[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional drug discovery efforts have resulted in the approval of a handful of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors; however, their discovery relied solely on screening recombinant kinases, often with poor cellular activity outcome. The ability to screen RTKs in their natural environment is sought as an alternative approach. We have adapted a novel strategy utilizing a green fluorescent protein-labeled SRC homology 2 domain-based biosensor as a surrogate reporter of endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity in A549 cells. Upon activation of the receptor, EGFR function in live cells is measured by the number of green granules that form. Here we describe assay miniaturization and demonstrate specificity for EGFR through its chemical inhibition and RNAi-dependent knockdown resulting in complete abrogation of granule formation. Gefitinib and PD 153035 were identified as hits in a pilot screen. This approach allows for the identification of novel EGFR modulators in high-throughput formats for screening chemical and RNAi libraries.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies 02/2012; 10(1):24-36. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AZD0530, an orally available Src inhibitor, demonstrated potent antimigratory and anti-invasive effects in vitro, and inhibited metastasis in a murine model of bladder cancer. Antiproliferative activity of AZD0530 in vitro varied between cell lines (IC(50) 0.2 ->10μM). AZD0530 inhibited tumor growth in 4/10 xenograft models tested and dynamically inhibited in vivo phosphorylation of Src substrates paxillin and FAK in both growth-inhibition-resistant and -sensitive xenografts. The activity of AZD0530 in NBT-II bladder cancer cells in vitro was consistent with inhibition of cell migration and stabilization of cell-cell adhesion. These data suggest a dominant anti-invasive pharmacology for AZD0530 that may limit tumor progression in a range of cancers. AZD0530 is currently in Phase II clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of p38alpha MAP kinase is a potential approach for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. MKK6-dependent phosphorylation on the activation loop of p38alpha increases its catalytic activity and affinity for ATP. An inhibitor, BIRB796, binds at a site used by the purine moiety of ATP and extends into a "selectivity pocket", which is not used by ATP. It displaces the Asp168-Phe169-Gly170 motif at the start of the activation loop, promoting a "DFG-out" conformation. Some other inhibitors bind only in the purine site, with p38alpha remaining in a "DFG-in" conformation. We now demonstrate that selectivity pocket compounds prevent MKK6-dependent activation of p38alpha in addition to inhibiting catalysis by activated p38alpha. Inhibitors using only the purine site do not prevent MKK6-dependent activation. We present kinetic analyses of seven inhibitors, whose crystal structures as complexes with p38alpha have been determined. This work includes four new crystal structures and a novel assay to measure K(d) for nonactivated p38alpha. Selectivity pocket compounds associate with p38alpha over 30-fold more slowly than purine site compounds, apparently due to low abundance of the DFG-out conformation. At concentrations that inhibit cellular production of an inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha, selectivity pocket compounds decrease levels of phosphorylated p38alpha and beta. Stabilization of a DFG-out conformation appears to interfere with recognition of p38alpha as a substrate by MKK6. ATP competes less effectively for prevention of activation than for inhibition of catalysis. By binding to a different conformation of the enzyme, compounds that prevent activation offer an alternative approach to modulation of p38alpha.