Francesc Ventura

University of Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (76)280.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix (Osx) are required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Runx2 expression occurs at early stages of osteochondroprogenitor determination, followed by Osx induction during osteoblast maturation. We demonstrate that co-expression of Osx and Runx2 leads to cooperative induction of the expression of the osteogenic genes Col1a1, Fmod and Ibsp. Functional interaction of Osx and Runx2 in the regulation of these promoters is mediated by enhancer regions with adjacent Sp1 and Runx2 DNA-binding sites. These enhancers allow formation of a cooperative transcriptional complex, mediated by the binding of Osx and Runx2 to their specific DNA promoter sequences and by the protein-protein interactions between them. We also identified the domains involved in the interaction between Osx and Runx2. These regions contain the amino acids in Osx and Runx2 known to be phosphorylated by p38 and Erk MAP kinases. Inhibition of p38 and Erk kinase activities or mutation of their known phosphorylation sites in Osx or Runx2 strongly disrupts their physical interaction and cooperative transcriptional effects. Altogether, our results provide a molecular description of a mechanism for Osx and Runx2 transcriptional cooperation which is subject to further regulation by MAPK-activating signals during osteogenesis.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that coordinates the cellular response to several kinds of stress. p53 inactivation is an important step in tumor progression. Oligomerization of p53 is critical for its post-translational modification and its ability to regulate the transcription of target genes necessary to inhibit tumor growth. Here, we report that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 interacts with p53. This interaction involves the CPH domain of HERC2 and the last 43 amino acid residues of p53. Through this interaction, HERC2 regulates p53 activity. RNA interference experiments showed how HERC2 depletion reduces the transcriptional activity of p53 without affecting its stability. This regulation of p53 activity by HERC2 is independent of proteasome or MDM2 activity. Under these conditions, upregulation of cell growth and increased focus formation were observed, showing the functional relevance of the HERC2/p53 interaction. This interaction was maintained after DNA damage caused by the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin. In these stressed cells, p53 phosphorylation was not impaired by HERC2 knockdown. Interestingly, p53 mutations that affect its tetramerization domain disrupted the HERC2/p53 interaction suggesting a role for HERC2 in p53 oligomerization. This regulatory role was shown using cross-linking assays. Thus, the inhibition of p53 activity after HERC2 depletion can be attributed to a reduction in p53 oligomerization. Ectopic expression of HERC2 (residues 2292 to 2923) confirmed these observations. Altogether, these results identify HERC2 as a novel regulator of p53 signaling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have become integral nodes of post-transcriptional control of genes that confer cellular identity and regulate differentiation. Cell-specific signaling and transcriptional regulation in skeletal biology are extremely dynamic processes that are highly reliant on dose-dependent responses. As such, skeletal-determining genes are ideal targets for the quantitative regulation by miRNAs. So far, broad evidence have identified a characteristic temporal miRNA signature in skeletal-cell differentiation and confirmed the essential roles that numerous miRNAs play in bone development and homeostasis. In addition, microarray expression data have evidenced their role in several skeletal pathologies. Mouse models where their expression is altered have provided evidence of causal links between miRNAs and bone abnormalities. Thus, a detailed understanding of the function of miRNAs and their tight relationship with bone diseases would constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis and future therapeutic approaches.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 02/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p38 MAPK activity plays an important role in several steps of the osteoblast lineage progression through activation of osteoblast-specific transcription factors and it is also essential for the acquisition of the osteoblast phenotype in early development. Although reports indicate p38 signalling plays a role in early skeletal development, its specific contributions to adult bone remodelling are still to be clarified.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102032. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, the active component of chili pepper, has been reported to have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on a variety of cell lines. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin during HSC activation and maintenance. Activated and freshly isolated HSCs were treated with capsaicin. Proliferation was measured by incorporation of EdU. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The migratory response to chemotactic stimuli was evaluated by a modified Boyden chamber assay. Activation markers and inflammatory cytokines were determined by qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Our results show that capsaicin reduces HSC proliferation, migration, and expression of profibrogenic markers of activated and primary mouse HSCs. In conclusion, the present study shows that capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of HSC in vitro.
    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 08/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis depends on a coordinated network of signals and transcription factors such as Runx2 and Osterix. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs act as important post-transcriptional regulators in a large number of processes, including osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we performed miRNA expression profiling and identified miR-322, a BMP-2 down-regulated miRNA, as a regulator of osteoblast differentiation. We report miR-322 gain and loss-of-function experiments in C2C12, MC3T3-E1 and primary cultures of murine bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells. We demonstrate that overexpression of miR-322 enhances BMP-2 response, increasing the expression of Osterix and other osteogenic genes. Furthermore, we identified Tob2 as a target of miR-322 and we characterized the specific 3'UTR Tob2 sequence bound by miR-322 by reporter assays. We demonstrate that Tob2 is a negative regulator of osteogenesis that binds and mediates degradation of Osterix mRNA. Our results demonstrate a new molecular mechanism controlling osteogenesis through the specific miR-322-Tob2 regulation of specific target mRNAs. This regulatory circuit provides a clear example of a complex miRNA-transcription factor network for fine-tuning of the osteoblast differentiation program.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PFK-2/FBPase-2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase) catalyses the synthesis and degradation of Fru-2,6-P2 (fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), a key modulator of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The PFKFB3 gene is involved in cell proliferation owing to its role in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we analyze its mechanism of regulation as an immediately early gene controlled by stress stimuli that activate p38/MK2 pathway. We report that exposure of HeLa and T98G cells to different stress stimuli (NaCl, H2O2, UV radiation and anisomycin) leads to a rapid increase (15-30 minutes) in PFKFB3 mRNA levels. The use of specific inhibitors in combination with MK2-deficient cells implicate control by MK2 protein kinase. Transient transfection of HeLa cells with deleted gene promoter constructs allowed us to identify a Serum Response Element (SRE) to which Serum Response Factor (SRF) binds and thus transactivates PFKFB3 gene transcription. Direct Binding of phospho-SRF to the SRE sequence (-918 nt) was confirmed by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipiation) assays. Moreover, PFKFB3 isoenzyme phosphorylation at Ser461 by MK2 increases PFK-2 activity. Together, the results suggest a multimodal mechanism of stress stimuli affecting PFKFB3 transcriptional regulation and kinase activation by protein phosphorylation, resulting in an increase in Fru-2,6-P2 concentration and stimulation of glycolysis in cancer cells.
    Biochemical Journal 04/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reciprocal regulation of metabolism and signaling allows cells to modulate their activity in accordance with their metabolic resources. Thus, amino acids could activate signal transduction pathways that control cell metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of amino acids on fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) metabolism. We demonstrate that amino acids increase Fru-2,6-P2 concentration in HeLa and in MCF7 human cells. In conjunction with this, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, glucose uptake and lactate concentration were increased. These data correlated with the specific phosphorylation of heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB2) isoenzyme at S483. This activation was mediated by the PI3K and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, Akt inactivation blocked PFKFB2 phosphorylation and Fru-2,6-P2 production, thereby suggesting that the above signaling pathways converge at Akt kinase. In accordance with these results, kinase assays showed that amino acid-activated Akt phosphorylated PFKFB2 at S483; and knock-down experiments confirmed that the increase in Fru-2,6-P2 concentration induced by amino acids was due to PFKFB2. In addition, similar effects on Fru-2,6-P2 metabolism were observed in freshly isolated rat cardiomyocytes treated with amino acids, which indicates that these effects are not restricted to human cancer cells. In these cardiomyocytes, the glucose consumption and the production of lactate and ATP suggest an increase of glycolytic flux. Taken together, these results demonstrate that amino acids stimulate Fru-2,6-P2 synthesis by Akt-dependent PFKFB2 phosphorylation and activation and show how signaling and metabolism are inextricably linked.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cells respond to different kind of stress through the coordinated activation of signaling pathways such as MAPK or p53. To find which molecular mechanisms are involved, we need to understand their cell adaptation. The ribosomal protein, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), is a common downstream target of signaling by hormonal or nutritional stress. Here, we investigated the initial contribution of S6K1/MAPK signaling pathways in the cell response to oxidative stress produced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To analyze S6K1 activation, we used the commercial anti-phospho-Thr389-S6K1 antibody most frequently mentioned in the bibliography. We found that this antibody detected an 80-90 kDa protein that was rapidly phosphorylated in response to H2O2 in several human cells. Unexpectedly, this phosphorylation was insensitive to both mTOR and PI3K inhibitors, and knock-down experiments showed that this protein was not S6K1. RSK and MSK proteins were candidate targets of this phosphorylation. We demonstrated that H2O2 stimulated phosphorylation of RSK and MSK kinases at residues that are homologous to Thr389 in S6K1. This phosphorylation required the activity of either p38 or ERK MAP kinases. Kinase assays showed activation of RSK and MSK by H2O2. Experiments with mouse embryonic fibroblasts from p38 animals' knockout confirmed these observations. Altogether, these findings show that the S6K1 signaling pathway is not activated under these conditions, clarify previous observations probably misinterpreted by non-specific detection of proteins RSK and MSK by the anti-phospho-Thr389-S6K1 antibody, and demonstrate the specific activation of MAPK signaling pathways through ERK/p38/RSK/MSK by H2O2.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75523. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) make up a family of morphogens that are critical for patterning, development, and function of the central and peripheral nervous system. Their effects on neural cells are pleiotropic and highly dynamic depending on the stage of development and the local niche. Neural cells display a broad expression profile of BMP ligands, receptors, and transducer molecules. Moreover, interactions of BMP signaling with other incoming morphogens and signaling pathways are crucial for most of these processes. The key role of BMP signaling suggests that it includes many regulatory mechanisms that restrict BMP activity both temporally and spatially. BMPs affect neural cell fate specification in a dynamic fashion. Initially they inhibit proliferation of neural precursors and promote the first steps in neuronal differentiation. Later on, BMP signaling effects switch from neuronal induction to promotion of astroglial identity and inhibition of neuronal or oligodendroglial lineage commitment. Furthermore, in postmitotic cells, BMPs regulate cell survival and death, to modulate neuronal subtype specification, promote dendritic and axonal growth and induce synapse formation and stabilization. In this review, we examine the canonical and non-canonical mechanisms of BMP signal transduction. Moreover, we focus on the specific role of BMPs in the nervous system including their ability to regulate neural stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, lineage specification, and neuronal function.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:87. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone-specific transcription factors promote differentiation of mesenchymal precursors towards the osteoblastic cell phenotype. Among them, Runx2 and Osterix have been widely accepted as master osteogenic factors, since neither Runx2 nor Osterix null mice form mature osteoblasts. Recruitment of Osterix to a number of promoters of bone-specific genes has been shown. However, little is known about functional interactions between Osterix and the Col1a1 promoter. In this study we determined in several mesenchymal and osteoblastic cell types that either BMP-2 or Osterix overexpression increased Col1a1 transcription. We identified consensus Sp1 sequences, located in the proximal promoter and in the bone-enhancer, as Osterix binding regions in the Col1a1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show that p38 or Erk MAPK signaling are required for maximal transcriptional effects on Col1a1 expression. Runx2 has been shown to activate Col1a1 expression through binding to sites which are located close to the Sp1 sites where Osterix binds. Our data show that overexpression of Runx2 and Osterix leads to a cooperative effect on the expression of the Col1a1 endogenous gene and its promoter reporter construct. These effects mainly affect the long isoform of Osterix which suggest that the two Osterix isoforms might display some differential effects on transactivation of bone-specific genes.
    Bone 11/2012; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular microarrays present a promising tool for multiplex evaluation of the signalling effect of substrate-immobilized factors on cellular differentiation. In this paper, we compare the early myoblast-to-osteoblast cell commitment steps in response to a growth factor stimulus using standard well plate differentiation assays or cellular microarrays. Our results show that restraints on the cell culture size, inherent to cellular microarrays, impair the differentiation outcome. Also, while cells growing on spots with immobilised BMP-2 are early biased towards the osteoblast fate, longer periods of cell culturing in the microarrays result in cell proliferation and blockage of osteoblast differentiation. The results presented here raise concerns about the efficiency of cell differentiation when the cell culture dimensions are reduced to a simplified microspot environment. Also, these results suggest that further efforts should be devoted to increasing the complexity of the microspots composition, aiming to replace signalling cues missing in this system.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 10/2012; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sertoli cells play a central role in the control and maintenance of spermatogenesis by secreting growth factors, in response to hormonal stimulation, that participate in the paracrine regulation of this process. In this study, we investigated how the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis modulates 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) isozyme expression in two mouse spermatogenic cell lines, GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd (ts). For this purpose, TM4 Sertoli cells were used to obtain conditioned medium that was treated or not with dihydrotestosterone for 2 days [dihydrotestosterone conditioned medium (TCM) and basal conditioned medium (BCM), respectively]. We observed an increase in the expression of PFKFB4 along with a decrease in PFKFB3 in spermatogenic cell lines treated with TCM. These effects were inhibited by the antiandrogen drug flutamide and by heat-inactivated TCM, indicating the protein nature of the TCM mediator and its dependence on Sertoli cell stimulation by dihydrotestosterone. In addition, adult rat testes treated with the GnRH antagonist Degarelix exhibited a reduction in the expression of PFKFB4 in germ cells. Addition of exogenous FGF-2 mimicked the changes in the Pfkfb gene expression, whereas neutralizing antibodies against FGF-2 abolished them. Interestingly, similar effects on Pfkfb gene expression were observed using different MAPK inhibitors (U-0126, PD-98059, and H-89). Luciferase analysis of Pfkfb4 promoter constructs demonstrated that a putative CRE-binding sequence located at -1,463 relative to the transcription start site is required to control Pfkfb4 gene expression after TCM treatment. Pulldown assays showed the binding of the CREB transcription factor to this site. Altogether, these results show how the paracrine regulation orchestrated by Sertoli cells in response to testosterone controls glycolysis in germ cells.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2012; 303(6):E695-707. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phenolic compounds present in cocoa seeds have been studied regarding health benefits, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Fibrosis is a wound healing response that occurs in almost all patients with chronic liver injury. A large number of cytokines and soluble intercellular mediators are related to changes in the behavior and phenotype of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) that develop a fibrogenic and contractile phenotype leading to the development of fibrosis. The objective of this study was to assess the catechin effect in GRX liver cells in activities such as cell growth and inflammation. The GRX cells treatment with catechin induced a significant decrease in cell growth. This mechanism does not occur by apoptosis or even by autophagy because there were no alterations in expression of caspase 3 and PARP (apoptosis), and LC3 (autophagy). The expression of p27 and p53 proteins, regulators of the cell cycle, showed increased expression, while COX-2 and IL-6 mRNA showed a significant decrease in expression. This study shows that catechin decreases cell growth in GRX cells and, probably, this decrease does not occur by apoptosis or autophagy but through an anti-inflammatory effect and cell cycle arrest. Catechin also significantly decreased the production of TGF-β by GRX cells, showing a significant antifibrotic effect.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 05/2012; 90(4):575-84. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the fact that an increased number of patients have experienced bloodstream infections caused by Candida species and the high mortality of this infection, there is a need for a strategy to reduce this scenery. One possible strategy is the use of new drugs, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), which is a high-energy glycolytic metabolite and has shown to have therapeutic effects in several pathological conditions such as ischemia, shock, toxic injuries, and bacterial sepsis. The aim of this manuscript was to determine the role of FBP in experimental Candida albicans bloodstream infection. We used mice that were divided into three experimental groups: sham (not induced), bloodstream infection (induced with intratracheal instillation of C. albicans) and FBP (bloodstream infection plus FBP 500 mg/kg i.p.). Blood was taken for assessment of complete hematological profile and cytokine assay (IL-6 and MCP-1). Results of the study demonstrated that mortality decreased significantly in groups that received FBP. All cytokine and hematological indexes of FBP group were similar to bloodstream infection group with exception of platelets count. FBP significantly prevented the decrease in platelets. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FBP prevented the mortality in C. albicans bloodstream infection.
    Inflammation 02/2012; 35(4):1256-61. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been previously showed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on several experimental inflammation models. However, the effects and mechanism of FBP on Zymosan-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice had not been tested. In this study, our aim was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of FBP on Zymosan-induced ALI. We found that in vivo treatment with FBP (500 mg/kg i.p.) markedly decreased the nitric oxide (NO) levels in the lungs and significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell and neutrophil counts and protein exudation after Zymosan challenge. Furthermore, FBP inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities in RAW macrophages. Meanwhile, FBP did not inhibit the cyclooxigenase 2, interleukin-6, and nuclear factor kappa B transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBP shows anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting lung edema, NO, and iNOS activities.
    Inflammation 02/2012; 35(3):1198-203. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is one of the most powerful tools used for protein analysis. We describe the use of Tris-acetate buffer and 3-15% polyacrylamide gradient gels to simultaneously separate proteins in the mass range of 10-500 kDa. We show that this system is highly sensitive, it has good resolution and high reproducibility, and that it can be used for general applications of PAGE such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and immunoblotting. Moreover, we describe how to generate mini Tris-acetate polyacrylamide gels to use them in miniprotein electrophoresis systems. These economical gels are easy to generate and to manipulate and allow a rapid analysis of proteins. All these features make the Tris-acetate-PAGE system a very helpful tool for protein analysis.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 869:205-13. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PFKFB (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase) catalyses the synthesis and degradation of Fru-2,6-P2 (fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), a key modulator of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The PFKFB3 gene is extensively involved in cell proliferation owing to its key role in carbohydrate metabolism. In the present study we analyse its mechanism of regulation by progestins in breast cancer cells. We report that exposure of T47D cells to synthetic progestins (ORG2058 or norgestrel) leads to a rapid increase in Fru-2,6-P2 concentration. Our Western blot results are compatible with a short-term activation due to PFKFB3 isoenzyme phosphorylation and a long-term sustained action due to increased PFKFB3 protein levels. Transient transfection of T47D cells with deleted gene promoter constructs allowed us to identify a PRE (progesterone-response element) to which PR (progesterone receptor) binds and thus transactivates PFKFB3 gene transcription. PR expression in the PR-negative cell line MDA-MB-231 induces endogenous PFKFB3 expression in response to norgestrel. Direct binding of PR to the PRE box (-3490 nt) was confirmed by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipiation) experiments. A dual mechanism affecting PFKFB3 protein and gene regulation operates in order to assure glycolysis in breast cancer cells. An immediate early response through the ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase)/RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) pathway leading to phosphorylation of PFKFB3 on Ser461 is followed by activation of mRNA transcription via cis-acting sequences on the PFKFB3 promoter.
    Biochemical Journal 11/2011; 442(2):345-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of p38 MAPK has been shown to be relevant for a number of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) physiological effects. We report here the involvement of noncanonical phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) signaling in the transcriptional induction of Cox2 (Ptgs2) by BMP-2 in mesenchymal cells and organotypic calvarial cultures. We demonstrate that different regulatory elements are required for regulation of Cox2 expression by BMP-2: Runt-related transcription factor-2 and cAMP response element sites are essential, whereas a GC-rich Smad binding element is important for full responsiveness. Efficient transcriptional activation requires cooperation between transcription factors because mutation of any element results in a strong decrease of BMP-2 responsiveness. BMP-2 activation of p38 leads to increased recruitment of activating transcription factor-2, Runx2, Smad, and coactivators such as p300 at the responsive sites in the Cox2 proximal promoter. We demonstrate, by either pharmacological or genetic analysis, that maximal BMP-2 effects on Cox2 and JunB expression require the function of p38 and its downstream effector mitogen/stress-activated kinase 1. Altogether our results strongly suggest that cooperative effects between canonical and noncanonical BMP signaling allow the fine-tuning of BMP transcriptional responses on specific target genes.
    Molecular Endocrinology 03/2011; 25(6):1006-17. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes regulates essential cellular processes, such as growth, proliferation, or survival. Nutrients such as amino acids are important regulators of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, thus affecting cell growth, protein synthesis, and autophagy. Here, we show that amino acids may also activate mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). This activation is mediated by the activity of class I PI3K and of Akt. Amino acids induced a rapid phosphorylation of Akt at Thr-308 and Ser-473. Whereas both phosphorylations were dependent on the presence of mTOR, only Akt phosphorylation at Ser-473 was dependent on the presence of rictor, a specific component of mTORC2. Kinase assays confirmed mTORC2 activation by amino acids. This signaling was functional, as demonstrated by the phosphorylation of Akt substrate FOXO3a. Interestingly, using different starvation conditions, amino acids can selectively activate mTORC1 or mTORC2. These findings identify a new signaling pathway used by amino acids underscoring the crucial importance of these nutrients in cell metabolism and offering new mechanistic insights.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(8):6128-42. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
280.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2013
    • University of Barcelona
      • • Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques II
      • • Departament de Medicina
      • • Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques I
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Centro Universitário Franciscano (Unifra)
      Santa Maria da Boca do Monte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2011–2012
    • IDIBELL Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2003
    • Prince Henry's Institute
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000
    • University of Buenos Aires
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina