[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/IntroductionTo compare carotid and lower limb atherosclerotic lesions, and examine if carotid atherosclerotic lesions are in line with lower limb atherosclerotic lesions, and can reflect generalized atherosclerosis in inpatients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods
This was an observational study carried out in 867 Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes, including 573 previously known and 294 newly diagnosed patients. Ultrasonographic assessments of intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, and stenosis in the carotid and lower limb arteries were evaluated. Atherosclerotic lesions between the carotid and lower limb arteries were compared in both previously known and newly diagnosed diabetes, respectively. ResultsIn both the known (77.3% vs 49.4%, P < 0.001) and the newly diagnosed diabetes (55.4% vs 29.9%, P < 0.001), the prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques was significantly higher in the lower limb arteries than in the carotid arteries. Likewise, the prevalence of stenosis was also significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the lower limb arteries (16.9%) than in the carotid arteries (4.2%) in the established diabetes patients. However, there was no significant difference in the mean IMT between common carotid and common femoral arteries in both the previously known (0.90 ± 0.24 mm vs 0.89 ± 0.20 mm, P = 0.675) and the newly diagnosed diabetes patients (0.86 ± 0.22 mm vs 0.85 ± 0.16 mm, P = 0.436). Conclusions
Carotid plaques might underestimate generalized plaques in inpatients with type 2 diabetes, as shown by its significantly lower prevalence compared with that of the lower extremity arteries. A combined carotid and lower limb ultrasound examination can improve the detection of atherosclerotic lesions in inpatients with type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis is readily considered when patients present with a particular set of typical clinical characteristics. Subacute thyroiditis sometimes presents as a solitary cold nodule; however, the presence of a hot nodule in patients with subacute thyroiditis is exceedingly rare.
Here, the case of a 57-year-old woman complaining of pain in the left neck and fatigue for two weeks is presented. Physical examination revealed a painful and tender nodule with a diameter of approximately 1.5 cm in the left neck, although all laboratory tests, including white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function, and thyroglobin levels, were normal. A neck ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass (1.5 x 0.8 cm) in the left thyroid, and thyroid scintigraphy of the left thyroid with Technetium-99 m (99 m-Tc) demonstrated a focal accumulation of radiotracer. Furthermore, fine-needle aspiration biopsy from the nodule revealed the presence of multinuclear giant cells. The patient was well; there was no cervical mass detected upon palpation following two months of prednisone treatment, and follow-up ultrasound screening and scintigraphy demonstrated the disappearance of the nodule.
This case, presenting with a localized painful hot nodule, normal thyroid function, normal ESR, and normal serum thyroglobulin levels, is a rare case of subacute thyroiditis, which should be considered during differential diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies.
In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes.
The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, p<0.001), but no significant difference was found compared with the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics (0.73±0.19 mm, p=0.582) after controlling for differences in age and sex. In both the ketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both p<0.001) after controlling for sex, but no sex difference was observed (p=0.479 and p=0.707, respectively) after controlling for age. In the ketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT.
The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics. The characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic lesions in the ketosis-onset diabetics resembled those in the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics. Our findings support the classification of ketosis-onset diabetes as a subtype of type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis detected by both carotid and lower extremity ultrasonography in hospitalized Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and to examine whether plaque formation in the carotid arteries could be an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Totally, 709 hospitalized Chinese type 2 diabetic patients (men 357, women 352) aged from 18 to 88 years were included. Both carotid and lower extremity atherosclerosis were assessed by Doppler ultrasound. Atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of either the carotid or lower extremity plaque in any of the above-mentioned arteries segments. The prevalence of atherosclerosis was calculated, and the risk factors associated with atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression.
The prevalence of atherosclerosis was 81.23% in male and 77.56% in female type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atherosclerosis in patients between the sexes. The prevalence of atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the lower extremity arteries than in the carotid arteries (73.91% and 44.43%, respectively, P<.001). Atherosclerosis was significantly associated with smoking, age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, total number of white blood cells, and mean carotid and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT).
The prevalence of atherosclerosis was very high in Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. Carotid atherosclerosis could not be an indicator of generalized atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. The combination of carotid and lower extremity ultrasound examination can significantly improve the detection of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.
Journal of diabetes and its complications 01/2012; 26(1):23-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.11.006 · 3.01 Impact Factor