretroviral therapies used to treat them. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Data were collected from all HIV-1-infected children followed-up until January 2002 in a large pediatric referral hospital (Hospital 12 de Octubre in Madrid). Clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations were scheduled to be performed every 3 months. The most recent CD4 and plasma viralloads were evaluated. Viral loads were considered undetectable when there were less than 300 copies/ml at the last evaluation. Results Sixty-six HIV-1-infected children who were followed-up to January 2002 were analyzed. All the children acquired the infection through vertical transmission except one, in whom the mode of transmission was unknown. The median age was 111 months (18-216). Twenty children were category C. The median CD4 cell count was 953 cells/mm3 (276-3137), 28% ± 8 (12.42). One child was receiving no therapy, four were on combination therapy with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and 61 were receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Twenty-seven children (44 %) were receiving the first HAART regimen, 23 the second, and 11 had already been switched more than twice. Overall, 37 of the 61 patients receiving HAART had an undetectable plasma viral load. Conclusions Most children in our study had gone through several antiretroviral regimens, although not all children were being treated with HAART. Fifty-six percent of the patients with HAART had an undetectable plasma viral load. However, new complications associated with this therapy have begun to appear.
    Anales De Pediatria - AN PEDIATR. 01/2005; 62(1):32-37.