Carmine M Pariante

The Kings College, Johnson Lane, Nevada, United States

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Publications (321)1868.09 Total impact

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    Dominic T Plant · Carmine M Pariante · Deborah Sharp · Susan Pawlby
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression. Aims: To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association. Method: Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring child maltreatment and offspring adulthood (18–25 years) DSM-IV depression were analysed in 103 mother–offspring dyads of the South London Child Development Study. Results: Adult offspring exposed to maternal depression in pregnancy were 3.4 times more likely to have a DSM-IV depressive disorder, and 2.4 times more likely to have experienced child maltreatment, compared with non-exposed offspring. Path analysis revealed that offspring experience of child maltreatment mediated the association between exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in adulthood. Conclusions: Maternal depression in pregnancy is a key vulnerability factor for offspring depression in early adulthood.
    The British Journal of Psychiatry 09/2015; 207(3):213-220. DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.156620 · 7.34 Impact Factor
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    A E Cullen · F L Day · R E Roberts · C M Pariante · K R Laurens
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary volume enlargements have been observed among individuals with first-episode psychosis. These abnormalities are suggestive of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which may contribute to the development of psychosis. However, the extent to which these abnormalities characterize individuals at elevated risk for schizophrenia prior to illness onset is currently unclear, as volume increases, decreases and no volume differences have all been reported relative to controls. The current study aimed to determine whether antipsychotic-naive, putatively at-risk children who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) or a family history of illness (FHx) show pituitary volume abnormalities relative to typically developing (TD) children. An additional aim was to explore the association between pituitary volume and experiences of psychosocial stress. ASz (n = 30), FHx (n = 22) and TD (n = 32) children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Measures of pituitary volume and psychosocial stress were obtained at age 11-14 years. Neither ASz nor FHx children showed differences in pituitary volume relative to TD children. Among FHx children only, pituitary volume was negatively associated with current distress relating to negative life events and exposure to physical punishment. The lack of pituitary volume abnormalities among ASz and FHx children is consistent with our previous work demonstrating that these children are not characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol levels. The findings imply that these biological markers of HPA axis hyperactivity, observed in some older samples of high-risk individuals, may emerge later, more proximally to disease onset.
    Psychological Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715001282 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with psychosis, and may confer greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Such abnormalities are associated with inflammation in the general population, and there is increasing evidence for elevated inflammation in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). The aim of this preliminary study is to examine the effect of changes in inflammation, as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), on metabolic changes in a three-month longitudinal study in a FEP sample. Fifty-three FEP patients from in- and out-patient services in South London, England, were included in this longitudinal study. Social and clinical data were collected, and fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements (weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile and gluco-metabolic parameters) were obtained at baseline and at three-month follow-up. Correlation analyses showed that those with increases in hsCRP over the three-month period also had increases in triglyceride levels (r = 0.49, p = 0.02). No association was observed with other lipid profile, or gluco-metabolic parameters. Increases in weight and BMI were also associated with increases in triglyceride levels (r = 0.33, p = 0.02; and r = 0.31, p = 0.03, respectively); however, a multiple linear regression analysis found that the effects of inflammation on triglycerides were independent from the effect of changes in weight, and from the baseline inflammatory state. Our preliminary findings suggest that those patients experiencing greater increases in inflammation early on in the course of their illness may be at greater risk of developing short-term metabolic abnormalities, in particular dyslipidaemia, independent of weight-gain. Future work should investigate the use of inflammatory markers to identify patients in greater need of physical health interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.004 · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • D Baumeister · R Akhtar · S Ciufolini · C M Pariante · V Mondelli
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood trauma confers higher risk of adulthood physical and mental illness; however, the biological mechanism mediating this association remains largely unknown. Recent research has suggested dysregulation of the immune system as a possible biological mediator. The present paper conducted a meta-analysis to establish whether early-life adversity contributes to potentially pathogenic pro-inflammatory phenotypes in adult individuals. A systematic search of Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus and Medline identified 25 articles for the meta-analysis, including 18 studies encompassing a sample of 16 870 individuals for C-reactive protein (CRP), 15 studies including 3751 individuals for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 10 studies including 881 individuals for tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Random-effects meta-analysis showed that individuals exposed to childhood trauma had significantly elevated baseline peripheral levels of CRP (Fisher's z=0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.05-0.14), IL-6 (z=0.08, 95% CI=0.03-0.14) and TNF-α (z=0.23, 95% CI=0.14-0.32). Subgroup analyses for specific types of trauma (sexual, physical or emotional abuse) revealed that these impact differentially the single inflammatory markers. Moreover, meta-regression revealed greater effect sizes in clinical samples for the association between childhood trauma and CRP but not for IL-6 or TNF-α. Age, body mass index (BMI) and gender had no moderating effects. The analysis demonstrates that childhood trauma contributes to a pro-inflammatory state in adulthood, with specific inflammatory profiles depending on the specific type of trauma.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 2 June 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.67.
    Molecular Psychiatry 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/mp.2015.67 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants was undertaken in order to incorporate new evidence and to update the recommendations where appropriate. A consensus meeting involving experts in depressive disorders and their management was held in September 2012. Key areas in treating depression were reviewed and the strength of evidence and clinical implications were considered. The guidelines were then revised after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. A literature review is provided which identifies the quality of evidence upon which the recommendations are made. These guidelines cover the nature and detection of depressive disorders, acute treatment with antidepressant drugs, choice of drug versus alternative treatment, practical issues in prescribing and management, next-step treatment, relapse prevention, treatment of relapse and stopping treatment. Significant changes since the last guidelines were published in 2008 include the availability of new antidepressant treatment options, improved evidence supporting certain augmentation strategies (drug and non-drug), management of potential long-term side effects, updated guidance for prescribing in elderly and adolescent populations and updated guidance for optimal prescribing. Suggestions for future research priorities are also made. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 05/2015; 29(5). DOI:10.1177/0269881115581093 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder, where multiple and partially overlapping sets of susceptibility genes interact each other and with the environment, predisposing individuals to the development of the illness. Thus, MDD results from a complex interplay of vulnerability genes and environmental factors that act cumulatively throughout individual's lifetime. Among these environmental factors, stressful life experiences, especially those occurring early in life, have been suggested to exert a crucial impact on brain development, leading to permanent functional changes that may contribute to lifelong risk for mental health outcomes. In this review, we will discuss how genetic variants (polymorphisms, SNPs) within genes operating in neurobiological systems that mediate stress response and synaptic plasticity, can impact, by themselves, the vulnerability risk for MDD; we will also consider how this MDD risk can be further modulated when gene × environment interaction is taken into account. Finally, we will discuss the role of epigenetic mechanisms, and in particular of DNA methylation and miRNAs expression changes, in mediating the effect of the stress on the vulnerability risk to develop MDD. Taken together, we aim to underlie the role of genetic and epigenetic processes involved in stress- and neuroplasticity-related biological systems on the development of MDD after exposure to early life stress, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 05/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00068
  • V. Mondelli · P. Dazzan · C. M. Pariante
    05/2015; 21(3):150-156. DOI:10.1192/apt.bp.114.012872
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    ABSTRACT: Cortisol and inflammatory markers have been increasingly reported as abnormal at psychosis onset. The main aim of our study was to investigate the ability of these biomarkers to predict treatment response at 12 weeks follow-up in first episode psychosis. In a longitudinal study, we collected saliva and blood samples in 68 first episode psychosis patients (and 57 controls) at baseline and assessed response to clinician-led antipsychotic treatment after 12 weeks. Moreover, we repeated biological measurements in 39 patients at the same time we assessed the response. Saliva samples were collected at multiple time points during the day to measure diurnal cortisol levels and cortisol awakening response (CAR); interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were analyzed from serum samples. Patients were divided into Non-Responders (n = 38) and Responders (n = 30) according to the Remission symptom criteria of the Schizophrenia Working Group Consensus. At first onset, Non-Responders had markedly lower CAR (d = 0.6, P = .03) and higher IL-6 and IFN-γ levels (respectively, d = 1.0, P = .003 and d = 0.9, P = .02) when compared with Responders. After 12 weeks, Non-Responders show persistent lower CAR (P = .01), and higher IL-6 (P = .04) and IFN-γ (P = .05) when compared with Responders. Comparison with controls show that these abnormalities are present in both patients groups, but are more evident in Non-Responders. Cortisol and inflammatory biomarkers at the onset of psychosis should be considered as possible predictors of treatment response, as well as potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbv028 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Indeed, several are the evidences linking alterations in the inflammatory system to Major Depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation. However, it is still not clear whether inflammation represents a cause or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects. Regardless, exposure to early life stressful events, which represent a vulnerability factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, act through the modulation of inflammatory responses, but also of neuroplastic mechanisms over the entire life span. Indeed, early life stressful events can cause, possibly through epigenetic changes that persist over time, up to adulthood. Such alterations may concur to increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies. In this review we will discuss the role of inflammation and neuronal plasticity as relevant processes underlying depression development. Moreover, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in inducing alterations in inflammation-immune systems as well as dysfunction in neuronal plasticity, thus contributing to the long-lasting negative effects of stressful life events early in life and the consequent enhanced risk for depression. Finally we will provide an overview on the potential role of inflammatory system to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of Major Depression.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9:40. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00040 · 4.18 Impact Factor
  • Carmine M Pariante
    The Lancet Psychiatry 03/2015; 2(3). DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00042-5
  • Martin Egeland · Patricia A Zunszain · Carmine M Pariante
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    ABSTRACT: Coping with stress is fundamental for mental health, but understanding of the molecular neurobiology of stress is still in its infancy. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be regulated by stress, and conversely adult neurogenesis regulates stress responses. Recent studies in neurogenic cells indicate that molecular pathways activated by glucocorticoids, the main stress hormones, are modulated by crosstalk with other stress-relevant mechanisms, including inflammatory mediators, neurotrophic factors and morphogen signalling pathways. This Review discusses the pathways that are involved in this crosstalk and thus regulate this complex relationship between adult neurogenesis and stress.
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience 03/2015; 16(4):189-200. DOI:10.1038/nrn3855 · 31.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic drugs target neurotransmitter systems that play key roles in working memory. Therefore, they may be expected to modulate this cognitive function via their actions at receptors for these neurotransmitters. However, the precise effects of antipsychotic drugs on working memory function remain unclear. Most studies have been carried out in clinical populations, making it difficult to disentangle pharmacological effects from pathology-related brain activation. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of two antipsychotic compounds on brain activation during working memory in healthy individuals. This would allow elucidation of the effects of current antipsychotic treatments on brain function, independently of either previous antipsychotic use or disease-related pathology.
    Schizophrenia Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.02.023 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing interest in understanding the biological mechanism underpinning fibromyalgia (FM) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Despite the presence of mixed findings in this area, a few biological systems have been consistently involved, and the increasing number of studies in the field is encouraging. This chapter will focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and on the neuroendocrine system, which have been more commonly examined. Chronic inflammation, together with raised levels of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, has been increasingly associated with the manifestation of symptoms such as pain, fatigue, impaired memory, and depression, which largely characterise at least some patients suffering from CFS and FM. Furthermore, the presence of blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with reduced cortisol secretion both at baseline and in response to stimulation tests, suggests a role for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol in the pathogenesis of these syndromes. However, to what extent these systems' abnormalities could be considered as primary or secondary factors causing FM and CFS has yet to be clarified. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Advances in psychosomatic medicine 03/2015; 34:61-77. DOI:10.1159/000369085
  • European Psychiatry 03/2015; 30:291. DOI:10.1016/S0924-9338(15)30234-0 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The risk of individuals having adverse effects from drug use (eg, alcohol) generally depends on the frequency of use and potency of the drug used. We aimed to investigate how frequent use of skunk-like (high-potency) cannabis in south London affected the association between cannabis and psychotic disorders. Methods We applied adjusted logistic regression models to data from patients aged 18–65 years presenting to South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust with first-episode psychosis and population controls recruited from the same area of south London (UK) to estimate the effect of the frequency of use, and type of cannabis used on the risk of psychotic disorders. We then calculated the proportion of new cases of psychosis attributable to different types of cannabis use in south London. Findings Between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2011, we obtained data from 410 patients with first-episode psychosis and 370 population controls. The risk of individuals having a psychotic disorder showed a roughly three-times increase in users of skunk-like cannabis compared with those who never used cannabis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·92, 95% CI 1·52–3·45, p=0·001). Use of skunk-like cannabis every day conferred the highest risk of psychotic disorders compared with no use of cannabis (adjusted OR 5·4, 95% CI 2·81–11·31, p=0·002). The population attributable fraction of firstepisode psychosis for skunk use for our geographical area was 24% (95% CI 17–31), possibly because of the high prevalence of use of high-potency cannabis (218 [53%] of 410 patients) in our study. Interpretation The ready availability of high potency cannabis in south London might have resulted in a greater proportion of first onset psychosis cases being attributed to cannabis use than in previous studies. Funding UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Specialist Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, SLaM and the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London, Psychiatry Research Trust, Maudsley Charity Research Fund, and th European Community’s Seventh Framework Program grant (agreement No. HEALTH-F2-2009-241909 [Project EU-GEI]).
    The Lancet 02/2015; · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The risk of individuals having adverse effects from drug use (eg, alcohol) generally depends on the frequency of use and potency of the drug used. We aimed to investigate how frequent use of skunk-like (high-potency) cannabis in south London affected the association between cannabis and psychotic disorders. Methods We applied adjusted logistic regression models to data from patients aged 18–65 years presenting to South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust with first-episode psychosis and population controls recruited from the same area of south London (UK) to estimate the effect of the frequency of use, and type of cannabis used on the risk of psychotic disorders. We then calculated the proportion of new cases of psychosis attributable to different types of cannabis use in south London. Findings Between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2011, we obtained data from 410 patients with first-episode psychosis and 370 population controls. The risk of individuals having a psychotic disorder showed a roughly three-times increase in users of skunk-like cannabis compared with those who never used cannabis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·92, 95% CI 1·52–3·45, p=0·001). Use of skunk-like cannabis every day conferred the highest risk of psychotic disorders compared with no use of cannabis (adjusted OR 5·4, 95% CI 2·81–11·31, p=0·002). The population attributable fraction of firstepisode psychosis for skunk use for our geographical area was 24% (95% CI 17–31), possibly because of the high prevalence of use of high-potency cannabis (218 [53%] of 410 patients) in our study. Interpretation The ready availability of high potency cannabis in south London might have resulted in a greater proportion of first onset psychosis cases being attributed to cannabis use than in previous studies. Funding UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Specialist Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, SLaM and the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London, Psychiatry Research Trust, Maudsley Charity Research Fund, and th European Community’s Seventh Framework Program grant (agreement No. HEALTH-F2-2009-241909 [Project EU-GEI]).
    The Lancet 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00117-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are very common and often co-existing disorders. In addition to psychological and social morbidity, depression exacerbates adverse cardiac outcomes in CHD patients. Inflammation has been proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in the association between these two debilitating diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate inflammatory responses as well as to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the putative inflammatory activation in CHD patients with and without depression, by assessing the function of two important biological factors regulating inflammation, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Eighty-three CHD patients with (n=28) and without (n=55) comorbid depression were recruited from primary care services in South London. Depression status was assessed by means of Clinical Interview Schedule Revised for diagnosis of depression, and Beck Depression Inventory for the presence of depressive symptoms. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and plasma and salivary cortisol were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Gene expression of GR and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were conducted via qPCR. GR sensitivity was evaluated in vitro in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells using the dexamethasone inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-6 levels. Serum levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that CHD patients with depression had higher levels of CRP, IL-6 gene expression, and VEGF compared with CHD non-depressed, as well as lower plasma and saliva cortisol levels. The CHD depressed group also exhibited a reduction in GR expression and sensitivity. Finally, tryptophan levels were significantly lower in patients with depression, who also showed an increased kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. In conclusion, CHD patients with depression had elevated levels of inflammation in the context of HPA axis hypoactivity, GR resistance, and increased activation of the kynurenine pathway. Reduced cortisol bioavailability and attenuated glucocorticoid responsiveness due to decreased expression and sensitivity of GR may lead to insufficient glucocorticoid signaling and thus elevation of inflammation in these patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.02.002 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    Nataliia Bakunina · Carmine M. Pariante · Patricia A. Zunszain
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests the significant role of inflammation and oxidative stress as main contributors to the neuroprogression that is observed in major depressive disorder (MDD), where patients show increased inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. The process of neuroprogression includes stage-related neurodegeneration, cell death, reduced neurogenesis, reduced neuronal plasticity and increased autoimmune responses. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the biological imbalance between Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidants, leading to the alteration of biomolecules and the loss of control of the intracellular redox-related signaling pathways. ROS serve as crucial secondary messengers in signal transduction and significantly affect inflammatory pathways by activating NF-κB and MAPK family stress kinases. When present in excess, ROS inflict damage, affecting cellular constituents with the formation of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, neoepitopes and damage-associated molecular patterns promoting immune response, and ultimately leading to cell death. The failure of cells to adapt to the changes in redox homeostasis and the subsequent cell death, together with the damage caused by inflammatory mediators, have been considered as major causes of neuroprogression and hence MDD. Both an activated immune-inflammatory system and increased oxidative stress act synergistically, complicating our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression. The cascade of antioxidative and inflammatory events is orchestrated by several transcription factors, with Nrf2 and NF-κB having particular relevance to MDD. This review focuses on potential molecular mechanisms through which impaired redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation can affect the neuronal environment and contribute to depressionThis article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Immunology 01/2015; 144(3). DOI:10.1111/imm.12443 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis is an important process in the regulation of brain function and behaviour, highly active in early development and continuing throughout life. Recent studies have shown that neurogenesis is modulated by inflammatory cytokines in response to an activated immune system. To disentangle the effects of the different cytokines on neurogenesis, here we summarise and discuss in vitro studies on individual cytokines. We show that inflammatory cytokines have both a positive and negative role on proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Hence, this strengthens the notion that inflammation is involved in molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with complex cognitive processes and, therefore, that alterations in brain-immune communication are relevant to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Trends in Neurosciences 01/2015; 38(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2014.12.006 · 12.90 Impact Factor
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    A. Bauer · S. Pawlby · D. T. Plant · D. King · C. M. Pariante · M. Knapp
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Depression in mothers during pregnancy and in the postnatal period has been recognized to have wide-ranging adverse impacts on offspring. Our study examines some of the outcomes and long-term economic implications experienced by offspring who have been exposed to perinatal depression. Method: We analysed the effects of perinatal depression on child development outcomes of children at ages 11 and 16 years from the community-based South London Child Development Study. Economic consequences were attached to those outcomes through simple decision-analytic techniques, building on evidence from studies of epidemiology, health-related quality of life, public sector costs and employment. The economic analysis takes a life-course perspective from the viewpoints of the public sector, individual and society. Results: Additional risks that children exposed to perinatal depression develop emotional, behavioural or cognitive problems ranged from 5% to 21%. In addition, there was a high risk (24%) that children would have special educational needs. We present results in the form of cost consequences attached to adverse child outcomes. For each child exposed to perinatal depression, public sector costs exceeded £3030, costs due to reduced earnings were £1400 and health-related quality of life loss was valued at £3760. Conclusions: Action to prevent or treat mothers' depression during pregnancy and after birth is likely to reduce public sector costs, increase earnings and improve quality of life for children who were exposed to the condition.
    Psychological Medicine 01/2015; 45(1):51-61. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714001044 · 5.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,868.09 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • The Kings College
      Johnson Lane, Nevada, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2015
    • King's College London
      • • Department of Psychological Medicine
      • • Institute of Psychiatry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2014
    • ICL
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2008
    • China Medical University Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Duke University
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994–1999
    • Università degli studi di Cagliari
      • Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 1995–1998
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • School of Medicine
      Atlanta, GA, United States