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ABSTRACT: Electrochemical detection of sugar-related compounds was conducted using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode as a detector for flow-injection analysis (FIA). Sugar-related compounds oxidize at high applied potentials, for which the BDD electrode is suitable for electrochemical measurements. Conditions for an FIA system with a BDD detector were optimized, and the following detection limits were achieved for sugar-related compounds: monosaccharides, 25-100 pmol; sugar alcohols, 10 pmol; and oligosaccharides, 10 pmol. The detection limit for monosaccharide D-glucose (Glu) was 105 pmol (S/N = 3). A linear range was acquired from the detection limit to 50 nmol, and the relative standard deviation was 0.65% (20 nmol, n = 6). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column was added to the system between the sample injector and the detector and detection limits to the picomole level were achieved, which is the same for the HPLC system and the FIA system. The electrochemical oxidation reaction of Glu was examined using cyclic voltammetry with the BDD detector. The reaction proved to be irreversible, and proceeded according to the following two-step mechanism: (1) application of a high potential (2.00 V vs. Ag/AgCl) to the electrode causes water to electrolyze on the electrode surface with the simultaneous generation of a hydroxyl radical on the surface, and (2) the hydroxyl radical indirectly oxidizes Glu. Thus, Glu can be detected by an increase in the oxidation current caused by reactions with hydroxy radicals.
Analytical Sciences 01/2012; 28(2):127-33. DOI:10.2116/analsci.28.127 · 1.39 Impact Factor