[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is a hemicellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobe that was previously engineered to produce ethanol at high yield. A major project was undertaken to develop this organism into an industrial biocatalyst, but the lack of genome information and resources were recognized early on as a key limitation.
Here we present a set of genome-scale resources to enable the systems level investigation and development of this potentially important industrial organism. Resources include a complete genome sequence for strain JW/SL-YS485, a genome-scale reconstruction of metabolism, tiled microarray data showing transcription units, mRNA expression data from 71 different growth conditions or timepoints and GC/MS-based metabolite analysis data from 42 different conditions or timepoints. Growth conditions include hemicellulose hydrolysate, the inhibitors HMF, furfural, diamide, and ethanol, as well as high levels of cellulose, xylose, cellobiose or maltodextrin. The genome consists of a 2.7 Mbp chromosome and a 110 Kbp megaplasmid. An active prophage was also detected, and the expression levels of CRISPR genes were observed to increase in association with those of the phage. Hemicellulose hydrolysate elicited a response of carbohydrate transport and catabolism genes, as well as poorly characterized genes suggesting a redox challenge. In some conditions, a time series of combined transcription and metabolite measurements were made to allow careful study of microbial physiology under process conditions. As a demonstration of the potential utility of the metabolic reconstruction, the OptKnock algorithm was used to predict a set of gene knockouts that maximize growth-coupled ethanol production. The predictions validated intuitive strain designs and matched previous experimental results.
These data will be a useful asset for efforts to develop T. saccharolyticum for efficient industrial production of biofuels. The resources presented herein may also be useful on a comparative basis for development of other lignocellulose degrading microbes, such as Clostridium thermocellum.
BMC Systems Biology 06/2015; 9(1):30. DOI:10.1186/s12918-015-0159-x · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2 (eCO2; 800 ppm) on terrestrial ecosystems is a central theme in global change biology, but relatively little is known about how altered plant C and N metabolism influences higher levels of biological organization. Here, we investigate the consequences of C and N interactions by genetically modifying the N-assimilation pathway in Arabidopsis and initiating growth chamber and mesocosm competition studies at current CO2 (cCO2; 400 ppm) and eCO2 over multiple generations. Using a suite of ecological, physiological, and molecular genomic tools, we show that a single-gene mutant of a key enzyme (nia2) elicited a highly orchestrated buffering response starting with a fivefold increase in the expression of a gene paralog (nia1) and a 63% increase in the expression of gene network module enriched for N-assimilation genes. The genetic perturbation reduced amino acids, protein, and TCA-cycle intermediate concentrations in the nia2 mutant compared to the wild-type, while eCO2 mainly increased carbohydrate concentrations. The mutant had reduced net photosynthetic rates due to a 27% decrease in carboxylation capacity and an 18% decrease in electron transport rates. The expression of these buffering mechanisms resulted in a penalty that negatively correlated with fitness and population dynamics yet showed only minor alterations in our estimates of population function, including total per unit area biomass, ground cover, and leaf area index. This study provides insight into the consequences of buffering mechanisms that occur post-genetic perturbations in the N pathway and the associated outcomes these buffering systems have on plant populations relative to eCO2.
Ecology and Evolution 06/2015; 5(14). DOI:10.1002/ece3.1565 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies defined easy and difficult to hydrolyze fractions of hemicellulose that may result from bonds among cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. To understand how such bonds affect hydrolysis, Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides, holocellulose isolated from P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and birchwood xylan were subjected to hydrothermal flow-through pretreatment. Samples were characterized by glycome profiling, HPLC, and UPLC–MS. Glycome profiling revealed steady fragmentation and removal of glycans from solids during hydrolysis. The extent of polysaccharide fragmentation, hydrolysis rate, and total xylose yield were lowest for P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and greatest for birchwood xylan. Comparison of results from P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides and holocellulose suggested that lignin–carbohydrate complexes reduce hydrolysis rates and limit release of large xylooligomers. Smaller differences between results with holocellulose and birchwood xylan suggest xylan–cellulose hydrogen bonds limited hydrolysis, but to a lesser extent. These findings imply cell wall structure strongly influences hydrolysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical and physical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass improves substrate reactivity for increased microbial biofuel production, but also restricts growth via the release of furan aldehydes, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). The physiological effects of these inhibitors on thermophilic, fermentative bacteria are important to understand; especially as cellulolytic strains are being developed for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Identifying mechanisms for detoxification of aldehydes in naturally resistant strains, such as Thermoanaerobacter spp., may also enable improvements in candidate CBP microorganisms.
Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic, saccharolytic thermophile, was found to grow readily in the presence of 30 mM furfural and 20 mM 5-HMF and reduce these aldehydes to their respective alcohols in situ. The proteomes of T. pseudethanolicus 39E grown in the presence or absence of 15 mM furfural were compared to identify upregulated enzymes potentially responsible for the observed reduction. A total of 225 proteins were differentially regulated in response to the 15 mM furfural treatment with 152 upregulated versus 73 downregulated. Only 87 proteins exhibited a twofold or greater change in abundance in either direction. Of these, 54 were upregulated in the presence of furfural and 33 were downregulated. Two oxidoreductases were upregulated at least twofold by furfural and were targeted for further investigation. Teth39_1597 encodes a predicted butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and Teth39_1598, a predicted aldo/keto reductase (AKR). Both genes were cloned from T. pseudethanolicus 39E, with the respective enzymes overexpressed in E. coli and specific activities determined against a variety of aldehydes. Overexpressed BdhA showed significant activity with all aldehydes tested, including furfural and 5-HMF, using NADPH as the cofactor. Cell extracts with AKR also showed activity with NADPH, but only with four-carbon butyraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde.
T. pseudethanolicus 39E displays intrinsic tolerance to the common pretreatment inhibitors furfural and 5-HMF. Multidimensional proteomic analysis was used as an effective tool to identify putative mechanisms for detoxification of furfural and 5-HMF. T. pseudethanolicus was found to upregulate an NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase 6.8-fold in response to furfural. In vitro enzyme assays confirmed the reduction of furfural and 5-HMF to their respective alcohols.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 12/2014; 7(1):165. DOI:10.1186/s13068-014-0165-z · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also up-regulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to wild type and ald1 mutants, yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces a non-Pip metabolite(s) that plays a role(s) in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium thermocellum is a model thermophilic organism for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic substrates. The majority of publications studying the physiology of this organism use substrate concentrations of ≤10 g/L. However, industrially relevant concentrations of substrate start at 100 g/L carbohydrate, which corresponds to approximately 150 g/L solids. To gain insight into the physiology of fermentation of high substrate concentrations, we studied the growth on, and utilization of high concentrations of crystalline cellulose varying from 50 to 100 g/L by C. thermocellum.
Using a defined medium, batch cultures of C. thermocellum achieved 93% conversion of cellulose (Avicel) initially present at 100 g/L. The maximum rate of substrate utilization increased with increasing substrate loading. During fermentation of 100 g/L cellulose, growth ceased when about half of the substrate had been solubilized. However, fermentation continued in an uncoupled mode until substrate utilization was almost complete. In addition to commonly reported fermentation products, amino acids - predominantly L-valine and L-alanine - were secreted at concentrations up to 7.5 g/L. Uncoupled metabolism was also accompanied by products not documented previously for C. thermocellum, including isobutanol, meso- and RR/SS-2,3-butanediol and trace amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 1-propanol. We hypothesize that C. thermocellum uses overflow metabolism to balance its metabolism around the pyruvate node in glycolysis.
C. thermocellum is able to utilize industrially relevant concentrations of cellulose, up to 93 g/L. We report here one of the highest degrees of crystalline cellulose utilization observed thus far for a pure culture of C. thermocellum, the highest maximum substrate utilization rate and the highest amount of isobutanol produced by a wild-type organism.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 10/2014; 7(1):155. DOI:10.1186/s13068-014-0155-1 · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundUDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is a sugar-metabolizing enzyme (E.C. 22.214.171.124) that catalyzes a reversible reaction of UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP. UDP-glucose is a key intermediate sugar that is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways. The functional role of UGPase in perennial woody plants is poorly understood.ResultsWe characterized the functional role of a UGPase gene in Populus deltoides, PdUGPase2. Overexpression of the native gene resulted in increased leaf area and leaf-to-shoot biomass ratio but decreased shoot and root growth. Metabolomic analyses showed that manipulation of PdUGPase2 results in perturbations in primary, as well as secondary metabolism, resulting in reduced sugar and starch levels and increased phenolics, such as caffeoyl and feruloyl conjugates. While cellulose and lignin levels in the cell walls were not significantly altered, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio was significantly reduced.Conclusions
These results demonstrate that PdUGPase2 plays a key role in the tightly coupled primary and secondary metabolic pathways and perturbation in its function results in pronounced effects on growth and metabolism beyond cell wall biosynthesis of Populus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pinoresinol reductase (PrR) catalyzes the conversion of the lignan (−)-pinoresinol to (−)-lariciresinol in Arabidopsis thaliana, where it is encoded by two genes, PrR1 and PrR2, that appear to act redundantly. PrR1 is highly expressed in lignified inflorescence stem tissue, whereas PrR2 expression is barely detectable in stems. Co-expression analysis has indicated that PrR1 is co-expressed with many characterized genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, whereas PrR2 expression clusters with a different set of genes. The promoter of the PrR1 gene is regulated by the secondary cell wall related transcription factors SND1 and MYB46. The loss-of-function mutant of PrR1 shows, in addition to elevated levels of pinoresinol, significantly decreased lignin content and a slightly altered lignin structure with lower abundance of cinnamyl alcohol end groups. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy analysis indicated that the lignin content of the prr1-1 loss-of-function mutant is similar to that of wild-type plants in xylem cells, which exhibit a normal phenotype, but is reduced in the fiber cells. Together, these data suggest an association of the lignan biosynthetic enzyme encoded by PrR1 with secondary cell wall biosynthesis in fiber cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where there were few native herbivores or where they have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid (native to Europe) now very widespread due to human introductions, yet it is unknown whether the invasive rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common in North America.We tested feeding selectivity by rudd using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata and Vallisneria americana. Fish were presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species in a randomized complete block design, and we measured the mean per cent mass remaining in each case. We also quantified differences in the chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and determined whether feeding by rudd was related to dry matter content (DMC), per cent C by dry mass (%C), per cent N by dry mass (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites and total phenolic compounds.Rudd fed selectively, with consumption declining in the order N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C : N, but not DMC, %N or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudd would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte, contrary to the expectation that this compound provides resistance to herbivory. The concentration of oxalic acid, which negatively affects palatability, was highest in C. demersum, the least preferred macrophyte.Selection was also positively related to the concentration of total (and some specific) soluble phenolic compounds. The concentrations of caffeic acid, trans-caftaric acid and quercetin were positively related to macrophyte preference by rudd, whereas concentrations of cis-4-O- and trans-4-O-ferulic acid glucoside were negatively related.Selective feeding by rudd (which can be very numerous in North American fresh waters) could evidently alter macrophyte assemblages and hinder attempts to restore plant communities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eucalypts are the world’s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity
to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here, we highlight recent advances in this
lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation
of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion.
Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering
strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin
recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers,
engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With predicted global changes in temperature and precipitation, drought will increasingly impose a challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility as revealed for example through measures of low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions. Genetics and functional genomics can play critical roles in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement for drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspects of drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is limited. Plants in general exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants relative to the unique features associated with individual bioenergy species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge concerning drought responsive pathways, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among alternate species and genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics as a means to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what is known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future opportunities for studying drought tolerance using the emerging technologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Climatic extremes threaten agricultural sustainability worldwide. One approach to increase plant water- use efficiency (WUE) is to introduce crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. Such a task requires comprehensive systems-level understanding of the enzymatic and regulatory pathways underpinning this temporal CO2 pump. Here we review the progress that has been made in achieving this goal. Given that CAM arose through multiple independent evolutionary ori- gins, comparative transcriptomics and genomics of taxonomically diverse CAM species are being used to define the genetic ‘parts list’ required to operate the core CAM functional modules of nocturnal carboxylation, diurnal decarboxylation, and inverse stomatal regulation. Engi- neered CAM offers the potential to sustain plant productivity for food, feed, fiber, and biofuel production in hotter and drier climates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation.
The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0A mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum.
In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the stress response to heavy carbon load and accumulation of metabolic products. These findings provide new perspectives to enhance the ability of cellulolytic bacteria to produce biofuels and biocommodities with high efficiency and at low cost directly from lignocellulosic biomass.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 02/2014; 7(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1754-6834-7-25 · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within boreal and temperate forest ecosystems the majority of trees and shrubs form beneficial relationships with mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) that support plant health through increased access to nutrients as well as aiding in stress and pest tolerance. The intimate interaction between fungal hyphae and plant roots result in a new symbiotic 'organ' called the ECM root tip. Little is understood concerning the metabolic re-programming that favors the formation of this hybrid tissue in compatible interactions and what prevents the formation of ECM root tips in incompatible interactions. We show here that the metabolic changes during favorable colonization between the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor and its compatible host, Populus trichocarpa, are characterized by shifts in aromatic acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. We demonstrate that this extensive metabolic re-programming is repressed in incompatible interactions and that more defensive compounds are produced or retained. We also demonstrate that L. bicolor can metabolize a number of secreted defensive compounds and that the degradation of some of these compounds produce immune response metabolites (e.g., salicylic acid from salicin). Therefore, our results suggest that the metabolic responsiveness of plant roots to L. bicolor is a determinant factor in fungal:host interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production. The aim of this study was to investigate C. thermocellum genes required to ferment biomass substrates and to conduct a robust comparison of DNA microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analytical platforms.
C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 fermentations were conducted with a 5 g/L solid substrate loading of either pretreated switchgrass or Populus. Quantitative saccharification and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) for elemental analysis revealed composition differences between biomass substrates, which may have influenced growth and transcriptomic profiles. High quality RNA was prepared for C. thermocellum grown on solid substrates and transcriptome profiles were obtained for two time points during active growth (12 hours and 37 hours postinoculation). A comparison of two transcriptomic analytical techniques, microarray and RNA-seq, was performed and the data analyzed for statistical significance. Large expression differences for cellulosomal genes were not observed. We updated gene predictions for the strain and a small novel gene, Cthe_3383, with a putative AgrD peptide quorum sensing function was among the most highly expressed genes. RNA-seq data also supported different small regulatory RNA predictions over others. The DNA microarray gave a greater number (2,351) of significant genes relative to RNA-seq (280 genes when normalized by the kernel density mean of M component (KDMM) method) in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing method with a 5 % false discovery rate (FDR). When a 2-fold difference in expression threshold was applied, 73 genes were significantly differentially expressed in common between the two techniques. Sulfate and phosphate uptake/utilization genes, along with genes for a putative efflux pump system were some of the most differentially regulated transcripts when profiles for C. thermocellum grown on either pretreated switchgrass or Populus were compared.
Our results suggest that a high degree of agreement in differential gene expression measurements between transcriptomic platforms is possible, but choosing an appropriate normalization regime is essential.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 12/2013; 6(1):179. DOI:10.1186/1754-6834-6-179 · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An industrially robust microorganism that can efficiently degrade and convert lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol and next-generation fuels is required to economically produce future sustainable liquid transportation fuels. The anaerobic, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate microorganism for such conversions but it, like many bacteria, is sensitive to potential toxic inhibitors developed in the liquid hydrolysate produced during biomass processing. Microbial processes leading to tolerance of these inhibitory compounds found in the pretreated biomass hydrolysate are likely complex and involve multiple genes.
In this study, we developed a 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant strain of C. thermocellum by directed evolution. The genome of the wild type strain, six intermediate population samples and seven single colony isolates were sequenced to elucidate the mechanism of tolerance. Analysis of the 224 putative mutations revealed 73 high confidence mutations. A longitudinal analysis of the intermediate population samples, a pan-genomic analysis of the isolates, and a hotspot analysis revealed 24 core genes common to all seven isolates and 8 hotspots. Genetic mutations were matched with the observed phenotype through comparison of RNA expression levels during fermentation by the wild type strain and mutant isolate 6 in various concentrations of Populus hydrolysate (0%, 10%, and 17.5% v/v).
The findings suggest that there are multiple mutations responsible for the Populus hydrolysate tolerant phenotype resulting in several simultaneous mechanisms of action, including increases in cellular repair, and altered energy metabolism. To date, this study provides the most comprehensive elucidation of the mechanism of tolerance to a pretreated biomass hydrolysate by C. thermocellum. These findings make important contributions to the development of industrially robust strains of consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78829. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078829 · 3.23 Impact Factor