ABSTRACT: The prophylactic effects of Hijikia fusiforme on bone metabolism were examined using in vitro indices of bone formation and resorption. As the indices of bone formation, osteoblast proliferation and differentiation were measured through mitochondrial enzyme activity [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay] and bone marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The aqueous extract of H. fusiforme stimulated the proliferation of the human osteoblast-like cell line MG63 and the ALP activity of the mouse osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. Moreover, extracellular matrix mineralization was accelerated by the addition of H. fusiforme. As the indices of bone resorption, differentiation of the murine macrophage/osteoclast precursor cell line RAW 264.7 by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) was measured as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells, which were suppressed by H. fusiforme. Additionally, H. fusiforme lowered the secreted amount of RANKL that is required for the osteoclastic differentiation and activation, but the amount of osteoprotegerin as a decoy receptor for RANKL was not affected. The bone-protective effects of H. fusiforme in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized rats were also investigated. Osteoporosis was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by ovariectomy for 15 weeks, and then H. fusiforme was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight every day for 6 weeks. Bone mineral density in the group orally administered H. fusiforme was increased, compared with ovariectomized rats, but not significantly (P>.05). Oral administration of H. fusiforme improved microarchitecture of bone in terms of bone volume (bone volume/total volume ratio) and trabecular separation (P<.05). The amounts of osteocalcin and C-telopeptide type I collagen in serum were measured as the biomarkers for bone formation and resorption. The level of osteocalcin in serum was increased, but not significantly. However, the level of C-telopeptide type I collagen in serum was significantly decreased (P<.05). When the results are taken together, the present study indicates that H. fusiforme might be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Journal of medicinal food 02/2012; 15(4):384-90. · 1.39 Impact Factor