Richard E Tremblay

Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Tomsk, Russia

Are you Richard E Tremblay?

Claim your profile

Publications (504)1694.67 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine if child-care services (CCS) at a population level can reduce social inequalities in academic performance until early adolescence. Methods: A 12-year population-based prospective cohort study of families with a newborn (n = 1269). Two CCS variables were estimated: "intensity" (low, moderate, and high number of hours) and "center-based CCS type" (early onset, late onset, and never exposed to center-based CCS). Results: Children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families who received high-intensity CCS (any type), compared with those who received low-intensity CCS, had significantly better reading (standardized effect size [ES] = 0.37), writing (ES = 0.37), and mathematics (ES = 0.46) scores. Children from low-SES families who received center-based CCS, compared with those who never attended center care, had significantly better reading (ESearly onset = 0.68; ESlate onset = 0.37), writing (ESearly onset = 0.79), and mathematics (ESearly onset = 0.66; ESlate onset = 0.39) scores. Furthermore, early participation in center-based CCS eliminated the differences between children of low and adequate SES on all 3 examinations (ES = -0.01, 0.13, and -0.02 for reading, writing, and mathematics, respectively). These results were obtained while controlling for a wide range of child and family variables from birth to school entry. Conclusions: Child care services (any type) can reduce the social inequalities in academic performance up to early adolescence, while early participation in center-based CCS can eliminate this inequality. CCS use, especially early participation in center-based CCS, should be strongly encouraged for children growing up in a low-SES family.
    Pediatrics 12/2015; 136(6):1112-1124. DOI:10.1542/peds.2015-0419 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Julian Chiarella · Richard E Tremblay · Moshe Szyf · Nadine Provençal · Linda Booij ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.
    Twin Research and Human Genetics 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/thg.2015.84 · 2.30 Impact Factor

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0094-8 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been shown to moderate the impact of maltreatment on antisocial behaviour. Replication efforts have, however, yielded inconsistent results.AimsTo investigate whether the interaction between the MAOA gene and violence is present across the full distribution of violence or emerges at higher levels of exposure.Method Participants were 327 male members of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Exposure to violence comprised retrospective reports of mother's and father's maltreatment, sexual and physical abuse. Conduct disorder and antisocial personality symptoms were assessed in semi-structured interviews and partner violence, property-violent crimes and arrest were self-reported.ResultsNon-linear interactions between the MAOA gene and violence were detected, suggesting that the genetic moderation may come about once a certain level of violence is experienced.Conclusions Future studies should investigate the mechanisms translating substantial violence exposure, which could, subsequently, trigger the expression of genetically based differences in antisocial behaviour.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2015; DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.162081 · 7.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1478 Canadian school-age children followed from grades 1 to 4 (age 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from grades 1 to 2, and from grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.

  • Psychoneuroendocrinology 09/2015; 61:42-3. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.07.505 · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Rene Carbonneau · Michel Boivin · Mara Brendgen · Daniel Nagin · Richard E Tremblay ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comorbidity is frequent among disruptive behaviors (DB) and leads to mental health problems during adolescence and adulthood. However, the early developmental origins of this comorbidity have so far received little attention. This study investigated the developmental comorbidity of three DB categories during early childhood: hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression. Joint developmental trajectories of DB were identified based on annual mother interviews from age 1½ to 5 years, in a population-representative birth-cohort (N = 2045). A significant proportion of children (13 % to 21 %, depending on the type of DB) consistently displayed high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, or physical aggression from age 1½ to 5 years. Developmental comorbidity was frequent, especially for boys: 10 % of boys and 3.7 % of girls were on a stable trajectory with high levels of symptoms for the three categories of DB. Significant associations were observed between preschool joint-trajectories of DB and indicators of DB and school adjustment assessed by teachers in first grade. Preschoolers who maintained high levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity, non-compliance, and physical aggression, displayed the highest number of DB symptoms in first grade for all categories according to their teacher. They were also among the most disadvantaged of their class for school adjustment indicators. Thus, DB manifestations and developmental comorbidity of DB are highly prevalent in infancy. Early childhood appears to be a critical period to prevent persistent and comorbid DB that leads to impairment at the very beginning of school attendance and to long-term serious health and social adjustment problems.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-0072-1 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal and early postnatal adversities have been shown to be associated with brain development. However, we do not know how much of this association is confounded by genetics, nor whether the postnatal environment can moderate the impact of in utero adversity. This study used a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to assess (1) the association between birth weight (BW) and brain volume in adolescence, (2) the association between within-twin-pair BW discordance and brain volume discordance in adolescence, and (3) whether the association between BW and brain volume in adolescence is mediated or moderated by early negative maternal parenting behaviours. These associations were assessed in a sample of 108 MZ twins followed longitudinally since birth and scanned at age 15. The total grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were obtained using the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) toolbox in the Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 (SPM8). We found that the BW was significantly associated with the total GM and WM volumes, particularly in the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus. Within-twin-pair discordance in BW was also significantly associated with within-pair discordance in both the GM and the WM volumes, supporting the hypothesis that the specific in utero environment is associated with brain development independently of genetics. Early maternal hostile parenting behaviours and depressive symptoms were associated with total GM volume but not WM volume. Finally, greater early maternal hostility may moderate the association between the BW and GM volume in adolescence, since the positive association between the BW and total GM volume appeared stronger at higher levels of maternal hostility (trend). Together, these findings support the importance of the in utero and early environments for brain development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Developmental Neuroscience 08/2015; 37(6). DOI:10.1159/000430982 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Rene Carbonneau · Frank Vitaro · Mara Brendgen · Richard E Tremblay ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate trajectories of gambling variety from mid-adolescence to age 30, and compare the different trajectory-groups with regard to the type and the frequency of gambling activities practiced, and gambling-related problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Province of Quebec, Canada. A mixed-gender general population cohort assessed at ages 15 (N = 1882), 22 (N = 1785), and 30 (N = 1358). Adolescent and adult versions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Group-based trajectory analysis identified three distinct trajectories: A Late-onset Low trajectory (26.7% of sample) initiating gambling at age-22, an Early-onset Low trajectory (64.8% of sample), characterized by 1-2 different activities from age-15 onwards, and a High trajectory (8.4% of sample), with an average of 4-5 different activities from age 15 to 30. Males (14.2%) were 4 times more likely to be on a High-trajectory than females (3.5%) (p < .001). Preferred types of gambling activities were similar across the three trajectories. Participants on a High-trajectory reported higher gambling frequency at ages 15 and 30, and were more likely to experience problem gambling at age 30: 3.09 (95%CI = 1.66, 5.75) and 2.26 (95%CI = 1.27, 4.04) times more, respectively, than Late-onset Low and Early-onset Low participants, even when socioeconomic status (SES), frequency of gambling and problem gambling in adolescence, gender, age-30 education, SES, and frequency of gambling, were controlled. Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Addiction 08/2015; 110(12). DOI:10.1111/add.13083 · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This “catch-up” effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed.
    Child Development 08/2015; 86(5). DOI:10.1111/cdev.12399 · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • M Brenner · S M Côté · M Boivin · R E Tremblay ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aim to explore the association of a severe congenital malformation (SCM) with postnatal family functioning and parents' separation/divorce and to examine if this association might be moderated by birth order of the child and parental level of education. SCM refers to malformations that, without medical intervention, cause handicap or death. Using the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, an ongoing population-based birth cohort study initiated in 1998, we compared 1675 families of children with and without a SCM to identify if having a child with a SCM was associated with maternal perception of family functioning. We examined if an SCM was associated with parents' separation and examined parents' education level and birth order of the children to evaluate whether these factors had any moderating effect on the results. There were no significant differences in family functioning between families with and without a SCM child at 5 and 17 months. At 5 months, family functioning was significantly better (P = 0.03) for families with a SCM firstborn child than for families with a SCM child that is not firstborn. For parental separation, no significant differences were observed at 5 and 29 months and 4 years. No significant moderating effects were observed for birth order and parental education on parental separation. Families of children with a SCM do not appear to be at higher risk of family dysfunction within the first 17 months after birth nor of parental separation within the first 4 years after birth. Family functioning tends to be worst in families where the child with SCM is the second or subsequent child born. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Child Care Health and Development 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/cch.12269 · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • René Carbonneau · Frank Vitaro · Mara Brendgen · Richard E Tremblay ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 07/2015; DOI:10.1037/adb0000102 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Simon Larose · Stéphane Duchesne · Michel Boivin · Frank Vitaro · Richard E. Tremblay ·

    07/2015; DOI:10.1080/21683603.2015.1044631#.Vb958_l_NBc
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %), "late-onset overweight" (16.6%) and "never overweight" (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131231. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131231 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The timing and mechanisms underlying the development of psychopathic traits in children is a critical topic in psychopathy research. The present study sought to examine psychopathic traits in children, ages 5.5 to 8.5, using items which were included in multiple waves of a large longitudinal study of approximately 900 community children, the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD/ ELDEQ). Items were selected from the ELDEQ battery that corresponded to the items on the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV) for 12 to 18 year old youth. Exploratory factor analyses using a Geomin rotation and the WLSMV estimator revealed a stable, well-fitting two-factor model at each of the three age points, ranging from approximately 5.5 to 8.5 years of age (68-80 months, 80-92 months, and 92-104 months). However, items did not correspond directly to the two-factor model of Psychopathy Checklist psychopathy, in which Factor One contains interpersonal and affective features and Factor Two captures antisocial and behavior symptoms. The first factor in the current model contains items involving affective, interpersonal, and lifestyle (and two antisocial) items, while the second factor consists of items measuring aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Current findings suggest that psychopathic traits are moderately stable between the ages of 5.5 and 8.5. This measure of psychopathic traits may have implications for the future recognition and treatment of young children by aiding in early detection of psychopathic traits.
    Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy, Chicago, IL; 06/2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the development of psychopathic traits in children are not well understood. In opposition to the emotion deficit hypotheses, the affect dysregulation theory posits that many children who later develop psychopathic traits experience substantial negative affect early in development but learn to block or tune out their emotional experiences. Such a process leads to the development of callous, unemotional traits and corresponding antisocial behavior. The present study sought to test this developmental trajectory by examining negative affect in approximately 900 toddlers, ages 17 months and 29 months of age, and later psychopathic traits in children, ages 5.5 to 8.5. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD/ ELDEQ), items were selected that appeared to correspond to constructs measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV) and examined using an exploratory factor analysis; a nineteen item, two- factor model provided the best fit. The first factor in the model consisted of items describing primarily affective, interpersonal, and lifestyle traits associated with psychopathy, whereas the second factor consisted of items describing antisocial and aggressive behaviors related to the antisocial facet of psychopathy. A measure of negative affect was constructed using items from the Emotional Disorder Scale utilized in the ELDEQ study. A structural equation model revealed that negative affective experiences at 29 months predicted scores on the second factor of psychopathic traits (aggressive and antisocial behavior) at seven years of age (b = 0.145, p = 0.042). However, negative affect did not predict scores on the first factor of psychopathic traits. An RMSEA of 0.028 and a CFI of 0.939 indicate an adequate fitting model. Contradictory to emotional deficit perspectives, these findings suggest that young children with conduct problems likely experience negative emotions as other children do. These findings suggest that children characterized by early antisocial behavior and aggression during middle childhood also have relatively higher levels of negative emotion earlier in life. Although these results partially corroborate the affect dysregulation theory, it is important to keep in mind that many analyses revealed no relationships between psychopathy and negative affect in this community sample.
    Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy, Chicago, IL; 06/2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The timing and mechanisms underlying the development of psychopathic traits in children is a critical topic in psychopathy research. The present study sought to examine psychopathic traits in children, ages 5.5 to 8.5, using items which were included in multiple waves of a large longitudinal study of approximately 900 community children, the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD/ ELDEQ). Items were selected from the ELDEQ battery that corresponded to the items on the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV) for 12 to 18 year old youth. Exploratory factor analyses using a Geomin rotation and the WLSMV estimator revealed a stable, well-fitting one-factor model at each of the three age points, ranging from approximately 5.5 to 8.5 years of age (68-80 months, 80-92 months, and 92-104 months). Current findings suggest that psychopathic traits are moderately stable between the ages of 5.5 and 8.5. This measure of psychopathic traits may have implications for the future recognition and treatment of young children by aiding in early detection of psychopathic traits.
    Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy; 06/2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis–stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more “vulnerable” to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a “vulnerability” for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply.
    Development and Psychopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0954579415000437 · 4.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
1,694.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2014-2015
    • Tomsk State University
      Tomsk, Tomsk, Russia
    • L'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Québec
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
  • 1997-2015
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1988-2015
    • Université de Montréal
      • • School of Psycho-Education
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008-2014
    • University College Dublin
      • School of Public Health, Physiotherapy & Population Science
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2011
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Centre jeunesse de Montréal-Institut universitaire
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1999-2011
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005-2010
    • Laval University
      • School of Psychology
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    • The University of Winnipeg
      • Department of Economics
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2000-2008
    • Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
      • Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007
    • Université du Québec
      Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    • Utrecht University
      • Division of Developmental Psychology
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2005-2007
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Psychology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • University of Ottawa
      • School of Psychology
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • Childcare Resource and Research Unit
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Psychology
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 2003
    • University of New Mexico
      • Department of Sociology
      Albuquerque, NM, United States
  • 2001
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • School of Public Policy & Management
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Jyväskylä
      • Department of Psychology
      Jyväskylä, Western Finland, Finland