Martin Ackermann

ETH Zurich, Zürich, ZH, Switzerland

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Publications (38)327.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are powerful therapeutics but are not equally effective against all cells in bacterial populations. Bacteria that express an antibiotic-tolerant phenotype ("persisters") can evade treatment [1]. Persisters can cause relapses of the infection after the end of the therapy [2]. It is still poorly understood whether persistence affects the evolution of bacterial virulence. During infections, persisters have been found preferentially at particular sites within the host [3, 4]. If bacterial virulence factors are required to reach such sites, treatment with antibiotics could impose selection on the expression of virulence genes, in addition to their well-established effects on bacterial resistance. Here, we report that treatment with antibiotics selects for virulence and fosters transmissibility of Salmonella Typhimurium. In a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea, treatment with the broad-spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin reverses the outcome of competition between wild-type bacteria and avirulent mutants that can spontaneously arise during within-host evolution [5]. While avirulent mutants take over the gut lumen and abolish disease transmission in untreated mice, ciprofloxacin tilts the balance in favor of virulent, wild-type bacteria. This is explained by the need for virulence factors to invade gut tissues and form a persistent reservoir. Avirulent mutants remain in the gut lumen and are eradicated. Upon cessation of antibiotic treatment, tissue-lodged wild-type pathogens reseed the gut lumen and thereby facilitate disease transmissibility to new hosts. Our results suggest a general principle by which antibiotic treatment can promote cooperative virulence during within-host evolution, increase duration of transmissibility, and thereby enhance the spread of an infectious disease.
    Current biology : CB. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Phenotypic heterogeneity can confer clonal groups of organisms with new functionality. A paradigmatic example is the bistable expression of virulence genes in Salmonella typhimurium, which leads to phenotypically virulent and phenotypically avirulent subpopulations. The two subpopulations have been shown to divide labor during S. typhimurium infections. Here, we show that heterogeneous virulence gene expression in this organism also promotes survival against exposure to antibiotics through a bet-hedging mechanism. Using microfluidic devices in combination with fluorescence time-lapse microscopy and quantitative image analysis, we analyzed the expression of virulence genes at the single cell level and related it to survival when exposed to antibiotics. We found that, across different types of antibiotics and under concentrations that are clinically relevant, the subpopulation of bacterial cells that express virulence genes shows increased survival after exposure to antibiotics. Intriguingly, there is an interplay between the two consequences of phenotypic heterogeneity. The bet-hedging effect that arises through heterogeneity in virulence gene expression can protect clonal populations against avirulent mutants that exploit and subvert the division of labor within these populations. We conclude that bet-hedging and the division of labor can arise through variation in a single trait and interact with each other. This reveals a new degree of functional complexity of phenotypic heterogeneity. In addition, our results suggest a general principle of how pathogens can evade antibiotics: Expression of virulence factors often entails metabolic costs and the resulting growth retardation could generally increase tolerance against antibiotics and thus compromise treatment.
    PLoS biology. 08/2014; 12(8):e1001928.
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    ABSTRACT: Combination therapy is rarely used to counter resistance evolution in bacterial infections. An expansion of combination therapy requires knowledge of how drugs interact at inhibitory concentrations. More than 50 years ago it has been noted that if bactericidal drugs are most potent on actively dividing cells, then the inhibition of growth induced by a bacteriostatic drug should result in an overall reduction of drug efficacy when used in combination with a bactericidal drug. Our goal here was to investigate this hypothesis systematically. We first constructed time-kill curves using five different antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations and observed antagonism between bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs. We extended our investigation by performing a screen of pairwise combinations across 21 different antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations, and found that strong antagonistic interactions are enriched significantly amongst combinations of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs. Finally, since our hypothesis relies on a phenotypic effect produced by different drug classes, we recreated these experiments in a microfluidic device and performed time-lapse microscopy to directly observe and quantify growth and division of individual cells under controlled antibiotic concentrations. While our single-cell observations supported the antagonism between bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs, they revealed an unexpected variety of cellular responses to antagonistic drug combinations, suggesting that multiple mechanisms underlie this interaction.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Diana Blank, Luise Wolf, Martin Ackermann, Olin K Silander
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the molecular changes that give rise to functional innovations is a major unresolved problem in biology. The paucity of examples has served as a significant hindrance in furthering our understanding of this process. Here we used experimental evolution with the bacterium Escherichia coli to quantify the molecular changes underlying functional innovation in 68 independent instances ranging over 22 different metabolic functions. Using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the relative contribution of regulatory and structural mutations depends on the cellular context of the metabolic function. In addition, we find that regulatory mutations affect genes that act in pathways relevant to the novel function, whereas structural mutations affect genes that act in unrelated pathways. Finally, we use population genetic modeling to show that the relative contributions of regulatory and structural mutations during functional innovation may be affected by population size. These results provide a predictive framework for the molecular basis of evolutionary innovation, which is essential for anticipating future evolutionary trajectories in the face of rapid environmental change.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo, antibiotics are often much less efficient than ex vivo and relapses can occur. The reasons for poor in vivo activity are still not completely understood. We have studied the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in an animal model for complicated Salmonellosis. High-dose ciprofloxacin treatment efficiently reduced pathogen loads in feces and most organs. However, the cecum draining lymph node (cLN), the gut tissue, and the spleen retained surviving bacteria. In cLN, approximately 10%-20% of the bacteria remained viable. These phenotypically tolerant bacteria lodged mostly within CD103(+)CX3CR1(-)CD11c(+) dendritic cells, remained genetically susceptible to ciprofloxacin, were sufficient to reinitiate infection after the end of the therapy, and displayed an extremely slow growth rate, as shown by mathematical analysis of infections with mixed inocula and segregative plasmid experiments. The slow growth was sufficient to explain recalcitrance to antibiotics treatment. Therefore, slow-growing antibiotic-tolerant bacteria lodged within dendritic cells can explain poor in vivo antibiotic activity and relapse. Administration of LPS or CpG, known elicitors of innate immune defense, reduced the loads of tolerant bacteria. Thus, manipulating innate immunity may augment the in vivo activity of antibiotics.
    PLoS Biology 02/2014; 12(2):e1001793. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    Nela Nikolic, Thomas Barner, Martin Ackermann
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed at investigating heterogeneity in the expression of metabolic genes in clonal populations of Escherichia coli growing on glucose as the sole carbon source. Different metabolic phenotypes can arise in these clonal populations through variation in the expression of glucose transporters and metabolic enzymes. First, we focused on the glucose transporters PtsG and MglBAC to analyze the diversity of glucose uptake strategies. Second, we analyzed phenotypic variation in the expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis and acetate scavenging (as acetate is formed and excreted during bacterial growth on glucose), which can reveal, for instance, phenotypic subpopulations that cross-feed through the exchange of acetate. In these experiments, E. coli MG1655 strains containing different transcriptional GFP reporters were grown in chemostats and reporter expression was measured with flow cytometry. Our results suggest heterogeneous expression of metabolic genes in bacterial clonal populations grown in glucose environments. The two glucose transport systems exhibited different level of heterogeneity. The majority of the bacterial cells expressed the reporters for both glucose transporters MglBAC and PtsG and a small fraction of cells only expressed the reporter for Mgl. At a low dilution rate, signals from transcriptional reporters for acetyl-CoA synthetase Acs and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase Pck indicated that almost all cells expressed the genes that are part of acetate utilization and the gluconeogenesis pathway, respectively. Possible co-existence of two phenotypic subpopulations differing in acs expression occurred at the threshold of the switch to overflow metabolism. The overflow metabolism results in the production of acetate and has been previously reported to occur at intermediate dilution rates in chemostats with high concentration of glucose in the feed. Analysis of the heterogeneous expression of reporters for genes involved in glucose and acetate metabolism raises new question whether different metabolic phenotypes are expressed in clonal populations growing in continuous cultures fed on glucose as the initially sole carbon source.
    BMC Microbiology 11/2013; 13(1):258. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogens often infect hosts through collective actions: they secrete growth-promoting compounds or virulence factors, or evoke host reactions that fuel the colonization of the host. Such behaviours are vulnerable to the rise of mutants that benefit from the collective action without contributing to it; how these behaviours can be evolutionarily stable is not well understood. We address this question using the intestinal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (hereafter termed S. typhimurium), which manipulates its host to induce inflammation, and thereby outcompetes the commensal microbiota. Notably, the virulence factors needed for host manipulation are expressed in a bistable fashion, leading to a slow-growing subpopulation that expresses virulence genes, and a fast-growing subpopulation that is phenotypically avirulent. Here we show that the expression of the genetically identical but phenotypically avirulent subpopulation is essential for the evolutionary stability of virulence in this pathogen. Using a combination of mathematical modelling, experimental evolution and competition experiments we found that within-host evolution leads to the emergence of mutants that are genetically avirulent and fast-growing. These mutants are defectors that exploit inflammation without contributing to it. In infection experiments initiated with wild-type S. typhimurium, defectors increase only slowly in frequency. In a genetically modified S. typhimurium strain in which the phenotypically avirulent subpopulation is reduced in size, defectors rise more rapidly, inflammation ceases prematurely, and S. typhimurium is quickly cleared from the gut. Our results establish that host manipulation by S. typhimurium is a cooperative trait that is vulnerable to the rise of avirulent defectors; the expression of a phenotypically avirulent subpopulation that grows as fast as defectors slows down this process, and thereby promotes the evolutionary stability of virulence. This points to a key role of bistable virulence gene expression in stabilizing cooperative virulence and may lead the way to new approaches for controlling pathogens.
    Nature 02/2013; 494(7437):353-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most organisms live in ever-changing environments, and have to cope with a range of different conditions. Often, the set of biological traits that are needed to grow, reproduce, and survive varies between conditions. As a consequence, organisms have evolved sensory systems to detect environmental signals, and to modify the expression of biological traits in response. However, there are limits to the ability of such plastic responses to cope with changing environments. Sometimes, environmental shifts might occur suddenly, and without preceding signals, so that organisms might not have time to react. Other times, signals might be unreliable, causing organisms to prepare themselves for changes that then do not occur. Here, we focus on such unreliable signals that indicate the onset of adverse conditions. We use analytical and individual-based models to investigate the evolution of simple rules that organisms use to decide whether or not to switch to a protective state. We find evolutionary transitions towards organisms that use a combination of random switching and switching in response to the signal. We also observe that, in spatially heterogeneous environments, selection on the switching strategy depends on the composition of the population, and on population size. These results are in line with recent experiments that showed that many unicellular organisms can attain different phenotypic states in a probabilistic manner, and lead to testable predictions about how this could help organisms cope with unreliable signals.
    PLoS Computational Biology 08/2012; 8(8):e1002627. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    Tobias Bergmiller, Martin Ackermann, Olin K Silander
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    ABSTRACT: Essential genes code for fundamental cellular functions required for the viability of an organism. For this reason, essential genes are often highly conserved across organisms. However, this is not always the case: orthologues of genes that are essential in one organism are sometimes not essential in other organisms or are absent from their genomes. This suggests that, in the course of evolution, essential genes can be rendered nonessential. How can a gene become non-essential? Here we used genetic manipulation to deplete the products of 26 different essential genes in Escherichia coli. This depletion results in a lethal phenotype, which could often be rescued by the overexpression of a non-homologous, non-essential gene, most likely through replacement of the essential function. We also show that, in a smaller number of cases, the essential genes can be fully deleted from the genome, suggesting that complete functional replacement is possible. Finally, we show that essential genes whose function can be replaced in the laboratory are more likely to be non-essential or not present in other taxa. These results are consistent with the notion that patterns of evolutionary conservation of essential genes are influenced by their compensability-that is, by how easily they can be functionally replaced, for example through increased expression of other genes.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2012; 8(6):e1002803. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical and pharmacological communities have long searched for antimicrobial drugs that increase their effect when used in combination, an interaction known as synergism. These drug combinations, however, impose selective pressures in favour of multi-drug resistance and as a result, the benefit of synergy may be lost after only a few bacterial generations. Furthermore, there is experimental evidence that antibiotic treatment can disrupt colonization resistance by shifting the balance between enteropathogenic and commensal bacteria in favour of the pathogens, with the potential to increase the risk of infections. So, we ask, what is the best way of using synergistic drugs? We pose an evolutionary model of commensal and pathogenic bacteria competing in a continuous culture device for a single limiting carbon source under the effect of two bacteriostatic and synergistic antibiotics. This model allows us to evaluate the efficacy of different drug deployment strategies and, using ideas from optimal control theory, to understand whether there are circumstances in which other types of therapy might be favoured over those based on fixed-dose multi-drug combinations. Our main result can be stated thus: the optimal deployment of synergistic antibiotics to remove a pathogen in the presence of commensal bacteria in our model system occurs not in combination, but by deploying them sequentially.
    Journal of The Royal Society Interface 05/2012; 9(75):2488-502. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e1002443 in vol. 8.].
    PLoS Genetics 05/2012; 8(5). · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian gut harbors a dense microbial community interacting in multiple ways, including horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Pangenome analyses established particularly high levels of genetic flux between Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae. However, the mechanisms fostering intraenterobacterial HGT are incompletely understood. Using a mouse colitis model, we found that Salmonella-inflicted enteropathy elicits parallel blooms of the pathogen and of resident commensal Escherichia coli. These blooms boosted conjugative HGT of the colicin-plasmid p2 from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to E. coli. Transconjugation efficiencies of ~100% in vivo were attributable to high intrinsic p2-transfer rates. Plasmid-encoded fitness benefits contributed little. Under normal conditions, HGT was blocked by the commensal microbiota inhibiting contact-dependent conjugation between Enterobacteriaceae. Our data show that pathogen-driven inflammatory responses in the gut can generate transient enterobacterial blooms in which conjugative transfer occurs at unprecedented rates. These blooms may favor reassortment of plasmid-encoded genes between pathogens and commensals fostering the spread of fitness-, virulence-, and antibiotic-resistance determinants.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2012; 109(4):1269-74. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene expression is subject to random perturbations that lead to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. As a consequence, for any given protein, genetically identical organisms living in a constant environment will contain different amounts of that particular protein, resulting in different phenotypes. This phenomenon is known as "phenotypic noise." In bacterial systems, previous studies have shown that, for specific genes, both transcriptional and translational processes affect phenotypic noise. Here, we focus on how the promoter regions of genes affect noise and ask whether levels of promoter-mediated noise are correlated with genes' functional attributes, using data for over 60% of all promoters in Escherichia coli. We find that essential genes and genes with a high degree of evolutionary conservation have promoters that confer low levels of noise. We also find that the level of noise cannot be attributed to the evolutionary time that different genes have spent in the genome of E. coli. In contrast to previous results in eukaryotes, we find no association between promoter-mediated noise and gene expression plasticity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in bacteria, natural selection can act to reduce gene expression noise and that some of this noise is controlled through the sequence of the promoter region alone.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2012; 8(1):e1002443. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using optimal control theory as the basic theoretical tool, we investigate the efficacy of different antibiotic treatment protocols in the most exacting of circumstances, described as follows. Viewing a continuous culture device as a proxy for a much more complex host organism, we first inoculate the device with a single bacterial species and deem this the 'commensal' bacterium of our host. We then force the commensal to compete for a single carbon source with a rapidly evolving and fitter 'pathogenic bacterium', the latter so-named because we wish to use a bacteriostatic antibiotic to drive the pathogen toward low population densities. Constructing a mathematical model to mimic the biology, we do so in such a way that the commensal would be eventually excluded by the pathogen if no antibiotic treatment were given to the host or if the antibiotic were over-deployed. Indeed, in our model, all fixed-dose antibiotic treatment regimens will lead to the eventual loss of the commensal from the host proxy. Despite the obvious gravity of the situation for the commensal bacterium, we show by example that it is possible to design drug deployment protocols that support the commensal and reduce the pathogen load. This may be achieved by appropriately fluctuating the concentration of drug in the environment; a result that is to be anticipated from the theory optimal control where bang-bang solutions may be interpreted as intermittent periods of either maximal and minimal drug deployment. While such 'antibiotic pulsing' is near-optimal for a wide range of treatment objectives, we also use this model to evaluate the efficacy of different antibiotic usage strategies to show that dynamically changing antimicrobial therapies may be effective in clearing a bacterial infection even when every 'static monotherapy' fails.
    Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 11/2011; 74(4):908-34. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    Tobias Bergmiller, Martin Ackermann
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    ABSTRACT: A number of recent experiments at the single-cell level have shown that genetically identical bacteria that live in homogeneous environments often show a substantial degree of phenotypic variation between cells. Often, this variation is attributed to stochastic aspects of biology-the fact that many biological processes involve small numbers of molecules and are thus inherently variable. However, not all variation between cells needs to be stochastic in nature; one deterministic process that could be important for cell variability in some bacterial species is the age of the cell poles. Working with the alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, we monitored individuals in clonally growing populations over several divisions and determined the pole age, cell size, and interdivision intervals of individual cells. We observed the high levels of variation in cell size and the timing of cell division that have been reported before. A substantial fraction of this variation could be explained by each cell's pole age and the pole age of its mother: cell size increased with increasing pole age, and the interval between cell divisions decreased. A theoretical model predicted that populations governed by such processes will quickly reach a stable distribution of different age and size classes. These results show that the pole age distribution in bacterial populations can contribute substantially to cellular individuality. In addition, they raise questions about functional differences between cells of different ages and the coupling of cell division to cell size.
    Journal of bacteriology 07/2011; 193(19):5216-21. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Virulence factors generally enhance a pathogen's fitness and thereby foster transmission. However, most studies of pathogen fitness have been performed by averaging the phenotypes over large populations. Here, we have analyzed the fitness costs of virulence factor expression by Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium in simple culture experiments. The type III secretion system ttss-1, a cardinal virulence factor for eliciting Salmonella diarrhea, is expressed by just a fraction of the S. Typhimurium population, yielding a mixture of cells that either express ttss-1 (TTSS-1(+) phenotype) or not (TTSS-1(-) phenotype). Here, we studied in vitro the TTSS-1(+) phenotype at the single cell level using fluorescent protein reporters. The regulator hilA controlled the fraction of TTSS-1+ individuals and their ttss-1 expression level. Strikingly, cells of the TTSS-1(+) phenotype grew slower than cells of the TTSS-1(-) phenotype. The growth retardation was at least partially attributable to the expression of TTSS-1 effector and/or translocon proteins. In spite of this growth penalty, the TTSS-1(+) subpopulation increased from <10% to approx. 60% during the late logarithmic growth phase of an LB batch culture. This was attributable to an increasing initiation rate of ttss-1 expression, in response to environmental cues accumulating during this growth phase, as shown by experimental data and mathematical modeling. Finally, hilA and hilD mutants, which form only fast-growing TTSS-1(-) cells, outcompeted wild type S. Typhimurium in mixed cultures. Our data demonstrated that virulence factor expression imposes a growth penalty in a non-host environment. This raises important questions about compensating mechanisms during host infection which ensure successful propagation of the genotype.
    PLoS Pathogens 07/2011; 7(7):e1002143. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The essential Escherichia coli gene ygjD belongs to a universally conserved group of genes whose function has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Here, we put ygjD under control of an inducible promoter, and used time-lapse microscopy and single cell analysis to investigate the phenotypic consequences of the depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells. We show that loss of YgjD leads to a marked decrease in cell size and termination of cell division. The transition towards smaller size occurs in a controlled manner: cell elongation and cell division remain coupled, but cell size at division decreases. We also find evidence that depletion of YgjD leads to the synthesis of the intracellular signaling molecule (p)ppGpp, inducing a cellular reaction resembling the stringent response. Concomitant deletion of the relA and spoT genes - leading to a strain that is uncapable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp - abrogates the decrease in cell size, but does not prevent termination of cell division upon YgjD depletion. Depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells leads to a decrease in cell size that is contingent on (p)ppGpp, and to a termination of cell division. The combination of single-cell timelapse microscopy and statistical analysis can give detailed insights into the phenotypic consequences of the loss of essential genes, and can thus serve as a new tool to study the function of essential genes.
    BMC Microbiology 01/2011; 11:118. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria swim by means of rotating flagella that are powered by ion influx through membrane-spanning motor complexes. Escherichia coli and related species harness a chemosensory and signal transduction machinery that governs the direction of flagellar rotation and allows them to navigate in chemical gradients. Here, we show that Escherichia coli can also fine-tune its swimming speed with the help of a molecular brake (YcgR) that, upon binding of the nucleotide second messenger cyclic di-GMP, interacts with the motor protein MotA to curb flagellar motor output. Swimming velocity is controlled by the synergistic action of at least five signaling proteins that adjust the cellular concentration of cyclic di-GMP. Activation of this network and the resulting deceleration coincide with nutrient depletion and might represent an adaptation to starvation. These experiments demonstrate that bacteria can modulate flagellar motor output and thus swimming velocity in response to environmental cues.
    Cell 03/2010; 141(1):107-16. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms are communities of surface-attached, matrix-embedded microbial cells that can resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and contribute to persistent infections. Using an Escherichia coli biofilm model we found that exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of ribosome-targeting antibiotics leads to strong biofilm induction. We present evidence that this effect is elicited by the ribosome in response to translational stress. Biofilm induction involves upregulation of the polysaccharide adhesin poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosamine (poly-GlcNAc) and two components of the poly-GlcNAc biosynthesis machinery, PgaA and PgaD. Poly-GlcNAc control depends on the bacterial signalling molecules guanosine-bis 3', 5'(diphosphate) (ppGpp) and bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). Treatment with translation inhibitors causes a ppGpp hydrolase (SpoT)-mediated reduction of ppGpp levels, resulting in specific derepression of PgaA. Maximal induction of PgaD and poly-GlcNAc synthesis requires the production of c-di-GMP by the dedicated diguanylate cyclase YdeH. Our results identify a novel regulatory mechanism that relies on ppGpp signalling to relay information about ribosomal performance to the Pga machinery, thereby inducing adhesin production and biofilm formation. Based on the important synergistic roles of ppGpp and c-di-GMP in this process, we suggest that interference with bacterial second messenger signalling might represent an effective means for biofilm control during chronic infections.
    Molecular Microbiology 06/2009; 72(6):1500-16. · 4.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A method for accurate quantification of growth rate and yield of bacterial populations at low densities was developed with a modified version of a stepwise linear model for fitting growth curves based on optical density measurements, and adapted to measurements at low optical densities in 96-well microtiter plates. The method can be used for rapid and precise estimates of growth rate and yield, based on optical density measurements of large numbers of cultures of Escherichia coli. E. coli B lines were serially propagated at low glucose concentration during a long-term evolution experiment. Growth rate and yield of populations sampled from each of 12 lines that evolved for 20,000 generations under these conditions and two ancestral clones was measured. Populations were grown at three different glucose concentrations. Consistent with earlier findings, statistical analysis showed that both exponential growth rate and yield per unit of glucose differed significantly between the three glucose concentrations tested. Significant adaptation of the evolved populations to the nutrient conditions in which they evolved for 20,000 generations was observed.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 05/2009; 96(3):267-74. · 2.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

986 Citations
327.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2012
    • ETH Zurich
      • • Institute of Microbiology
      • • Department of Environmental Systems Science
      • • Institute of Integrative Biology Zurich
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 1997–2012
    • Universität Basel
      • Zoological Institute
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2004–2006
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Division of Biological Sciences
      San Diego, CA, United States