[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AZD0530, an orally available Src inhibitor, demonstrated potent antimigratory and anti-invasive effects in vitro, and inhibited metastasis in a murine model of bladder cancer. Antiproliferative activity of AZD0530 in vitro varied between cell lines (IC(50) 0.2 ->10μM). AZD0530 inhibited tumor growth in 4/10 xenograft models tested and dynamically inhibited in vivo phosphorylation of Src substrates paxillin and FAK in both growth-inhibition-resistant and -sensitive xenografts. The activity of AZD0530 in NBT-II bladder cancer cells in vitro was consistent with inhibition of cell migration and stabilization of cell-cell adhesion. These data suggest a dominant anti-invasive pharmacology for AZD0530 that may limit tumor progression in a range of cancers. AZD0530 is currently in Phase II clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of p38alpha MAP kinase is a potential approach for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. MKK6-dependent phosphorylation on the activation loop of p38alpha increases its catalytic activity and affinity for ATP. An inhibitor, BIRB796, binds at a site used by the purine moiety of ATP and extends into a "selectivity pocket", which is not used by ATP. It displaces the Asp168-Phe169-Gly170 motif at the start of the activation loop, promoting a "DFG-out" conformation. Some other inhibitors bind only in the purine site, with p38alpha remaining in a "DFG-in" conformation. We now demonstrate that selectivity pocket compounds prevent MKK6-dependent activation of p38alpha in addition to inhibiting catalysis by activated p38alpha. Inhibitors using only the purine site do not prevent MKK6-dependent activation. We present kinetic analyses of seven inhibitors, whose crystal structures as complexes with p38alpha have been determined. This work includes four new crystal structures and a novel assay to measure K(d) for nonactivated p38alpha. Selectivity pocket compounds associate with p38alpha over 30-fold more slowly than purine site compounds, apparently due to low abundance of the DFG-out conformation. At concentrations that inhibit cellular production of an inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha, selectivity pocket compounds decrease levels of phosphorylated p38alpha and beta. Stabilization of a DFG-out conformation appears to interfere with recognition of p38alpha as a substrate by MKK6. ATP competes less effectively for prevention of activation than for inhibition of catalysis. By binding to a different conformation of the enzyme, compounds that prevent activation offer an alternative approach to modulation of p38alpha.