Rajendu Srivastava

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (72)304.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Postdischarge treatment of acute osteomyelitis in children requires weeks of antibiotic therapy, which can be administered orally or intravenously via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). The catheters carry a risk for serious complications, but limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of oral therapy. To compare the effectiveness and adverse outcomes of postdischarge antibiotic therapy administered via the PICC or the oral route. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing PICC and oral therapy for the treatment of acute osteomyelitis. Among children hospitalized from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, at 36 participating children's hospitals, we used discharge codes to identify potentially eligible participants. Results of medical record review confirmed eligibility and defined treatment group allocation and study outcomes. We used within- and across-hospital propensity score-based full matching to adjust for confounding by indication. Postdischarge administration of antibiotics via the PICC or the oral route. The primary outcome was treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included adverse drug reaction, PICC line complication, and a composite of all 3 end points. Among 2060 children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with osteomyelitis, 1005 received oral antibiotics at discharge, whereas 1055 received PICC-administered antibiotics. The proportion of children treated via the PICC route varied across hospitals from 0 to 100%. In the across-hospital (risk difference, 0.3% [95% CI, -0.1% to 2.5%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 0.6% [95% CI, -0.2% to 3.0%]) matched analyses, children treated with antibiotics via the oral route (reference group) did not experience more treatment failures than those treated with antibiotics via the PICC route. Rates of adverse drug reaction were low (<4% in both groups) but slightly greater in the PICC group in across-hospital (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-3.3%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.3%-3.8%]) matched analyses. Among the children in the PICC group, 158 (15.0%) had a PICC complication that required an emergency department visit (n = 96), a rehospitalization (n = 38), or both (n = 24). As a result, the PICC group had a much higher risk of requiring a return visit to the emergency department or for hospitalization for any adverse outcome in across-hospital (risk difference, 14.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-17.9%]) and within-hospital (risk difference, 14.0% [95% CI, 10.5%-17.6%]) matched analyses. Given the magnitude and seriousness of PICC complications, clinicians should reconsider the practice of treating otherwise healthy children with acute osteomyelitis with prolonged intravenous antibiotics after hospital discharge when an equally effective oral alternative exists.
    JAMA Pediatrics 12/2014; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Seamless Transitions and (Re)admissions Network (STARNet) met in December 2012 to synthesize ongoing hospital-to-home transition work, discuss goals, and develop a plan to centralize transition information in the future. STARNet participants consisted of experts in the field of pediatric hospital medicine quality improvement and research, and included physicians and key stakeholders from hospital groups, private payers, as well as representatives from current transition collaboratives. In this report, we (1) review the current knowledge regarding hospital-to-home transitions; (2) outline the challenges of measuring and reducing readmissions; and (3) highlight research gaps and list potential measures for transition quality. STARNet met with the support of the American Academy of Pediatrics' Quality Improvement Innovation Networks and the Section on Hospital Medicine. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 12/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Miscommunications are a leading cause of serious medical errors. Data from multicenter studies assessing programs designed to improve handoff of information about patient care are lacking.
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2014; 371(19):1803-12. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Chronic neurological deficits are a significant complication of preterm birth. Magnesium supplementation has been suggested to have neuroprotective function in the developing brain. Our objective was to determine whether higher neonatal serum mag-nesium levels were associated with better long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in very-low birth weight infants. Study Design: A retrospective cohort of 75 preterm infants (<1500 g, gestational age <27 weeks) had follow-up for the outcomes of abnormal motor exam and for epilepsy. Average total serum magnesium level in the neonate during the period of prematurity was the main independent variable assessed, tested using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Higher average serum magnesium level was associated with a statistically signif-icant decreased risk for abnormal motor exam (p = 0.037). A lower risk for epilepsy in the group with higher magnesium level did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a correlation between higher neonatal magnesium levels and decreased risk for long-term abnormal motor exam. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the hypothesis that higher neonatal magnesium levels can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.
    Frontiers in Pediatrics 11/2014; 2(120).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives/HypothesisIdentify hospital costs for same-day pediatric adenotonsillectomy (T&A) surgery, and evaluate surgeon, hospital, and patient factors influencing variation in costs, and compare relationship of costs to complications for T&A.Study DesignObservational retrospective cohort study.MethodsA multihospital network's standardized activity-based accounting system was used to determine hospital costs per T&A from 1998 to 2012. Children 1 to 18 years old who underwent same-day T&A surgery were included. Subjects with additional procedures were excluded. Mixed effects analyses were performed to identify variation in mean costs due to surgeon, hospital, and patient factors. Surgeons' mean cost/case was related to subsequent complications, defined as any unplanned visit within 21 days in the healthcare system.ResultsThe study cohort included 26,626 T&As performed by 66 surgeons at 18 hospitals. Mean cost per T&A was $1,355 ± $505. Mixed effects analysis using patient factors as fixed effects and surgeon and hospital as a random effect identified significant variation in mean costs per surgeon, with 95% of surgeons having a mean cost/case between 67% and 150% of the overall mean (range, $874–$2,232/case). Similar variability was found among hospitals, with 95% of the facilities having mean costs between 64% to 156% of the mean (range, $1,029–$2,385/case). Severity of illness and several other patient factors exhibited small but statistically significant associations with cost. Surgeons' mean cost/case was moderately associated with an increased complication rate.Conclusions Significant variation in same-day pediatric T&A surgery costs exists among different surgeons and hospitals within a multihospital network. Reducing variation in costs while maintaining outcomes may improve healthcare value and eliminate waste.Level of Evidence4. Laryngoscope, 2014
    The Laryngoscope 10/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patient handoffs are a key source of communication failures and adverse events in hospitals. Despite Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for residency training programs to provide formal handoff skills training and to monitor handoffs, well-established curricula and validated skills assessment tools are lacking. Developing a handoff curriculum is challenging because of the need for standardized processes and faculty development, cultural resistance to change, and diverse institution- and unit-level factors. In this article, the authors apply a logic model to describe the process they used from June 2010 to February 2014 to develop, implement, and disseminate an innovative, comprehensive handoff curriculum in pediatric residency training programs as a fundamental component of the multicenter Initiative for Innovation in Pediatric Education-Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Accelerating Safe Sign-outs (I-PASS) Study. They describe resources, activities, and outputs, and report preliminary learner outcomes using data from resident and faculty evaluations of the I-PASS Handoff Curriculum: 96% of residents and 97% of faculty agreed or strongly agreed that the curriculum promoted acquisition of relevant skills for patient care activities. They also share lessons learned that could be of value to others seeking to adopt a structured handoff curriculum or to develop large-scale curricular innovations that involve redesigning firmly established processes. These lessons include the importance of approaching curricular implementation as a transformational change effort, assembling a diverse team of junior and senior faculty to provide opportunities for mentoring and professional development, and linking the educational intervention with the direct measurement of patient outcomes.
    Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 06/2014; 89(6):876-84. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children with inherited leukodystrophies have high hospitalization rates, often associated with infection. We studied whether potentially modifiable risk factors (preexisting indwelling central intravenous access, urinary catheter, hardware, or mechanical ventilation; and influenza vaccine) were associated with infection-related hospitalization in children with leukodystrophy. Central intravenous access was associated with sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 9.8); urinary catheter was associated with urinary tract infections (OR 9.0); lack of seasonal vaccination was associated with influenza (OR 6.4); and mechanical ventilation was associated with pneumonia (OR 2.7). We conclude that potentially modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with infection and hospitalization in children with leukodystrophies.
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Guidelines help inform standardization of care for quality improvement (QI). The Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings network published a prioritization list of inpatient conditions with high prevalence, cost, and variation in resource utilization across children's hospitals. The methodological quality of guidelines for priority conditions is unknown.OBJECTIVE To rate the methodological quality of national guidelines for 20 priority pediatric inpatient conditions.DESIGNWe searched sources including PubMed for national guidelines published from 2002 to 2012. Guidelines specific to 1 organism, test or treatment, or institution were excluded. Guidelines were rated by 2 raters using a validated tool (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation) with an overall rating on a 7-point scale (7 = the highest). Inter-rater reliability was measured with a weighted kappa coefficient.RESULTSSeventeen guidelines met inclusion criteria for 13 conditions; 7 conditions yielded no relevant national guidelines. The highest methodological-quality guidelines were for asthma, tonsillectomy, and bronchiolitis (mean overall rating 7, 6.5, and 6.5, respectively); the lowest were for sickle cell disease (2 guidelines) and dental caries (mean overall rating 4, 3.5, and 3, respectively). The overall weighted kappa was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.78–0.87).CONCLUSIONS We identified a group of moderate to high methodological-quality national guidelines for priority pediatric inpatient conditions. Hospitals should consider these guidelines to inform QI initiatives. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 03/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Hospital pediatrics. 03/2014; 4(2):69-77.
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    ABSTRACT: To (1) identify the major expenses for same-day adenotonsillectomy (T&A) and the costs for postoperative complication encounters in a children's hospital and (2) compare differences for variations in costs by surgeon. Observational cohort study. Tertiary children's hospital. A standardized activity-based hospital accounting system was used to determine total hospital costs per encounter (not including professional fees for surgeons or anesthetists) for T&A cases at a tertiary children's hospital from 2007 to 2012. Hospital costs were subdivided into categories, including operating room (OR), OR supplies, postanesthesia care unit (PACU), same-day services (SDS), anesthesia, pharmacy, and other. Costs for postoperative complication encounters were included to identify a mean total cost per case per surgeon. The study cohort included 4824 T&As performed by 14 different surgeons. The mean cost per T&A was $1506 (95% confidence interval, $1492-$1519, with a range of $1156-$1828 for the lowest and highest cost per case per surgeon; P < .01). Including the cost for postoperative complications, the mean cost increased to $1599 ($1570-$1629). The largest cost categories included OR (31.9%), SDS (28.1%), and OR supplies (15.6%). A large portion of T&A expenses are due to OR and supply costs. Significant differences in costs between surgeons for outpatient T&A were identified. Studies to understand the reasons for this variation and the impact on outcomes are needed. If this variation does not affect patient outcomes, then reducing this variation may improve health care value by limiting waste.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 02/2014; · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether dexamethasone use in children undergoing tonsillectomy is associated with increased risk of postoperative bleeding. Retrospective cohort study using a multihospital administrative database. Thirty-six US children's hospitals. Children undergoing same-day tonsillectomy between the years 2004 and 2010. We used discrete time failure models to estimate the daily hazards of revisits for bleeding (emergency department or hospital admission) up to 30 days after surgery as a function of dexamethasone use. Revisits were standardized for patient characteristics, antibiotic use, year of surgery, and hospital. Of 139,715 children who underwent same-day tonsillectomy, 97,242 (69.6%) received dexamethasone and 4182 (3.0%) had a 30-day revisit for bleeding. The 30-day cumulative standardized risk of revisits for bleeding was greater with dexamethasone use (3.11% vs 2.71%; standardized difference 0.40% [95% confidence interval, 0.13%-0.67%]; P = .003), and the increased risk was observed across all age strata. Dexamethasone use was associated with a higher standardized rate of revisits for bleeding in the postdischarge time periods of days 1 through 5 but not during the peak period for secondary bleeding, days 6 and 7. In a real-world practice setting, dexamethasone use was associated with a small absolute increased risk of revisits for bleeding. However, the upper bound of this risk increase does not cross published thresholds for a minimal clinically important difference. Given the benefits of dexamethasone in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting and the larger body of evidence from trials, these results support guideline recommendations for the routine use of dexamethasone.
    Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 02/2014; · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the quality of care for routine tonsillectomy at US children's hospitals. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of low-risk children undergoing same-day tonsillectomy between 2004 and 2010 at 36 US children's hospitals that submit data to the Pediatric Health Information System Database. We assessed quality of care by measuring evidence-based processes suggested by national guidelines, perioperative dexamethasone and no antibiotic use, and outcomes, 30-day tonsillectomy-related revisits to hospital. Of 139 715 children who underwent same-day tonsillectomy, 10 868 (7.8%) had a 30-day revisit to hospital. There was significant variability in the administration of dexamethasone (median 76.2%, range 0.3%-98.8%) and antibiotics (median 16.3%, range 2.7%-92.6%) across hospitals. The most common reasons for revisits were bleeding (3.0%) and vomiting and dehydration (2.2%). Older age (10-18 vs 1-3 years) was associated with a greater standardized risk of revisits for bleeding and a lower standardized risk of revisits for vomiting and dehydration. After standardizing for differences in patients and year of surgery, there was significant variability (P < .001) across hospitals in total revisits (median 7.8%, range 3.0%-12.6%), revisits for bleeding (median 3.0%, range 1.0%-8.8%), and revisits for vomiting and dehydration (median 1.9%, range 0.3%-4.4%). Substantial variation exists in the quality of care for routine tonsillectomy across US children's hospitals as measured by perioperative dexamethasone and antibiotic use and revisits to hospital. These data on evidence-based processes and relevant patient outcomes should be useful for hospitals' tonsillectomy quality improvement efforts.
    PEDIATRICS 02/2014; 133(2):280-8. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Douglas C Barnhart, Jay G Berry, Rajendu Srivastava
    JAMA pediatrics. 02/2014; 168(2):188-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric hospitalists care for many hospitalized children in community and academic settings, and they must partner with administrators, other inpatient care providers, and researchers to assure the reliable delivery of high-quality, safe, evidence-based, and cost-effective care within the complex inpatient setting. Paralleling the growth of the field of pediatric hospital medicine is the realization that innovations are needed to address some of the most common clinical questions. Some of the unique challenges facing pediatric hospitalists include the lack of evidence for treating common conditions, children with chronic complex conditions, compressed time frame for admissions, and the variety of settings in which hospitalists practice. Most pediatric hospitalists are engaged in some kind of quality improvement (QI) work as hospitals provide many opportunities for QI activity and innovation. There are multiple national efforts in the pediatric hospital medicine community to improve quality, including the Children’s Hospital Association (CHA) collaboratives and the Value in Pediatrics Network (VIP). Pediatric hospitalists are also challenged by the differences between QI and QI research; understanding that while improving local care is important, to provide consistent quality care to children we must study single-center and multicenter QI efforts by designing, developing, and evaluating interventions in a rigorous manner, and examine how systems variations impact implementation. The Pediatric Research in Inpatient Setting (PRIS) network is a leader in QI research and has several ongoing projects. The Prioritization project and Pediatric Health Information System Plus (PHIS+) have used administrative data to study variations in care, and the IIPE-PRIS Accelerating Safe Sign-outs (I-PASS) study highlights the potential for innovative QI research methods to improve care and clinical training. We address the importance, current state, accomplishments, and challenges of QI and QI research in pediatric hospital medicine; define the role of the PRIS Network in QI research; describe an exemplary QI research project, the I-PASS Study; address challenges for funding, training and mentorship, and publication; and identify future directions for QI research in pediatric hospital medicine.
    Academic Pediatrics 11/2013; 13(6):S54–S60. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of gastrojejunal tube (GJT) feedings in children with neurological impairment (NI) on GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related visits and their associated costs. A retrospective cohort study of children with NI and GERD who underwent GJT placement at the study hospital from 12/99 - 10/06. Visits (emergency department, radiology, and hospitalizations) were reviewed from the time of birth until one year following GJT placement and classified as either not GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related or GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related (e.g. pneumonias). Incident rate ratios (IRR) were calculated by dividing the post GJT visit rate by the pre GJT visit rate. Other outcomes included associated costs, fundoplications, and deaths. 33 patients met inclusion criteria. The IRR for total visits was 1.78 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.12 - 2.81) and for GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related visits 2.88 (95% CI 1.68 - 4.94). Feeding tube related visits (IRR 5.36, 95% CI 2.73 - 10.51) accounted for the majority. GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related costs per child per year were low overall, with no difference from pre-GJT versus post-GJT placement, $1,851 versus $4601, p = 0.89. 7 (21%) children underwent Nissen fundoplication and 4 (12%) died within a year of GJT placement. Two deaths involved jejunal perforation. Children with NI and GERD who were treated with GJT feedings have significantly more GERD and/or dysfunctional swallowing related visits in the following year. The majority of these visits are due to procedural complications which are inexpensive. However, there is mortality associated with the GJT and some children proceed to a fundoplication.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited leukodystrophies are progressive, debilitating neurological disorders with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Our objective was to determine national variation in the costs for leukodystrophy patients and to evaluate differences in their care. We developed an algorithm to identify inherited leukodystrophy patients in deidentified data sets using a recursive tree model based on International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification, diagnosis and procedure charge codes. Validation of the algorithm was performed independently at two institutions, and with data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) of 43 US children's hospitals, for a 7-year period between 2004 and 2010. A recursive algorithm was developed and validated, based on six International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification, codes and one procedure code that had a sensitivity up to 90% (range 61-90%) and a specificity up to 99% (range 53-99%) for identifying inherited leukodystrophy patients. Inherited leukodystrophy patients comprise 0.4% of admissions to children's hospitals and 0.7% of costs. During 7 years, these patients required $411 million of hospital care, or $131,000/patient. Hospital costs for leukodystrophy patients varied at different institutions, ranging from two to 15 times more than the average pediatric patient. There was a statistically significant correlation between higher volume and increased cost efficiency. Increased mortality rates had an inverse relationship with increased patient volume that was not statistically significant. We developed and validated a code-based algorithm for identifying leukodystrophy patients in deidentified national datasets. Leukodystrophy patients account for $59 million of costs yearly at children's hospitals. Our data highlight potential to reduce unwarranted variability and improve patient care.
    Pediatric Neurology 09/2013; 49(3):156-162.e1. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Gastrostomy tube (GT) placement is the most common gastrointestinal operation performed on neonates. Concomitant fundoplication is used variably to prevent complications of gastroesophageal reflux, but its effectiveness is unproven. OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of fundoplication at the time of GT placement vs GT placement alone on subsequent reflux-related hospitalizations in infants with neurological impairment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective, observational cohort study, defined by birth between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2010, at 42 children's hospitals in the United States, with a 1-year follow-up period among 4163 infants with neurological impairment who underwent GT placement with or without fundoplication during their neonatal intensive care unit stay. INTERVENTION Fundoplication and GT placement vs GT placement alone. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES One-year postprocedural reflux-related hospitalization rates, defined as hospitalization for asthma, mechanical ventilation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aspiration or other types of pneumonia. Propensity to undergo concomitant fundoplication was modeled using demographics, prior procedures (tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation), and prior diagnoses (eg, pneumonia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and other comorbidities). RESULTS Overall, 4163 of 42 796 infants (9.7%) with neurological impairment admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit underwent GT placement alone or with fundoplication. Infants who concomitantly underwent fundoplication had more reflux-related hospitalizations during the first year than those who underwent GT placement alone (mean, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10 vs mean, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00). Of 1404 infants who underwent fundoplication, 1027 (73.1%) were matched based on propensity scores. The mean difference of the matched cohort for any reflux-related hospitalizations was -0.05 (95% CI, -0.20 to 0.15) per year. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Infants with neurological impairment who underwent fundoplication at the time of GT placement did not have a reduced rate of reflux-related hospitalizations during the first year compared with those who underwent GT placement alone, despite propensity score matching. This may be due to a lack of effectiveness of fundoplication in preventing these complications or due to differences in the patient groups that were inadequately accounted for in the matching.
    JAMA pediatrics. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children's hospitals with shorter length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients have higher all-cause readmission rates. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Health Information System of 183 616 admissions within 43 US children's hospitals for appendectomy, asthma, gastroenteritis, and seizure between July 2009 and June 2011. Admissions were stratified by medical complexity, based on whether patients had a complex chronic health condition, were neurologically impaired, or were assisted with medical technology. Outcome measures include LOS; all-cause readmission rates within 3, 7, 15, and 30 days; and the association between hospital-specific mean LOS and all-cause readmission rates as determined by linear regression. RESULTS: Mean LOS was <3 days for all patients across all conditions, except for appendectomy in complex patients (mean LOS 3.7 days, 95% CI 3.47-4.01). Condition-specific 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day all-cause readmission rates for noncomplex patients were all <5%. Condition-specific readmission rates for complex patients ranged from <1% at 3 days for seizures to 16% at 30 days for gastroenteritis. There was no linear association between hospital-specific, condition-specific mean LOS, stratified by medical complexity, and all-cause readmission rates at any time interval within 30 days (all P values ≥.10). CONCLUSION: In children's hospitals, LOS is short and readmission rates are low for asthma, appendectomy, gastroenteritis, and seizure admissions. In the conditions studied, there is no association between shorter hospital-specific LOS and higher readmission rates within the LOS observed.
    The Journal of pediatrics 05/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of pediatrics 05/2013; 162(5):887-888.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Rajendu Srivastava, Ron Keren
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2013; 309(4):396-8. · 29.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

790 Citations
304.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • University of Utah
      • • Primary Children's Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Pediatric Inpatient Medicine
      • • Division of Pediatric Neurology
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • SickKids
      • Division of Paediatric Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • Seattle Children’s Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2001–2003
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States